New Directions in Helping  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122573019, 9780323152648

New Directions in Helping

1st Edition

Recipient Reactions to Aid

Editors: Jeffery Fisher
eBook ISBN: 9780323152648
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1983
Page Count: 390
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New Directions in Helping: Recipient Reactions to Aid, Volume 1, reviews the state of knowledge in the reactions of recipients in helping interactions. It provides an overview of the entire field, in-depth coverage in major areas, and a preview of important future research directions. The book is organized into five parts. Part I discusses the types of recipient reactions; some consistent relationships between the conditions associated recipient reactions; and approaches that have been used to conceptualize the effects of aid on those who receive it. Part II focuses on theoretical perspectives for conceptualizing reactions to help. Part III examines individual differences in responses to aid. Part IV takes up various determinants of reactions to help. Part V presents some final thoughts about research on reactions to help. This book will be of interest to social psychologists as well as to members of a number of other disciplines, e.g., clinical psychologists, social workers, counseling psychologists, educational psychologists, political scientists, and sociologists.

Table of Contents



Contents of Volumes 2 and 3

Part I Introduction

1. Recipient Reactions to Aid: The Parameters of the Field

The Basic Paradigm

The Findings: A Capsule Summary

Conceptual Approaches

Research Needs



Part II Theoretical Perspectives

2. The Dilemmas of Helping: Making Aid Fair and Effective

Forms of Help

Fairness and Effectiveness: Competing Goals?



The Compensatory Model—Can it Keep Its Promise?


3. Four Theoretical Approaches for Conceptualizing Reactions to Aid

Equity Theories

Reactance Theory

Attribution Theories

Threat to Self-esteem

Toward a Formalized Threat to Self-esteem Model

A Formalized Threat to Self-esteem Model


Reference Notes


4. Indebtedness as a Mediator of Reactions to Aid

Mediators of Reactions to Aid

Determinants of the Magnitude of Indebtedness

Assessment of the Magnitude of Indebtedness

Indebtedness and Inequity Compared

Variability in Responses to Indebtedness

Applications and Future Directions


5. Equity Theory and Recipient Reactions to Aid

Reactions of Recipients in Reciprocal versus Altruistic Relationships

Equity Theory: An Overview

The Application of Equity Theory to Helping Relationships

Recipient Ambivalence

Reactions of Recipients in Reciprocal versus Altruistic Relationships



6. Social Construction of Helping Relationships

Help: From Object to Objectification

Help and Its Conjoint Relations

Negotiating Reality in the Helping Relationship

Post Hoc Reconstruction of Help

Inquiry into Reactions to Help


Part III Individual Differences

7. Recipient Self-esteem and Reactions to Help


Level of Recipient Self-esteem: Conceptual Background

Self-esteem and Receiving Help: Evidence for Consistency

Self-esteem and Receiving Help: Evidence for the Vulnerability Prediction

Consistency versus Vulnerability Revisited: Reconciliation and Integration

Concluding Remarks


8. Developmental Aspects of Recipients' Reactions to Aid

Review of the Literature

Factors of Potential Significance in Children's Reactions to Aid

A Developmental Perspective on Models concerning Reactions to Aid


Reference Note


PART IV Determinants of Reactions to Aid

9. The Effects of Help on Task Performance in Achievement Contexts

Definitional Issues

Predictors of Effectiveness

The Effects of Noninstrumental Help on Performance: An Experimental Investigation



10. When Helping Backfires: Help and Helplessness

How Help Undermines Competence and Control

Help Orientations and Helplessness

Learning Skills Training: Will it Help or Hurt?

Clarifying the Causal Impact of Recipient Orientations

Strategic Functions of Claiming to Be Helpless

Recipient Responsibility, Recipients' Problems, and Help-Orientation Conflict

Changing Recipients' Models


11. Reactions to Aid in Communal and Exchange Relationships


Distinguishing Communal and Exchange Relationships

Implications of the Communal-Exchange Distinction for Reactions to Aid


Reference Note


12. The Nature of the Help-Related Interchange as a Determinant of a Person's Attitude toward Other

Important Preliminaries

Determinants of Reaction to Other

Conceptual Analyses and Empirical Research


Reference Notes


Part V Summary and Implications

13. Some Thoughts about Research on Reactions to Help

The Possible Role of Cultural Influences

The Multiple Determination of Social Behavior

References to Normative Influences

On the Role of the Self-concept


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1983
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Jeffery Fisher

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