Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 2 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128002124, 9780128003756

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 2

1st Edition

Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects

Editors: Victor Preedy
eBook ISBN: 9780128003756
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128002124
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th April 2016
Page Count: 1182
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Description

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects is the second of three volumes in this informative series and offers a comprehensive examination of the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse. Each volume serves to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction as well as to deepen understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume 2 addresses stimulants, club and dissociative drugs, hallucinogens, and inhalants and solvents. Each section provides data on the general, molecular and cellular, and structural and functional neurological aspects of a given substance, with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions.

Research shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others, and understanding these commonalties provides a platform for studying specific addictions in more depth and may ultimately lead researchers toward new modes of understanding, causation, prevention, and treatment. However, marshalling data on the complex relationships between addictions is difficult due to the myriad material and substances.

Key Features

  • Offers a modern approach to understanding the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence-based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions
  • Fills an existing gap in the literature by serving as a “one-stop-shopping” synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse
  • Includes in each chapter: list of abbreviations, abstract, introduction, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references
  • Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and from the genome to whole body

Readership

Researchers and advanced students in behavioral neuroscience, neurology, addiction science, psychology and research psychiatry, with additional interest in biochemistry and pharmacology.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I. Stimulants
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 1. Cocaine: Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes. An Overview
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Perspectives on Cocaine Abuse
        • Molecular Neurobiology of Cocaine Addiction
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Drugs of Abuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of the Statistics of Cocaine Use in the United States
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 2. Amphetamine Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes: An Overview
        • Introduction
        • Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 3. Mephedrone: An Overview of Its Neurotoxic Potential
        • Introduction
        • β-Ketoamphetamines, Amphetamines and the Potential for Neurotoxicity
        • Strategy for Examination of the Neurotoxic Potential of Mephedrone
        • Mephedrone Does Not Damage DA Nerve Endings
        • Mephedrone Enhances the Neurotoxicity Caused by Methamphetamine, Amphetamine, and MDMA
        • Mephedrone Does Not Damage 5HT Nerve Endings
        • Discussion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Mephedrone Abuse
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 4. Cocaine and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
        • Introduction
        • BDNF, Cocaine, and Animal Models
        • BDNF Genetics in Cocaine Addiction
        • Clinical Studies and BDNF
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Cocaine and BDNF
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 5. On the Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Cocaine Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Overview of the ECBS
        • ECBS in Cocaine Addiction
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Self-Administration
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 6. The Fas Receptor/Fas-Associated Protein and Cocaine
        • Introduction
        • Relevant Features of Fas Receptor and FADD Adaptor
        • Regulation of Fas Receptor Forms by Cocaine
        • Regulation of FADD Forms by Acute and Chronic Cocaine in Rat Brain
        • Role of FADD Forms in the Initial Propensity to Cocaine Use
        • Regulation of FADD Forms in Human Cocaine Addiction
        • Relevance of Fas/FADD Regulation by Cocaine and Its Downstream Signaling
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 7. Cocaine and Neuromolecular Imaging of Neurotransmitters in the Brain: BRODERICK PROBE® Laurate Nanobiosensors in Mesocorticolimbic Neurons and the Nucleus Accumbens: Sex and Genes
        • Introduction
        • Cocaine is a Psychostimulant
        • Role of NMI in the Study of Cocaine
        • Sexual Dimorphism in Cocaine-Induced Neurochemistry Online with Behavior
        • Role of the Estrous Cycle in Cocaine-Induced Responses
        • Role of the Genetic FH Animal Model of Depression in Cocaine Addiction: Comparison with the SD Strain
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 8. Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Modulators: Potential Agents for Treating Cocaine Addiction
        • Introduction: Addressing the Need for Treating Cocaine Abuse
        • mGlu5 Receptor: A Brief Background
        • The Cycle of Developing Addiction
        • The Incentive Value of Cocaine
        • Repeated Cocaine Exposure Leads to Sensitization to the Effects of Cocaine
        • Cocaine Use Escalates With Exposure
        • Withdrawal and Relapse
        • Withdrawal Creates an Incubation of Craving
        • Extinguished Cocaine-Seeking Is Readily Reinstated
        • Two Approaches to Treating Cocaine Dependence
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substances Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 9. Neuronal and Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine in Caenorhabditis elegans
        • Introduction
        • Caenorhabditis elegans Homologies with Mammalian Dopaminergic Synapses
        • Amphetamine Directly Modulates the Dopaminergic Neurons
        • Amphetamine Causes Behavioral Effects in Caenorhabditis elegans
        • Amphetamine Activates Targets Other than the Dopaminergic System to Generate Behavioral Effects
        • β-Phenylethylamine and Amphetamine Activate the Same Molecular Targets but via Different Kinetics
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 10. Amphetamines Activate G-Protein Coupled Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1): Implications for Understanding and Treating Psychostimulant Abuse
        • Introduction
        • Discovery of the Trace Amine Receptor
        • Anatomic Localization
        • Pharmacologic Characterization of the Trace Amine Receptor
        • Drug Development Programs
        • In Vivo Studies Related to Drug Abuse
        • Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about TAAR1
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 11. Amphetamine and Signal Detection
        • Introduction
        • A Primer on Signal Detection Theory
        • Sensitivity Indices: d′, A′, SI, and Percent Correct
        • AMPH Effects on Sensitivity
        • Terminology and Experimental Procedures
        • Dose Effects of AMPH
        • Implications of AMPH Effects on Signal Detection
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on AMPH and Signal Detection
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 12. The Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine on Brain Activity-Related Immediate Early Gene Expression
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 13. Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Abnormalities and Neuronal Apoptosis
        • Introduction
        • METH-Induced Psychosis
        • METH-Induced Neurotoxicity
        • Models for METH-Induced Psychosis
        • Neurodevelopmental Deficits and METH-Induced Psychosis and Apoptosis
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Factors of METH-Induced Apoptosis
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 14. Methamphetamine and the JAK/STAT Pathway
        • The JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway in the Central Nervous System: An Overview
        • JAK/STAT Pathway and Methamphetamine
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 15. Methamphetamine and the Blood–Brain Barrier
        • BBB Composition and Function: A Quick Overview
        • Effect of METH on BBB Function: Causes and Consequences
        • Adhesion Molecules and Transendothelial Immune Cells Migration
        • METH Abuse and Brain Infection
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 16. Melatonin Receptors as Modulators of Methamphetamine-Mediated Behaviors
        • Introduction
        • Methamphetamine
        • Melatonin Receptors
        • The Circadian Clock and Drugs of Abuse
        • Locomotor Sensitization
        • Conditioned Place Preference
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 17. Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome System
        • Introduction
        • The Proteasome in Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity
        • The E3 Ligase Parkin in Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 18. Methamphetamine and Neuronal Nitric Oxide
        • Definition of Neurotoxicity and Preclinical Models of Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity
        • Definition of Addiction, the Stages of Addiction and Animal Models of Methamphetamine Addiction
        • Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity
        • Nitric Oxide, A Neurotransmitter with Two Faces
        • Role of Nitric Oxide in Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Methamphetamine and nNOS
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 19. Candidate Genes of Chromosome 18q21, Methamphetamine, and Psychosis
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 20. Structural and Functional Aspects of Stimulant Misuse and Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Striatum and Midbrain
        • Structural and Functional Alterations of the Prefrontal Cortex in Stimulant Addiction and Misuse
        • Structural and Functional Alterations in Other Brain Regions
        • Functional and Structural Connectivity
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Aspects of Stimulant Misuse and Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 21. Sleep and Cocaine
        • Introduction
        • Subjective Measurements
        • Objective Measurements
        • Relationship between Subjective and Objective Sleep Outcomes
        • Relationship between Sleep Outcomes and Cognition
        • Relationship between Sleep Outcomes and Mood
        • Sleep and Cocaine Use Outcomes
        • Neurobiology of Cocaine–Induced Sleep Changes
        • Pharmacotherapy Options Targeting Sleep Abnormalities
        • Psychotherapy Options for the Treatment of Sleep Problems in Cocaine Users
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Abuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Subjective and Objective Assessments of Sleep
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 22. Motivations for Use of Crack Cocaine
        • Introduction
        • Cocaine and Cocaine Dependence
        • Route of Administration
        • Neurological Basis of Motivations to Use Cocaine
        • Pavlovian Cue-Induced Cravings and Instrumental Behavior
        • Social Factors and Measuring Motivations for Cocaine Use
        • Research Findings
        • Motivations for Use in a Mainly Cocaine-Using Population
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 23. Cocaine and Postmortem Levels in Neurological Tissues
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Presentation of the Problem
        • COC and BZE Concentrations in Neurological Tissues and Other Matrices
        • Postmortem Distribution of COC and BZE in Neurological Tissues
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Cocaine Abuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 24. Cerebral Gray Matter Volumes in Cocaine Dependence: Clinical and Functional Implications
        • Neuroinflammatory and Vasoactive Effects of Cocaine
        • Key Facts
      • Chapter 25. The Rise of the Ego: Social Cognition and Interaction in Cocaine Users
        • Introduction
        • The Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study
        • Basal Cognitive Functions
        • Color Vision and Early Information Processing
        • Social Cognition and Interaction
        • Applications to Other Substance Addictions and Misuses
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Cocaine Use
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 26. Amphetamine-Induced Psychosis
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Functional and Structural Aspects
        • Treatment
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 27. The Role of Environmental Context in Amphetamine Abuse
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 28. Adolescent Exposure to Amphetamines and Vulnerability to Addiction
        • Adolescence: A Time of Change
        • Behavioral Antecedents of Adolescent Amphetamine (AMPH) Use
        • Neurobiological Precursors of Adolescent Use of AMPHs
        • Adolescents and AMPHs: Use and Abuse
        • Adolescence: A Time of Heightened Vulnerability?
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Call to Action
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Adolescence
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 29. The Effect of Oxytocin on Methamphetamine Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Microdialysis
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 30. Peripheral Influences of Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity
        • Introduction
        • Central Nervous System Effects of Methamphetamine
        • Peripheral Contributors to METH Toxicity
        • Implications
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Methamphetamine
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 31. Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperlocomotion: A Focus on the Role of the Prefrontal Serotonergic System
        • Introduction
        • METH-Induced Hyperactivity
        • The Role of Prefrontal Monoamine Systems in METH-Induced Hyperactivity
        • Chronic Administration of METH
        • The Role of the Prefrontal Serotonergic System in METH-Induced Behavioral Sensitization
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Serotonergic System
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 32. 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methamphetamine
        • Introduction
        • Use of 1H-MRS to Study Effects of Methamphetamine Use
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 33. Neuropsychological Aspects of Methamphetamine Use Disorders and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease
        • Epidemiology of Methamphetamine and Human Immunodeficiency Virus
        • Methamphetamine
        • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
        • Combined Effects of MA and HIV
        • Special Topics
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 34. Quantitative Colorimetric Assays for Methamphetamine
        • Introduction
        • Colorimetric Assays for MA
        • Quantification of MA by Colorimetric Assay
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 35. Assays for Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Blood
        • Introduction
        • Chromatographic Methods for Methamphetamine and Amphetamine
        • Internal Standards for Quantitative Analysis of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine
        • Extraction Method for Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Human Blood
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
  • Part II. Club Drugs
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 36. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Abuse and Dependence
        • General Aspects
        • Molecular and Cellular Aspects
        • Structural and Functional Aspects
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 37. Effects of Club Drugs on Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Systems: Use of [18F]FDOPA, [99mTc]TRODAT-1, and [I∗]ADAM
        • Introduction
        • Club Drugs and Their Imaging Applications
        • Methamphetamine
        • Ketamine
        • Advanced Multimodalities of Molecular Imaging: PET versus QAR
        • Neuroimaging with Selected Radiotracers
        • Imaging of DA Synthesis
        • Imaging of SERTs with [I∗]ADAM
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 38. MDMA and Glutamate: Implications for Hippocampal Neurotoxicity
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of MDMA 5-HT Toxicity
        • MDMA and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Toxicity
        • MDMA and Hippocampal Glutamate
        • Potential Consequences of MDMA GABA Toxicity
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About MDMA Abuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 39. MDMA (Ecstasy) and Gene Expression in the Brain: An Overview of Microarray and Candidate Gene Studies Assessing Transcriptional Changes in Rodents
        • Introduction
        • Acute MDMA Administration
        • Repeated and Chronic MDMA Administration
        • MDMA Self-Administration
        • Prenatal Exposure to MDMA
        • Molecular and Cellular Events Triggered by Exposure to MDMA
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 40. Mitochondrial Trails in the Neurotoxic Mechanisms of MDMA
        • Introduction
        • Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Function
        • The Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Enzyme MAO
        • Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission
        • Neuronal Mitochondrial Trafficking
        • Mitochondrial Regulators and Apoptotic Pathways
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts about Mitochondria
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 41. Flunitrazepam–Membrane Binding: A Sensor for Drug-Induced GABAA-R and Membrane Structure Changes
        • Introduction
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About FNZ Binding
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 42. Neurotoxicity due to Repeated Comas Following Excessive Use of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid
        • Introduction
        • Mode of Action
        • Intoxications and Coma
        • GHB-Induced Neurotoxicity
        • GHB, General Anesthesia, and Neurotoxicity
        • Other Sedative Substances
        • Discussion
        • Accountability
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 43. The Behavioral Effects of MDMA in Humans Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions
        • Introduction
        • MDMA’s Chemical Structure and Mechanism of Action
        • A Brief History of MDMA Use and Legal Control
        • Concerns About MDMA Use
        • Human Behavioral Pharmacology Studies of Acute MDMA Effects
        • Physiological Effects
        • Subjective Effects
        • Psychomotor and Cognitive Performance on Standardized Computer Tasks
        • Effects on Social and Emotional Processing and Social Behavior
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About MDMA and its Recreational Use
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 44. Recreational Use of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Hippocampal Memory: A Focus on Imaging
        • Introduction
        • Acute Pharmacology of MDMA and Potential Harmful Effects on the Serotonergic System
        • Challenges in the Investigation of Human Recreational Ecstasy Users
        • Neuropsychological Findings in Recreational Ecstasy Users
        • Imaging and Molecular Genetic Imaging Perspectives
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Recreational Ecstasy Use
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 45. Catalepsy and Comparing Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate, 1,4-Butanediol, and Gamma-Butyrolactone
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of GHB as a Substance of Abuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 46. Epidemiology of Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Use and Misuse and Characteristics of GHB-Dependent Inpatients
        • General Aspects
        • Characteristics OF GHB Use
        • Characteristics of GHB-Dependent Inpatients
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 47. Assays for MDMA and Its Metabolites
        • Introduction
        • Matrices
        • Sample Preparation
        • Analytical Instruments for the Determination of MDMA and Its Metabolites
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of MDMA
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 48. Assays for Flunitrazepam
        • Samples and Analytes
        • Sample Preparation
        • Analytical Techniques
        • LC-DAD
        • LC-MS and LC-MS/MS
        • Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrochromatography
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Conjugated Metabolites Hydrolysis
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 49. Detection of GHB by Optical Methods
        • Introduction
        • A Colorimetric Sensor Array for the Detection of GHB
        • A Fluorescent Sensor for the Detection of GHB
        • Commercial Kits for the Detection of GHB
        • A Fluorescent Sensor for the Prodrug of GHB–GBL
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of GHB and GBL Optical Sensors
        • Summary Points
  • Part III. Dissociative Drugs
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 50. Ketamine Analgesia
        • Introduction: History and Recent Interest
        • Chemistry and Pharmacology
        • Ketamine for Treatment of Acute and Chronic Pain
        • Implications for Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 51. The Plant Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae)—Chemistry and Pharmacology
        • Introduction
        • Chemistry
        • Pharmacology
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of the KOR
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 52. Pathophysiology of Ketamine Neurotoxicity: An Overview
        • Introduction
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Chemical Characteristics
        • Ketamine Metabolism
        • Glutamate Receptors
        • Neuropathological Effects of the Ketamine
        • Excitotoxicity
        • Ketamine Neurotoxicity
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 53. Neurometabolic Profiling of Ketamine: Changes in Neurotransmitter Pools
        • Introduction
        • Glutamate and Glutamine
        • Dopamine
        • Acetylcholine
        • GABA
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
      • Chapter 54. Impact of Early Life Ketamine Exposure on the Developing Brain and Cognitive Sequelae: A Discussion of Apoptotic Neurodegeneration Mechanisms
        • Introduction
        • Ketamine Pharmacology
        • Use of Ketamine in Pediatric Anesthesia
        • Side Effects and Limitations of Using Ketamine
        • Ketamine Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain and the Resulting Cognitive Deficits
        • Molecular Mechanisms for Ketamine-Induced Neuroapoptosis
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Ketamine’s Use as an Anesthetic, Analgesic, and Antidepressant
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 55. Phencyclidine (Also Called Angel Dust or PCP) and the Firing Activity of Neurons
        • Effects of PCP on Electroencephalogram Activity
        • Effects of Systemic PCP on Neuronal Firing
        • Effects of Locally Applied PCP on Neuronal Firing
        • A Role of Tonic mPFC Activation in PCP-Induced Behavioral Abnormalities
        • Neural Mechanisms Mediating PCP-Induced Excitation of mPFC Neurons
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of PCP
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 56. Phencyclidine (Angel Dust, PCP) and Fos Immunoreactivity
        • Introduction
        • Serotonergic and Cholinergic Innervations are Involved in PCP-Induced Hyperlocomotion
        • Lack of PCP-Induced Hyperlocomotion and Motor Impairment in GluN2D Knock Out Mice
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 57. Effect of Phencyclidine on Neuregulin Expression, Cortical Interneurons, and Redox Dysregulation
        • Introduction
        • Effect of PCP on Neuregulin-1 Expression and Cortical Interneurons
        • PCP-Induced Redox Dysregulation in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia
        • PV Interneurons Are Susceptible to the Harmful Effects of Free Radicals
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 58. Involvement of Glutamate Transporters in Neuropathology of Phencyclidine Abuse
        • Introduction
        • Behavioral Abnormalities and Expression Changes of Glutamate Transporter
        • Physiological Localization and Regulation of Glutamate Transporters, and the Efficacy of a Glutamate Transporter Inhibitor
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addiction/Dependence and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 59. Antidepressant and Abuse Potential of Ketamine
        • Introduction
        • Ketamine as an Antidepressant—Betting on the Wrong Horse?
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 60. Ketamine and the Dissociatives: Comparisons with Schizophrenia
        • Introduction
        • Ketamine
        • Psychomimetic Effects
        • Glutamate and Dopamine Action
        • Other Neurotransmitter Action
        • Excitotoxicity
        • Electrophysiological Signatures
        • Conclusions, Limitations, and Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Schizophrenia
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 61. Ketamine Mediates Psychosis through the Medial Septum, Hippocampus, and Nucleus Accumbens
        • Introduction
        • Ketamine in Animals
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 62. Recreational Use of Ketamine and Its Interaction with NMDA Receptors
        • Introduction
        • NMDA Receptor Overview
        • Ketamine Characterization
        • Ketamine Pharmacology
        • Ketamine and Human Abuse
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 63. Ketamine Usage at Subanesthetic Doses and Psychoactive Effects
        • Introduction
        • History and Pharmacology
        • Subanesthetic Use
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Psychoactive Effects
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About Subanesthetic Ketamine
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 64. The Acute and Chronic Effects of Ketamine as Revealed by Noninvasive Brain Imaging
        • Introduction
        • Methods
        • Results
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 65. Psychosis Induced by Phencyclidine (Also Called PCP or Angel Dust)
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Course and Prognosis
        • Etiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology
        • Differences Between Acute and Chronic PCP Exposure
        • Effects of PCP Exposure on Neurotransmission
        • Implications for Schizophrenia
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About Phencyclidine (PCP)-Induced Psychosis
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 66. Serotonin Projections, the Dorsal and Median Raphe Nuclei, and Phencyclidine (Also Called Angel Dust or PCP)
        • Introduction: Phencyclidine
        • Serotonin and Its Physiological Role
        • Central Serotonergic Neurons and Projections
        • Serotonin Receptors in the CNS
        • Animal Models Mimicking Illicit Drug–Induced Behaviors
        • Effects of Raphe Lesions on Brain Serotonin Concentrations and the Action of Phencyclidine
        • Localization of the Role of Brain Serotonin Projections in the Hippocampus, Medial Prefrontal Cortex, and Amygdala in Phencyclidine-Induced Behaviors
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About Understanding the Role of Serotonin in Psychosis Through the Study of Phencyclidine Effects
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 67. Phencyclidine (PCP)–Induced Deficits in Novel Object Recognition
        • Introduction
        • PCP Models of Cognitive Impairment
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About Phencyclidine and Novel Object Recognition
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 68. Behavioral and Psychological Effects of Salvia divinorum: A Focus on Self-Reported Subjective Acute Behavioral Effects and Laboratory Studies
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence and Use Patterns for Salvia divinorum
        • Self-Reported Subjective Effects of Salvia divinorum
        • Observed Acute Behavioral Effects of Salvia divinorum
        • Human Subjects Laboratory Studies with Salvinorin A
        • Summary of Research
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About the History of Salvia divinorum
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 69. The Widely Available Hallucinogenic Plant Salvia divinorum and Its Main Component, Salvinorin A: A Unique κ-Opioid Receptor (KOP-r) Agonist with Powerful Behavioral and Neurobiological Effects
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About the κ-Opioid Receptor (KOP-r)/Dynorphin System
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 70. Enzyme Immunoassay for Salvinorin A (a Main Component in Salvia divinorum)
        • Introduction
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About Salvinorin A
        • Summary Points
  • Part IV. Hallucinogens
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 71. Hallucinogenic Plants in the Mediterranean Countries
        • Phalaris aquatica
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts About Phalaris aquatica
        • Peganum harmala
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts About Peganum harmala
        • Anadenanthera colubrina and Anadenanthera peregrina
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts About Anadenanthera colubrina and Anadenanthera peregrina
        • Plants Containing Atropine and Scopolamine
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts About Plants Containing Atropine and Scopolamine
        • Mandragora officinarum
        • Atropa belladonna
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Hyoscyamus niger
        • Datura stramonium
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 72. Use of LSD by Mental Health Professionals
        • Introduction
        • Self-Experiments with Mescaline in the Former Czechoslovakia
        • LSD Research in the Former Czechoslovakia
        • The Psychiatric Department of the General University Hospital in Prague
        • Psychiatric Clinic in Sadská
        • Psychiatric Research Institute in Prague
        • Psychiatric Hospital in KromĚŘíž
        • Reflections of Those Involved in LSD Self-Experimentation
        • Renewed Hallucinogen Research at the National Institute of Mental Health
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 73. Neurobiology of the Effects of Psilocybin in Relation to Its Potential Therapeutic Targets
        • Introduction
        • Neurobiology of Psilocybin’s Action
        • Therapeutic Targets
        • New Insights
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 74. A Profile of Those Who Use Hallucinogenic Mushrooms
        • Introduction
        • Recreational Use
        • Self-Medication
        • Accidental Ingestion
        • Summary/Discussion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About Hallucinogenic Mushroom Use
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 75. Molecular and Cellular Basis of Hallucinogen Action
        • Introduction
        • Historical Point of View
        • Chemical Structure
        • Receptor Target
        • Signaling Mechanisms
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Hallucinogen Action
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 76. Hallucinogens: Circuits, Behavior, and Translational Models
        • Neuronal Circuits
        • Transcriptome Fingerprint as Hallucinogen Predictor
        • Behavior Models
        • Clinical Potential
        • New Hallucinogens and Their Potential Risk
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Hallucinogen Action
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 77. Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Effects of Psychedelic Drugs
        • Discovery of Adult Neurogenesis
        • The Anatomy of Hippocampal Neurogenesis
        • Regulation of Neurogenesis in the DG
        • Serotonergic Innervation in the DG
        • Serotonin and Neurogenesis in the DG
        • Effects of Psychedelic Drugs on Hippocampal Neurogenesis
        • The Neurobiological Significance of Altered Hippocampal Neurogenesis Induced by Psychedelic Drugs
        • Summary
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Psychedelic Drugs and Hippocampal Neurogenesis
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 78. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mystical Experiences
        • Introduction: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in the Context of Other Psychedelic Agents
        • Pharmacokinetic Aspects of LSD and Other Psychedelics
        • The Psychedelic Trip
        • Risks of Psychedelic Drug Use
        • Psychedelic Mystical Experiences
        • Mechanisms of LSD Action
        • Discovery of the Psychedelic Properties of LSD
        • LSD and a “Model Psychosis”
        • LSD as a Chemical Catalyst for Change
        • LSD, Mysticism, and Society
        • LSD and Mystical Experiences in the Twenty-first Century
        • Two Sides of LSD
        • Applications to Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 79. Tolerance to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Overview, Correlates, and Clinical Implications
        • Introduction
        • Tolerance to LSD in Humans
        • Tolerance to LSD in Animals
        • Possible Mechanisms of Tolerance to LSD
        • Pathological and Therapeutic Implications of Repeated LSD Administration
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of LSD
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 80. Schizophrenia Modeling Using Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
        • The History of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, Serotonin, and Mental Disease
        • Human Models of Schizophrenia and Psychosis Using LSD
        • Early Animal Models
        • Current Rodent Models of Schizophrenia or Psychosis Using LSD
        • Summary
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 81. Psilocybin and Peak Experiences
        • Introduction
        • Peak Experiences
        • Psychological Effects of Psilocybin
        • Experimental Research
        • Naturalistic Investigations
        • Long-Term Effects
        • Mechanisms
        • Applications to Other Hallucinogens and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Psilocybin History
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 82. Psilocybin as an Inducer of Ego Death and Similar Experiences of Religious Provenance
        • Introduction
        • The Connection between Schizophrenia-like Psychosis and Religious Experiences
        • The Phenomenon of Ego Death
        • Possible Consequences of Ego Death Practicing for Social Life
        • Psilocybin-Induced Psychosis and Ego Death
        • Psilocybin-Induced Cognitive Deficits and Its Oneirogenic Activity
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Scientific Interest on Psilocybin as an Adjuvant in Psychotherapy and Religious Practices
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 83. Psilocybin, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, Mescaline, and Drug-Induced Synesthesia
        • Introduction
        • Drug-Induced Synesthetic Experiences and Other Hallucinogenic Effects
        • The Causal Role of Serotonin Receptors in Hallucinogenic Effects
        • The Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Synesthesia
        • Inhibition and Embodied Cognition
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 84. Assays for Detection of Fungal Hallucinogens Such as Psilocybin and Psilocin
        • Introduction
        • Preparation of Fungal Samples
        • Preliminary Qualitative Analysis
        • Purification and Isolation
        • Preparation and Preliminary Purification of Body Fluid Samples
        • Derivatization of a Sample
        • Quantitative Analysis
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts About Psilocin/Psilocybin Isolation From Natural Sources and Findings Regarding Their Biosynthesis
        • Summary Points
  • Part V. Anabolic Steroids, Inhalants and Solvents
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 85. Inhalant Use Disorders in the United States
        • Epidemiology of Inhalant Use in the United States
        • Acute Inhalant Intoxication
        • Inhalant Use Disorder
        • Natural History of Inhalant Use Disorder
        • Correlates of Inhalant Use
        • Pharmacology and Toxicology
        • Neuropathology and Other Organ Pathology
        • Screening and Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Inhalant Use in the United States
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 86. The Neuropathology of Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid Abuse: Altered Development of the Reciprocal Hypothalamic Neural Circuit Controlling Aggressive Behavior
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 87. Addiction to, Neurobiology of, and Genetics of Inhalants
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Genetic Markers for Inhalant Abuse
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Inhalant Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 88. The Effects of Abused Inhalants on Neurons Within the Addiction Neurocircuitry of the Brain
        • Introduction
        • Definition and Classes of Abused Inhalants
        • Patterns of Abused Inhalant Use
        • Pathology Associated with Use of Abused Inhalants
        • Neurobehavioral Repercussions of Abused Inhalants
        • Molecular Targets of Abused Inhalants
        • Effects of Abused Inhalants on Neurons in the Addiction Neurocircuitry
        • Summary
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuses
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 89. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Stroke
        • Stroke
        • Anabolic Androgenic Steroids
        • Stroke and AAS
        • Stroke Associated With Other Drug Addictions
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Stroke
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 90. Testosterone and Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity
        • Introduction
        • Testosterone: Neurotoxic or Neuroprotectant Agent?
        • Testosterone and NSDA Neurotoxicity: Background
        • Testosterone or Estrogen?
        • Testosterone: Modulation of Striatal Dopaminergic Function
        • Testosterone: Neurotoxicity Mechanisms as Revealed in Other Models
        • Testosterone: Intracellular versus Membrane Effects
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 91. Acute and Long-Term Toxicity Caused by Addictive Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide and Impact on Neuropathology
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacokinetics of Nitrous Oxide
        • Receptor Mechanism of Action
        • Toxicity and Addiction to Nitrous Oxide
        • Death Due to Nitrous Oxide Acute Intoxication
        • Impact of Hypoxemia on the Brain or Neurological Tissue
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Nitrous Oxide
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 92. Toluene Abuse and White Matter Degeneration
        • Introduction
        • Human White Matter Damage Documented by Imaging and Autopsy
        • Is Toluene the Offending Compound?
        • Animal Models of Toluene or Solvent Exposure and White Matter
        • Pathogenesis of White Matter Damage Caused by Toluene
        • Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Toluene Abuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 93. Chronic Toluene Exposure and the Hippocampal Structure in Adolescent and Adult Brains
        • Introduction
        • Chronic Effect of Toluene Exposure Depends on the Age of the Organism Tested
        • Chronic Toluene Exposure and Long-Term Outcomes
        • Addiction and the Hippocampus
        • Toluene Addiction and the Hippocampus
        • Chronic Toluene Misuse and the Structure of the Hippocampus
        • Different Vulnerabilities of Hippocampal Areas to Chronic Toluene Exposure
        • Immediate and Persistent Effects of Chronic Toluene Exposure in Adolescents and Adults
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Toluene Effects on the Hippocampal Structure
        • Summary Points
  • Part VI. International Aspects
    • Chapter 94. Addictions in India
      • Introduction
      • Traditional Substances of Use in India
      • Changing Scenario in the Last Half Century
      • Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders in India
      • Addiction Research in India
      • Control Measures in India
      • Conclusion
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 95. Correlates and Gender Differentials of Opium Use Among Tribal Communities
      • Introduction
      • Traditional Beliefs of Tribes
      • Household Survey on Substance Use
      • Sociodemographic Distributions
      • Opium Use and Gender Differentials
      • Correlates of Opium Use
      • Age of Initiation
      • Risk of Opium Use
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 96. Genetic Aspects of Smoking Behavior in the Japanese Population
      • Introduction
      • Nicotine-Metabolizing Enzymes
      • Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
      • Dopamine Pathway
      • Miscellaneous
      • Genetic Polymorphisms and Polymorphisms in Smoking Behaviors
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts of the Measurement of Nicotine Addiction
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 97. New Designer Drugs in Japan
      • Introduction
      • The Prevalence of New Designer Drugs and Their Legal Status in Japan
      • Conclusions
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts About the International Information Sharing Regarding New Psychoactive Substances
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 98. Addictions in South America
      • Introduction
      • Production
      • Trafficking and Distribution
      • Consumption
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 99. Inhalant Drug Use and Street Youth: Ethnographic Insights from Mexico City
      • Normalcy of Inhalants in Mexico City
      • Solvents and Glues
      • Inhalant Use and Youth
      • The “Taste” for “That Junk”
      • Vicio and Inhalant Fiends
      • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Use
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts About Inhalant Drug Use
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 100. Illegal Stimulants Use in Brazil: Epidemiological Aspects and Possible Reasons for High Consumption of Crack/Cocaine and Amphetamine-type Stimulants
      • Introduction
      • Results
      • Final Considerations
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts About Cocaine Use in Brazil
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 101. Addiction in Thailand
      • Introduction
      • Alcohol
      • Tobacco
      • Methamphetamine
      • Cannabis, Kratom, Inhalants, Opioids
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 102. Misuse of Benzodiazepines in France
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Benzodiazepine Use in Europe and in France
      • Pharmacoepidemiological View of Benzodiazepine Exposure in France
      • Characteristics of Benzodiazepine Use among Population Subgroups
      • BZD Diversion in France
      • Interventions and Strategies to Reduce Benzodiazepine Misuse in France
      • Conclusion
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1182
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128003756
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128002124

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK