New Techniques in Nutritional research

New Techniques in Nutritional research

1st Edition - December 28, 1990

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  • Editor: Roger Whitehead
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149631

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New Techniques in Nutritional Research contains the proceedings of the Ninth Annual Bristol-Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Symposium on Nutrition Research held on September 11-13, 1989 in Cambridge, England. The papers highlight a number of novel techniques that are currently used in nutritional research, including the doubly labeled water method; the labeled bicarbonate method; X-ray computed tomography; neutron activation analysis; magnetic resonance imaging; and the application of stable isotope tracers. Divided into four sections encompassing 20 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of stable isotopes and their applications in nutrition science, including vitamin research, and in the investigation of mineral metabolism. It then discusses modern approaches for measuring energy expenditure and body composition, classical and modern methods of anthropometry, measurement of bone mineral content in vivo, and imaging techniques in analysis of bone status. Nutritional scientists will find this book a useful source of information related to the field.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Editor’s Foreword


    Part I Nutritional Applications of Stable Isotopes

    1 Application of Stable Isotope Tracers in Studies of Human Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. The Utility of Stable Isotope Tracers: Pros and Cons

    III. Instrument Developments

    IV. In What Circumstances Should We Use Stable Isotopes as Tracers?

    V. Recent Findings in the Measurement of Human Tissue Protein Turnover


    2 Protein and Amino Acid Turnover Using the Stable Isotopes 15N, 13C, and 2H as Probes

    I. Introduction

    II. Brief Survey of Methods for Measuring Whole-Body Protein and Amino Acid Turnover

    III. Examples of Selected Applications of 13C, 5N, and 2H Probes in Amino Acid Turnover Studies

    IV. Summary and Conclusions


    3 Nutritional Applications of 13C: Strategic Considerations

    I. Introduction

    II. Analysis

    III. Preparation of 13C-Labeled Nutrients

    IV. Availability and Cost of 13C

    V. Summary


    4 The Use of Stable Isotopes in Vitamin Research

    I. Introduction

    II. Current Applications

    III. Conclusions


    5 Stable Isotopes in the Investigation of Mineral Metabolism

    I. Historical Background

    II. Minerals of Interest for Humans

    III. Objectives

    IV. Methods of Studying Mineral Absorption

    V. Limitations and Advantages of Stable Isotopes

    VI. Experimental Considerations

    VII. Human Experiments Using Isotopic Labels

    VIII. Future of Stable Isotopes as Tracers of Mineral Metabolism


    6 Session Discussion


    Part II Modern Methods of Measuring Energy Expenditure


    7 The Doubly Labeled Water Method for the Measurement of Energy Expenditure in Humans: Risks and Benefits

    I. The Adequacy of the Model

    II. The Adequacy of Basic Data

    III. Conclusions


    8 Doubly Labeled Water Measurements and Calorimetry in Practice

    I. Introduction

    II. Principles of Assessing Energy Expenditure

    III. Distinctions between Doubly Labeled Water and Calorimetry

    IV. Application of Doubly Labeled Water and Calorimetry in Tandem

    V. Application of Whole-Body Calorimetry Alone

    VI. Application of Doubly Labeled Water Alone

    VII. Summary


    9 Estimation of Short-Term Energy Expenditure by the Labeled Bicarbonate Method

    I. Incomplete Recovery of Labeled Carbon Dioxide

    II. Variation in the Recovery of Labeled Carbon Dioxide

    III. Assessing the Extent of Isotopic Dilution

    IV. The Possible Use of Urea-Specific Activity or Enrichment

    V. Site of Sampling

    VI. Energy Expenditure and the Energy Equivalent of Carbon Dioxide


    10 Measurement of Energy Expenditure—Outstanding Issues



    Part III Modern Methods of Measuring Body Composition

    I. What Question Are We Trying to Answer?

    II. Quetelet's Index and Fatness

    III. Validation of Estimates of Body Fat

    IV. What New Methods for Measuring Body Composition Are Needed?


    11 Anthropometry: Classical and Modern Approaches

    I. Introduction

    II. Measurement of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness

    III. Somatotype

    IV. Knemometry

    V. Weight-Stature Indices

    VI. Whole-Body Impedance

    VII. Segmental Impedance

    VIII. Concluding Remarks


    12 Neutron Activation Analysis in Assessment of Body Composition

    I. Introduction

    II. Current State of the Art

    III. Techniques

    IV. Applications

    V. New Techniques and Their Validation

    VI. Future Prospects for Neutron Activation

    VII. Summary


    13 Measurements of Total Body Electrical Conductivity for the Estimation of Fat and Fat-Free Mass

    I. Historical Background

    II. Theory of Measurements

    III. Interpretation of Measurements

    IV. Accuracy: Sources of Error

    V. Applications


    14 Assessment of Body Composition Using Tetrapolar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Tetrapolar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

    III. Body Composition Assessment

    IV. Summary and Conclusion


    15 The Companionship of Lean and Fat: Some Lessons from Body Composition Studies

    I. Effect of Changes in Energy Balance

    II. Body Composition in Established States of Underweight and Overweight Humans and Animals

    III. Some Exceptions to the Companionship Rule

    IV. Body Composition and Energy Requirements

    V. Concluding Remarks


    Part IV Imaging Techniques and Nutrition and the Assessment of Bone Status



    16 Future Prospects for NMR-Imaging Spectroscopy in Studies of Human Nutrition



    17 Imaging Techniques in Nutrition and the Assessment of Bone Status: Computed Tomography

    I. Introduction

    II. Tissues and Organs


    18 Assessment of Bone Mineral Content and Fracture Risk by Photon Absorptiometry

    I. Introduction

    II. Measurement of Bone Mineral Content in Vivo

    III. A Stochastic Model of Bone Loss, Falls, and Hip Fractures

    IV. Predictions of the Stochastic Model

    V. Discussion


    19 Measures of Total Body Calcium

    I. Introduction

    II. In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis

    III. Total Body Dual-Photon Absorptiometry

    IV. Comparisons, Predictions, and Choices


    20 Discussion

    I. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    II. X-Ray Computed Tomography

    III. Neutron Activation Analysis

    IV. Bone Mineral Measurements

    V. Measurement of Body Composition by Dexa


Product details

  • No. of pages: 458
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1990
  • Published: December 28, 1990
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149631

About the Editor

Roger Whitehead

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