Geophysical measurements, such as the lateral variations in seismic wave velocities that are imaged by seismic tomography, provide the strongest constraints on the structure of the Earth's deep interior. In order to interpret such measurements in terms of mineralogical/compositional models of the Earth's interior, data on the physical and chemical properties of minerals at high pressures and temperatures are essential. Knowledge of thermodynamics, phase equilibria, crystal chemistry, crystallography, rheology, diffusion and heat transport are required to characterize the structure and dynamics of the Earth's deep interior as well as the processes by which the Earth originally differentiated.
Many experimental studies have been made possible only by a range of technical developments in the quest to achieve high pressures and temperatures in the laboratory. At the same time, analytical methods, including X-ray diffraction, a variety of spectroscopic techniques, electron microscopy, ultrasonic interferometry, and methods for rheological investigations have been developed and greatly improved. In recent years, major progress has been made also in the field of computational mineralogy whereby ab initio simulations are used to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matter at an atomistic level.
This volume contains a broad range of contributions that typify and summarize recent progress in the areas of high-pressure mineral physics as well as associated technical developments.
1. Elasticity. Application of inelastic X-ray scattering to the measurements of acoustic wave velocities in geophysical materials at very high-pressure (G. Fiquet et al.). Ultrasonic measurements of the sound velocities in polycrystalline San Carlos olivine in multi-anvil, high-pressure apparatus (K.L. Darling et al.). Thermal equation of state of (Mg0.91Fe0.09)2SiO4 ringwoodite (Y. Nishihara et al.). Sound velocities and elastic constants of iron-bearing hydrous ringwoodite (S.D. Jacobsen et al.). Thermal equation of state of akimotoite MgSiO3 and effects of the akimotoite - garnet transformation on seismic structure near the 660 km discontinuity (Y. Wang et al.). Complicated effects of aluminum on the compressibility of silicate perovskite (T. Yagi et al.). Elasticity and strength of calcium silicate perovskite at lower mantle pressures (S.R. Shieh et al.). Equations of state of Na-K-Al host phases and implications for MORB density in the lower mantle (N. Guignot, D. Andrault).
2. Mantle Mineralogy. Density of MORB eclogite in the upper mantle (I. Aoki, E. Takahashi). High-pressure transitions of diopside and wollastonite: phase equilibria and thermochemistry of CaMgSi2O6 , CaSiO3 and CaSi2O5–CaTiSiO5 system (M. Akaogi et al.). Oxidation state of iron in hydrous mantle phases: implications for subduction and mantle oxygen fugacity (C.A. McCammon et al.). Stability of spinelloid phases in the system Mg2SiO4Fe2SiO4-Fe3O4at 1100 oC and up to 10.5 GPa (M. Koch, A.B. Woodland, R.J. Angel). Precise determination of phase relations in pyrolite across the 660 km seismic discontinuity by in situ X-ray diffraction and quench experiments (N. Nishiyama et al.). Phase transitions of (Mg,Fe)O at megabar pressures (T. Kondo et al.). Approach to the mineralogy of the lower mantle by a combined method of a laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiment and analytical electron microscopy (K. Fujino et al.). Stability of the high-pressure polymorph of zircon (ZrSiO4) in the deep mantle (Y. Tange, E. Takahashi). A class of new high-pressure silica polymorphs (L.S. Dubrovinsky et al.). Limits to resolution in composition and density in ultra high-pressure experiments on natural mantle-rock samples (K.K.M. Lee, B. O’Neill, R. Jeanloz).
3. Fluids and Volatiles in the Earth. Water transport into the deep mantle and formation of a hydrous transition zone (E. Ohtani et al.). High pressure crystal chemistry of hydrous ringwoodite and water in the Earth's interior (J.R. Smyth et al.). Thermal expansion of wadsleyite, ringwoodite, hydrous wadsleyite and hydrous ringwoodite (T. Inoue et al.). A high-pressure infrared and X-ray study of FeCO3 and MnCO3: comparison with CaMg(CO3)2-dolomite (J. Santillán, Q. Williams). Structural relation of phase A to ringwoodite: predicted possible low-pressure polymorph of Mg7Si2H6O14 (phase AII) derived as recombination structure from forsterite (Y. Kudoh).
4. Transport Properties and Rheology. Simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity for garnet and olivine under high pressure (M. Osako, E. Ito, A. Yoneda). Thermal diffusivity and conductivity of olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite to 20 GPa and 1373 K (Y. Xu et al.). Detection and analysis of microseismicity in multi anvil experiments (D.P. Dobson, P.G. Meredith, S.A. Boon). Deformation experiments using synchrotron X-rays: in situ stress and strain measurements at high pressure and temperature (J. Chen et al.). Stress measurements of deforming olivine at high pressure (L. Li et al.).
5. Melting and Early Earth History. Shock-induced superheating and melting curves of geophysically important minerals (S.-N. Luo, T.J. Ahrens). Hydrous phase stability and partial melt chemistry in H2O-saturated KLB-1 peridotite up to the uppermost lower mantle conditions (T. Kawamoto). Melting experiments of mantle materials under lower mantle conditions with implications for magma ocean differentiation (E. Ito et al.). Trace element partitioning between majoritic garnet and silicate melt at 25 GPa (A. Corgne, B.J. Wood). Phase relations of a carbonaceous chondrite at lower mantle conditions (Y. Asahara, T. Kubo, T. Kondo). The behaviour of sulphur in metal–silicate core segregation experiments under reducing conditions (J. Siebert et al.).
6. Iron and Planetary Cores. Non-collinear magnetism in iron at high pressures (R.E. Cohen, S. Mukherjee). In situ X-ray diffraction studies of iron to Earth-core conditions (Y. Ma et al.). Phase relationships and equations of state for FeS at high pressures and temperatures and implications for the internal structure of Mars (S. Urakawa et al.). The structure of amorphous iron at high pressures to 67 GPa measured in a diamond anvil cell (G. Shen et al.).
7. Technical Developments. A large-volume high-pressure and high-temperature apparatus for in situ X-ray observation, 'SPEED-Mk.II' (T. Katsura et al.). A new large-volume multianvil system (D.J. Frost et al.). A critical evaluation of pressure scales at high temperatures by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements (Y. Fei et al.). Temperature gradients and evaluation of thermoelastic properties in the synchrotron-based laser-heated diamond cell (A. Kavner, W.R. Panero). The effects of chromatic dispersion on temperature measurement in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (M.J. Walter, K.T. Koga). Modern techniques in measuring elasticity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature using ultrasonic interferometry in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation in multi-anvil apparatus (B. Li, J. Kung, R.C. Liebermann). Sound velocity measurements on laser-heated MgO and Al2O3 (S.V. Sinogeikin et al.). HIP production of a diamond/SiC composite and application to high-pressure anvils (O. Ohtaka et al.). Formation of pure polycrystalline diamond by direct conversion of graphite at high pressure and high temperature (T. Irifune et al.). Electron channelling spectroscopy of iron in majoritic garnet and silicate perovskite using a transmission electron microscope (N. Miyajima et al.). A new type of nonmagnetic diamond anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (T. Okuchi). Author Index. Subject Index.
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- © Elsevier Science 2005
- 11th December 2004
- Elsevier Science
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Director The Centre for Welfare Reform Sheffield UK
Faculty of Science, Tohoko University, Sendai, Japan
Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany