Chapter and section headings: Old but New Materials: "Carbons". Carbon materials. Carbon family. Purpose of the present book. Characterization techniques for carbon materials. Highly Oriented Graphites. What are highly oriented graphites? Kish graphite. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Graphite film derived from polyimides. Isotropic Carbons. Realization of isotropic nature. Isotropic high-density graphites. Glass-like carbons. Carbon Fibers. Classification of carbon fibers. Production. Structure. Properties and applications. Porous Carbons. Formation of pores in carbon materials. Characterization of pores. Control of pores. Applications. Intercalation Compounds. Structural characteristics. Synthesis. Functions related to applications. Carbon Composites. Carbon materials as composites. Carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Carbon fiber reinforced concrete. Carbon/ceramics composites. Carbon fiber/carbon composites. Concluding Remarks.