Central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affect a large number of populations worldwide for which no suitable cure is currently available. In addition, stroke, nanoparticle intoxication, diabetes, hypertension, and psychostimulant abuse either alone or in combination are capable of inducing potential brain damage. Thus, there is an urgent need to expand our knowledge to find suitable therapeutic strategies to enhance neurorepair processes in such diseases.

This volume presents neuroprotection and novel therapeutic strategies developed in the last 5 years by 12 world leaders in the field. The term neuroprotection means rescuing neuronal and non-neuronal cells together. The cerebral endothelium that constitutes the anatomical and physiological site of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the most important non-neural cells in the CNS. Any distortion of the BBB leads to brain diseases and restoration of the barrier results in neuroprotection. Thus, the BBB appears to be the "gateway" for neurological diseases and neurorepair. However, to treat brain tumors or infarcts, new therapeutic strategies are needed to enhance brain drug delivery using nanotechnology. In addition, apart from conventional drugs, restoration of BBB function could also be achieved by means of antibodies directed against specific proteins, neurotransmitters or exogenous supplement of neurotrophic factors. Since co-morbidity factors e.g., hypertension, diabetes, and exposure of nanoparticles could complicate the pathogenesis of neurological disorders either an enhanced dose of the drug or nanodelivery of a combination of several drugs is needed to achieve neuroprotection.

This volume of International Review of Neurobiology is the first to discuss novel therapeutic strategies in situations of neurological disorders in combination with different co-morbidity factors.

Key Features

    Reviews written by experts in such a way that provides basic knowledge for beginners and advanced information for researchers and experts.

    New aspects of Neurodegenerative diseases such as; Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are presented with the latest therapeutic measures.

    Exacerbation of brain pathology in hypertension or diabetes is discussed for the first time.


    Neuroscientists, neurologists, psychologists

    Table of Contents

    • Series Page
    • Contributors
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1 The Function and Mechanisms of Nurr1 Action in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons, from Development and Maintenance to Survival
      • I Introduction
      • II The Midbrain Dopamine System: Neurochemistry
      • III The Midbrain Dopamine System: Development
      • IV Dopaminergic Neurons and Parkinson’s Disease
      • V Nurr1, A Protein Whose Function Is Important in the Life Cycle of VM DANs
      • VI The Mechanisms of Nurr1 as a Nuclear Receptor
      • VII Most Recent Development in Application of Nurr1 in Dopaminergic Differentiation and Implications in Future Treatment for PD
    • Chapter 2 Monoclonal Antibodies as Novel Neurotherapeutic Agents in CNS Injury and Repair
      • I Introduction
      • II Historical Perspectives on the Use of Antibodies as Therapy
      • III Therapeutic Basis of Antibodies
      • IV Antibodies Versus Receptor Antagonist Drugs
      • V Antibodies Neutralize Effects of Endogenous Antigens
      • VI Our Investigations on Monoclonal Antibodies to Induce Neuroprotection in CNS Injuries
      • VII Neuroprotective Effects of Serotonin Antibodies in CNS Injuries
      • VIII Neuroprotection by Dynorphin A Antibodies in CNS Injuries
      • IX Antibodies to nNOS Is Neuroprotective in CNS Injuries
      • X TNF-α Antibodies Are Neuroprotective in CNS Injuries
      • XI Combination of nNOS and TNF-α Antibodies Enhances Neuroprotection in SCI
      • XII Conclusion and Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 3 The Blood–Brain Barrier in Alzheimer’s Disease
      • I Introduction
      • II Pathology of AD
      • III A Receptor-Mediated Transport of apoJ and ABP at the BBB and BCSF-B
      • IV Human Receptors for ABP1-40
      • V Clearance of AB1-40 P from Brain LDL Receptor at the BBB
      • VI Clearance of ABP1-40 in Monkey Model
      • VII


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    Academic Press
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    Praise for International Review of Neurobiology:

    "Invaluable reading."--NATURE
    "A valuable addition to any library as current reference material for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and professional scientists."--CHOICE