Geophysical measurements, such as the lateral variations in seismic wave velocities that are imaged by seismic tomography, provide the strongest constraints on the structure of the Earth's deep interior. In order to interpret such measurements in terms of mineralogical/compositional models of the Earth's interior, data on the physical and chemical properties of minerals at high pressures and temperatures are essential. Knowledge of thermodynamics, phase equilibria, crystal chemistry, crystallography, rheology, diffusion and heat transport are required to characterize the structure and dynamics of the Earth's deep interior as well as the processes by which the Earth originally differentiated.
Many experimental studies have been made possible only by a range of technical developments in the quest to achieve high pressures and temperatures in the laboratory. At the same time, analytical methods, including X-ray diffraction, a variety of spectroscopic techniques, electron microscopy, ultrasonic interferometry, and methods for rheological investigations have been developed and greatly improved. In recent years, major progress has been made also in the field of computational mineralogy whereby ab initio simulations are used to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matter at an atomistic level.
This volume contains a broad range of contributions that typify and summarize recent progress in the areas of high-pressure mineral physics as well as associated technical developments.
1. Elasticity. Application of inelastic X-ray scattering to the measurements of acoustic wave velocities in geophysical materials at very high-pressure (G. Fiquet et al.). Ultrasonic measurements of the sound velocities in polycrystalline San Carlos olivine in multi-anvil, high-pressure apparatus (K.L. Darling et al.). Thermal equation of state of (Mg0.91Fe0.09)2SiO4 ringwoodite (Y. Nishihara et al.). Sound velocities and elastic constants of iron-bearing hydrous ringwoodite (S.D. Jacobsen et al.). Thermal equation of state of akimotoite MgSiO3 and effects of the akimotoite - garnet transformation on seismic structure near the 660 km discontinuity (Y. Wang et al.). Complicated effects of aluminum on the compressibility of silicate perovskite (T. Yagi et al.). Elasticity and strength of calcium silicate perovskite at lower mantle pressures (S.R. Shieh et al.). Equations of state of Na-K-Al host phases and implications for MORB density in the lower mantle (N. Guignot, D. Andrault).
2. Mantle Mineralogy. Density of MORB eclogite in the upper mantle (I. Aoki, E. Takahashi). High-pressure transitions of diopside and wollastonite: phase equilibria and thermochemistry of CaMgSi2O6 , CaSiO3 and CaSi2O5–CaTiSiO5 system (M. Akaogi et al.). Oxidation state of iron in hydrous mantle phases: implications for subduction and mantle oxygen fugacity (C.A. McCammon et al.). Stability of spinelloid phases in the system Mg2SiO4Fe2SiO4-Fe3O4at 1100 o</S
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- © Elsevier Science 2005
- 11th December 2004
- Elsevier Science
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Director The Centre for Welfare Reform Sheffield UK
Faculty of Science, Tohoko University, Sendai, Japan
Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany