New and Future Developments in Catalysis

New and Future Developments in Catalysis

Catalysis by Nanoparticles

1st Edition - July 13, 2013

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  • Editor: Steven Suib
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538741
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444538758

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Description

New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of seven books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes.The use of catalysts in the nanoscale offers various advantages (increased efficiency and less byproducts), and these are discussed in this volume along with the various catalytic processes using nanoparticles. However, this is not without any risks and the safety aspects and effects on humans and the environment are still unknown. The present data as well as future needs are all part of this volume along with the economics involved.

Key Features

  • Offers in-depth coverage of all catalytic topics of current interest and outlines future challenges and research areas
  • A clear and visual description of all parameters and conditions, enabling the reader to draw conclusions for a particular case
  • Outlines the catalytic processes applicable to energy generation and design of green processes

Readership

Chemists, chemical engineers, and biochemical engineers working in academic and government research; academics, research students, post graduate and graduate students in these areas of study; materials scientists, environmental engineers, biochemists, petroleum engineers, post graduate and research students in these areas

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    Contributors

    Chapter 1. Gold-Based Catalysts for CO Oxidation, the Water-Gas Shift, and Desulfurization Processes

    Acknowledgments

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Bonding Interactions Between Gold and Metal Oxide or Carbide Surfaces

    1.3 Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Au-Oxide and Au-Carbide Surfaces

    1.4 Water-Gas Shift Reaction on Au-Oxide Surfaces

    1.5 Decomposition of Sulfur Dioxide on Au-Oxide and Au-Carbide Surfaces

    1.6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 2. Structural and Electronic Properties of Group 6 Transition Metal Oxide Clusters

    Acknowledgments

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Accurate Thermochemistry for Transition Metal Oxide Clusters

    2.3 Group 6 Transition Metal Oxides

    2.4 Group 6 Transition Metal Hydroxides: Hydrolysis of Metal Oxide Clusters

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Nanoparticle Catalysis for Reforming of Biomass-Derived Fuels

    Acknowledgment

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Biogas Reforming

    3.3 Oxygenates Reforming

    3.4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Nanoparticles in Biocatalysis

    4.1 What is Biocatalysis?

    4.2 Nanomaterials as Enzyme Supports

    4.3 Bionanocatalysis

    4.4 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 5. Thin Iron Heme Enzyme Films on Electrodes and Nanoparticles for Biocatalysis

    Acknowledgments

    5.1 Why Enzyme Biocatalysis on Electrodes and Nanoparticles?

    5.2 Cyt P450 Electrocatalysis on Electrodes

    5.3 Cyt P450 Biocatalysis on Nanoparticles

    5.4 Summary and Prospects for the Future

    References

    Chapter 6. Nanoparticles as Enzyme Mimics

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Nanoparticles and Their Properties in Solution, Uptake in Cells, and Clearance

    6.3 Chemically Active Nanoparticles

    6.4 Other Oxidoreductase Mimics—Superoxide Dismutases and Oxidases

    6.5 Conclusions/Outlook

    References

    Chapter 7. A Physical Approach to Monitoring Biological Activity of Nanoparticulates

    Acknowledgments

    7.1 Fibrous Character of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)

    7.2 Biological Activity of Nano-Sized Particulates of Some Oxides

    7.3 In Vitro versus In Vivo Testing for Biotoxicity of Nanomaterials

    7.4 Fundamental Approach to the Problem of Health Hazards Posed by Inhalation of Nanoparticulates of Diverse Chemicals

    7.5 Experimental Evidence Forming the Basis of the Proposed Model

    7.6 Physico-Chemical Approach to Monitoring Bioactivity

    7.7 Thermally Stimulated Luminescence, Conductivity, and Exoelectron Emission [51–59]

    7.8 How Can Emission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (EMS) Help in Identification and Estimation of Bioactive Defects?

    7.9 Remedial Measures: Procedures Adopted for Preparation and Passivation of Defect Sites

    7.10 Summary

    References

    Chapter 8. Morphology-Tailored Titania Nanoparticles

    Acknowledgment

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Ionic Liquids

    8.3 Combustion-Assisted Methods

    8.4 Gas Flame Combustion

    8.5 Sonochemical Methods

    8.6 Reverse Microemulsion

    8.7 Methods Starting from Metallic Titanium

    8.8 Anodization

    8.9 Modification of Commercial Titania

    8.10 Miscellaneous Methods

    8.11 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9. Metal Oxide Nanotube, Nanorod, and Quantum Dot Photocatalysis

    Acknowledgments

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Semiconductor Photocatalysts

    9.3 Advantages of Nanoparticles

    9.4 Nanoparticle Synthesis

    9.5 Doping

    9.6 Metal Nanoparticles

    9.7 Quantum Dots

    9.8 Carbon Heterojunctions

    9.9 Water Splitting

    9.10 CO2 Reduction

    9.11 Solar Photocatalysis

    9.12 Photodynamic Therapy PDT

    9.13 Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 10. Photocatalytic Nanooxides: The Case of TiO2 and ZnO

    Acknowledgments

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 The Case of Bare Oxides

    10.3 Doping and Composite Systems Based in Titania and Zinc Oxides

    References

    Chapter 11. Recent Advances in Photocatalytic Processes by Nanomaterials

    Acknowledgment

    11.1 Photocatalysts and Mechanisms of Photocatalysis Processes

    11.2 Applications of Photocatalysts

    11.3 Challenges and Issues with Possible Solutions in Photocatalytic Processes

    11.4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 12. Insights into Heterogeneous Catalysis through Surface Science Techniques

    Acknowledgments

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Under Near Ambient Conditions (APXPS)

    12.3 Vibrational Spectroscopy at High Pressures

    12.3.1 Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)

    12.3.2 Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    12.4 Surface Science Studies Using High Pressure Techniques

    12.5 Conclusion and Outlook

    References

    Chapter 13. Block Copolymer Lithography

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Introduction to Block copolymers

    13.3 Catalysis

    13.4 New Frontiers: Plasmonics

    13.5 Outlook

    References

    Chapter 14. Multi-Metallic Nanoparticles as More Efficient Catalysts for Fuel Cell Reactions

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Multi-Metallic Alloy NPs

    14.3 Dumbbell NPs

    14.4 Core/Shell NPs

    14.5 Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 15. Hydrogenation by Nanoparticle Catalysts

    Acknowledgment

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Hydrogenation Catalysts

    15.3 Hydrogenation by Monometallic Nanoparticles

    15.4 Hydrogenation by Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    15.5 Hydrogenation by Multimetallic Nanoparticles

    15.6 Future Outlook: Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Hydrodeoxygenation

    15.7 Summary

    References

    Chapter 16. Silicone Stabilized Nanoparticles as Hybrid Phase Catalysts for Selective Hydrolytic Oxidation of Hydrosilanes

    Acknowledgments

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 What are Silanols?

    16.3 Pt-nanoparticle Catalyzed Hydrolytic Oxidation of Organosilanes

    16.4 Investigation of the Nature of Catalysts

    16.5 Mechanistic Proposal

    16.6 Polymerization of Bis-silanols via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    16.7 Conclusion

    16.8 Experimental Section

    16.8.1 Preparation and Characterization of Functional Silanes (1j-1n and 1p-1s)

    References

    Chapter 17. Basics of PEMFC Including the Use of Carbon-Supported Nanoparticles

    Acknowledgments

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Basics of PEFMC Operation

    17.3 Durability Issues in Fuel Cells

    17.4 Beyond Classical Carbon-Supported Pt-Based Nanoparticles

    17.5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 18. Supported Gold Nanoparticles as Heterogeneous Catalysts

    18.1 Introduction and Historical Perspective of Recent Gold Catalysis Developments

    18.2 Methodologies to Obtain Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Insoluble Solids

    18.3 Role of Support

    18.4 Role of Metal Oxides in Gold Catalysis

    18.5 Gold Nanoparticles as Catalysts in Organic Reactions

    18.6 Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols

    18.7 Selective Nitro Group Hydrogenation

    18.8 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

    References

    Chapter 19. Developing Semiconductive Catalysts with Three-Dimensional Nanobranches via Solution Routes

    19.1 Advantages of Morphological Branching-out for Semiconductive Heterogeneous Catalysts from Solution Syntheses

    19.2 Simple Multi-pods

    19.3 Nanobranched Multi-pods

    19.4 From Complex Multi-pods to Koosh Balls

    19.5 Nanotetrapod in a Hollow Nanotetrapod: the Power of Selective Dissolution

    19.6 Secondary Nanobranches On 1D Primary Structures

    19.7 Secondary Nanobranches on 2D and 3D Primary Structures

    19.8 Tertiary and Quaternary Structures from Hierarchical Nanobranch Growths

    19.9 Micropatterned Arrays of Tertiary Cactus Structures

    19.10 3D Self-Assembled Nanobranches

    19.11 3D Networks of Interconnecting Nanowires

    19.12 What Next?

    References

    Chapter 20. Nanoparticle Catalysis by Surface Plasmon

    Acknowledgments

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Plasmon-Driven Surface Catalyzed Reaction

    20.3 Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: July 13, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538741
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444538758

About the Editor

Steven Suib

Steve Suib is one of the leading figures in solid-state catalysis and renewable systems in the US. His 450 publications, 40 patents, and authorship on multiple books on the topic of catalysis is proof of this, as is his distinguished Professor status. He is also editor for Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, which puts him in a perfect position to keep abreast with current developments in the area.

He has been a prominent and prolific catalysis researcher for many years encompassing all aspects of the fields from synthesis, characterization, catalysis, to applications. He easily works in both basic fundamental academic research as well as applied industrial research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor, Director, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, USA His expertise is in the field of solid state inorganic chemistry including studies of zeolites and microporous materials; physical chemistry; environmental chemistry including green syntheses, heterogeneous catalysis; plasma chemistry and catalysis; semiconductors; inorganic photochemistry; photocatalysis; batteries; ceramics. Preparation and characterization of these systems using structural, crystallographic, surface, electrochemical, luminescence, microscopic and EPR techniques.

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