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New Techniques in Nutritional research - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127470252, 9780323149631

New Techniques in Nutritional research

1st Edition

Editor: Roger Whitehead
eBook ISBN: 9780323149631
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1990
Page Count: 458
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New Techniques in Nutritional Research contains the proceedings of the Ninth Annual Bristol-Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Symposium on Nutrition Research held on September 11-13, 1989 in Cambridge, England. The papers highlight a number of novel techniques that are currently used in nutritional research, including the doubly labeled water method; the labeled bicarbonate method; X-ray computed tomography; neutron activation analysis; magnetic resonance imaging; and the application of stable isotope tracers. Divided into four sections encompassing 20 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of stable isotopes and their applications in nutrition science, including vitamin research, and in the investigation of mineral metabolism. It then discusses modern approaches for measuring energy expenditure and body composition, classical and modern methods of anthropometry, measurement of bone mineral content in vivo, and imaging techniques in analysis of bone status. Nutritional scientists will find this book a useful source of information related to the field.

Table of Contents



Editor’s Foreword


Part I Nutritional Applications of Stable Isotopes

1 Application of Stable Isotope Tracers in Studies of Human Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. The Utility of Stable Isotope Tracers: Pros and Cons

III. Instrument Developments

IV. In What Circumstances Should We Use Stable Isotopes as Tracers?

V. Recent Findings in the Measurement of Human Tissue Protein Turnover


2 Protein and Amino Acid Turnover Using the Stable Isotopes 15N, 13C, and 2H as Probes

I. Introduction

II. Brief Survey of Methods for Measuring Whole-Body Protein and Amino Acid Turnover

III. Examples of Selected Applications of 13C, 5N, and 2H Probes in Amino Acid Turnover Studies

IV. Summary and Conclusions


3 Nutritional Applications of 13C: Strategic Considerations

I. Introduction

II. Analysis

III. Preparation of 13C-Labeled Nutrients

IV. Availability and Cost of 13C

V. Summary


4 The Use of Stable Isotopes in Vitamin Research

I. Introduction

II. Current Applications

III. Conclusions


5 Stable Isotopes in the Investigation of Mineral Metabolism

I. Historical Background

II. Minerals of Interest for Humans

III. Objectives

IV. Methods of Studying Mineral Absorption

V. Limitations and Advantages of Stable Isotopes

VI. Experimental Considerations

VII. Human Experiments Using Isotopic Labels

VIII. Future of Stable Isotopes as Tracers of Mineral Metabolism


6 Session Discussion


Part II Modern Methods of Measuring Energy Expenditure


7 The Doubly Labeled Water Method for the Measurement of Energy Expenditure in Humans: Risks and Benefits

I. The Adequacy of the Model

II. The Adequacy of Basic Data

III. Conclusions


8 Doubly Labeled Water Measurements and Calorimetry in Practice

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Assessing Energy Expenditure

III. Distinctions between Doubly Labeled Water and Calorimetry

IV. Application of Doubly Labeled Water and Calorimetry in Tandem

V. Application of Whole-Body Calorimetry Alone

VI. Application of Doubly Labeled Water Alone

VII. Summary


9 Estimation of Short-Term Energy Expenditure by the Labeled Bicarbonate Method

I. Incomplete Recovery of Labeled Carbon Dioxide

II. Variation in the Recovery of Labeled Carbon Dioxide

III. Assessing the Extent of Isotopic Dilution

IV. The Possible Use of Urea-Specific Activity or Enrichment

V. Site of Sampling

VI. Energy Expenditure and the Energy Equivalent of Carbon Dioxide


10 Measurement of Energy Expenditure—Outstanding Issues



Part III Modern Methods of Measuring Body Composition

I. What Question Are We Trying to Answer?

II. Quetelet's Index and Fatness

III. Validation of Estimates of Body Fat

IV. What New Methods for Measuring Body Composition Are Needed?


11 Anthropometry: Classical and Modern Approaches

I. Introduction

II. Measurement of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness

III. Somatotype

IV. Knemometry

V. Weight-Stature Indices

VI. Whole-Body Impedance

VII. Segmental Impedance

VIII. Concluding Remarks


12 Neutron Activation Analysis in Assessment of Body Composition

I. Introduction

II. Current State of the Art

III. Techniques

IV. Applications

V. New Techniques and Their Validation

VI. Future Prospects for Neutron Activation

VII. Summary


13 Measurements of Total Body Electrical Conductivity for the Estimation of Fat and Fat-Free Mass

I. Historical Background

II. Theory of Measurements

III. Interpretation of Measurements

IV. Accuracy: Sources of Error

V. Applications


14 Assessment of Body Composition Using Tetrapolar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Tetrapolar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

III. Body Composition Assessment

IV. Summary and Conclusion


15 The Companionship of Lean and Fat: Some Lessons from Body Composition Studies

I. Effect of Changes in Energy Balance

II. Body Composition in Established States of Underweight and Overweight Humans and Animals

III. Some Exceptions to the Companionship Rule

IV. Body Composition and Energy Requirements

V. Concluding Remarks


Part IV Imaging Techniques and Nutrition and the Assessment of Bone Status



16 Future Prospects for NMR-Imaging Spectroscopy in Studies of Human Nutrition



17 Imaging Techniques in Nutrition and the Assessment of Bone Status: Computed Tomography

I. Introduction

II. Tissues and Organs


18 Assessment of Bone Mineral Content and Fracture Risk by Photon Absorptiometry

I. Introduction

II. Measurement of Bone Mineral Content in Vivo

III. A Stochastic Model of Bone Loss, Falls, and Hip Fractures

IV. Predictions of the Stochastic Model

V. Discussion


19 Measures of Total Body Calcium

I. Introduction

II. In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis

III. Total Body Dual-Photon Absorptiometry

IV. Comparisons, Predictions, and Choices


20 Discussion

I. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

II. X-Ray Computed Tomography

III. Neutron Activation Analysis

IV. Bone Mineral Measurements

V. Measurement of Body Composition by Dexa



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© Academic Press 1990
28th December 1990
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Roger Whitehead

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