New Perspectives in Adipose Tissue - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408108577, 9781483163970

New Perspectives in Adipose Tissue

1st Edition

Structure, Function and Development

Editors: A. Cryer R. L. R. Van
eBook ISBN: 9781483163970
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 22nd April 1985
Page Count: 490
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New Perspectives in Adipose Tissue: Structure, Function and Development reviews the state of knowledge on adipose tissue. The book begins with discussions of the anatomy and morphology of adipose tissue. This is followed by separate chapters on the nervous control of circulation and metabolism in white adipose tissue; hormonal regulation of biosynthetic activities in white adipose tissue; hormonal control of lipid degradation; and plasma membrane properties and receptors in white adipose tissue. Subsequent chapters cover topics such as lipoproteins and adipose tissue; brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy balance in animals and man; methodological approaches to the study of the adipose tissues; adipose tissue growth following lipectomy; the adipocyte precursor cell; and adipose tissue dysfunction and its consequences. In addition to being authoritative source material, the chapters presented in this book are wide in their coverage and appeal.

Table of Contents

1 The Comparative Anatomy of Adipose Tissue

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Anatomy of Adipose Tissue in the Fetus

1.3 Cellularity of Adipose Tissue

1.4 Stromal-Vascular Aspects of Adipose Tissue

1.5 References

2 The Morphology of Adipose Tissue

2.1 Introduction

2.2 White Adipose Tissue

2.3 Brown Adipose Tissue

2.4 Acknowledgments

2.5 References

3 Nervous Control of Circulation and Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Innervation of White Adipose Tissue

3.3 Control of Transmitter Release

3.4 Nervous Control of Circulation

3.5 Nervous Control of Metabolism

3.6 Interplay between Circulation and Metabolism

3.7 Pathophysiological Considerations—Adipose Tissue in Shock

3.8 Summary and Conclusions

3.9 Acknowledgments

3.10 References

4 The Metabolism of White Adipose Tissue In Vivo and In Vitro

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Methodological Aspects

4.3 Blood Flow

4.4 Lipoprotein Lipase and the Utilization of Plasma Triacylglycerol

4.5 Fatty Acid Synthesis

4.6 Esterification

4.7 Lipolysis

4.8 References

5 Hormonal Regulation of Biosynthetic Activities in White Adipose Tissue

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Precursors of Biosynthesis: information Gained from Measurements of Metabolic Fluxes

5.3 The Provision of Precursors

5.4 Conversion of Intracellular Glucose to Triosephosphates and to Pyruvate

5.5 Control of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) Complex

5.6 Acetyl CoA Carboxylase

5.7 Other Enzymes Associated with the FAS Pathway

5.8 The Esterification Pathway

5.9 References

6 Hormonal Control of Lipid Degradation

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Rate-Controlling Enzyme: The Hormone-Sensitive Lipase

6.3 Short-term Hormonal Control of Lipolysis

6.4 Conclusions and Perspectives

6.5 Acknowledgments

6.6 References

7 Plasma Membrane Properties and Receptors in White Adipose Tissue

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Methodological Approaches for the Study of the Fat Cell Plasma Membrane

7.3 Plasma Membrane Receptors: identification, Characterization and Purification

7.4 Summary and Concluding Remarks

7.5 References

8 Lipoproteins and Adipose Tissue

8.1 The Plasma Lipoproteins

8.2 The Lipoproteins and Adipose Tissue

8.3 The Relation of Adipose Tissue Cholesterol Storage to Circulating Lipoprotein Cholesterol

8.4 Conclusion

8.5 References

9 The Role of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Energy Balance

9.1 Introduction

9.2 BAT Thermogenesis and Energy Balance in Normal Animals

9.3 BAT Thermogenesis and Energy Balance in obese Animals

9.4 Role of BAT Thermogenesis in Energy Balance in Man

9.5 Conclusion and Implications for the Future

9.6 References

10 Brown Adipose Tissue: Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Activity and Thermogenesis

10.1 Brown Adipose Tissue is not White Adipose Tissue

10.2 The Energy-Consuming, Heat-Producing Function of BAT

10.3 Heat Production In Vitro

10.4 The Question of the Nature of the Intracellular Mediator of Thermogenesis

10.5 The Recovery Processes

10.6 Physiological Recruitment of the Thermogenic Capacity of BAT

10.7 Perspectives

10.8 Acknowledgments

10.9 References

11 Methodological Approaches to the Study of the Adipose Tissues: Their Impact on Research into the Aetiology of Obesity

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Methodological Approaches to Determine whether the Increased White Fat Cell Size of Genetically Obese Rodents is Caused by their Nature or their Nurture

11.3 Methodological Approaches to the Measurement of Blood Flow to BAT

11.4 Methodological Approaches to the Identification of the Adipose Tissues

11.5 Concluding Remarks

11.6 Acknowledgments

11.7 References

12 Regulation of Adipose Tissue Development in Utero

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Metabolic Development

12.3 Effectors of Fetal Adipose Tissue Development

12.4 Genetic Aspects

12.5 Central Mechanisms

12.6 Summary

12.7 Acknowledgment

12.8 References

13 Growth of Adipose Tissue following Lipectomy

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Animal Experiments

13.3 Use of Lipectomy to Study Regulation of Body Fat Mass: 'Lipodynamics'

13.4 Lipectomy in Man

13.5 References

14 Cell and Tissue Culture Models of Adipocyte Development

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Models of Adipocyte Differentiation Using Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue

14.3 Models of Adipocyte Differentiation Using Cells Derived from Non-Adipose Tissue

14.4 Factors Affecting Adipocyte Differentiation

14.5 Structural and Functional Changes during Adipocyte Differentiation In Vitro

14.6 Concluding Remarks

14.7 Acknowledgments

14.8 References

15 The Adipocyte Precursor Cell

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Adipocyte Precursors In Vitro

15.3 Functional Characteristics of Adipocyte Precursors

15.4 Effect of Hormones on Adipocyte Precursors

15.5 Effect of Growth Factors

15.6 Adipocyte Precursor Clones

15.7 Development of Adipocyte Precursors In Vivo

15.8 Adipocyte Delipidation

15.9 The Nature of the Adipocyte

15.10 Adipocyte Precursor Characteristics in Human and Animal Obesities

15.11 New Perspectives in Adipose Cellularity

15.12 References

16 Biochemical Markers of Adipocyte Precursor Differentiation

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Measurements of Overall Metabolic Changes

16.3 Activities of Intracellular Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism

16.4 Changes in the Levels of other Proteins

16.5 Changes in the Responses to Hormones

16.6 Cell Surface Changes

16.7 Postscript

16.8 References

17 The Role of Hormone Status in the Development of Excess Adiposity in Animal Models of Obesity

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Hormone Secretion in Animal Obesities

17.3 Regulation of Food Intake

17.4 Hormonal Control of Energy Expenditure

17.5 Hormonal Control of Lipid Metabolism in Obesity

17.6 Adipose Tissue Development in Animal Obesities

17.7 Concluding Remarks

17.8 References

18 Adipose Tissue Dysfunction and its Consequences

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Obesity and Adipose Tissue Morphology

18.3 Endocrine Regulation of Adipocytes

18.4 Regional Obesity and Classification

18.5 Integration of Regional Obesity Data and Adipocyte Function

18.6 Summary, Outlook and Conclusions

18.7 References



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About the Editor

A. Cryer

R. L. R. Van

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