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Neuronal and Glial Proteins - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124703483, 9780323151566

Neuronal and Glial Proteins

1st Edition

Structure, Function, and Clinical Application

Editor: Paul Marangos
eBook ISBN: 9780323151566
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1987
Page Count: 410
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Neuronal and Glial Proteins: Structure, Function, and Clinical Application focuses on the basic and clinical information relating to a number of proteins that are either enriched in or unique to nervous tissue. This book discusses the structural and functional characteristics of cell-specific proteins, which provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in processes that are specific to glia or neurons. Organized into three sections encompassing 15 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the fundamental principles and strategies involved in studying the anatomical, structural, functional, and immunological aspects of brain protein. This text then discusses the techniques, including the preparation of brain tissues as well as the preparation of neural and glial cells in purified form. Other chapters review the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which is recognized as a significant technique for discovering brain molecules. The final chapter deals with the membrane-associated nervous system proteins. Neurochemists and clinical researchers will find this book useful.

Table of Contents


Section I Methods of Identifying and Modifying Brain Proteins

1. Preparation of Cellular and Subcellular Fractions from the Central Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Preparation of Subcellular Fractions

III. Neural Cell Preparations

IV. Bulk-Isolation of Cells from Brain

V. Preparation of Plasma Membranes from Bulk-Isolated Cells

VI. Summary


2. The Use of Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis to Study Proteins in the Central Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Methodology

III. Studies on Central Nervous System Proteins Using 2DE

IV. Clinical Application of 2DE in the Study of Central Nervous System Proteins

V. Conclusions


3. Immunological Approaches to the Identification of Cell Surface Specific Antigens in Brain

I. Introduction

II. Antibody Production

III. Antibody Screening and Analysis

IV. Antibodies in Neurobiology

V. Monoclonal Antibodies Used to Study Tumors of the Nervous System

VI. Clinical Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies against Nervous System Antigens


4. Methods of Localizing Cell-Specific Proteins in Brain

I. Introduction

II. Cell-Specific Proteins—Measurement versus Localization

III. Fixation, Processing, and Detection

IV. Interpretation of Immunocytochemical Results

V. Application—Developing Brain Tissue

VI. Application—Tissue Culture

VII. Application—Human Pathology

VIII. Role of Localization with Other Methodologies


5. Protein Phosphorylation: A Convergence Site for Multiple Effector Pathways

I. Introduction

II. Protein Kinases

III. Protein Kinase Substrates

IV. Multisite Phosphorylation of Enzymes

V. Multisite Phosphorylation of Structural Proteins

VI. Multisite Phosphorylation of Receptors

VII. Closing Remarks

VIII. Conclusions


Section II Soluble Nervous System Proteins

6. Neuron-Specific Enolase: A Neural and Neuroendocrine Protein

I. Introduction

II. Functional Characterization of the 14-3-2 Protein

III. Structure of the Brain Enolases

IV. Tissue Distribution and Cellular Localization of Neuron-Specific Enolase and Nonneuron Enolase

V. Developmental and Molecular Biological Aspects of Neuron-Specific Enolase

VI. Enzymologic Differences between Nonneuron Enolase and Neuron-Specific Enolase

VII. Clinical Studies

VIII. Concluding Remarks


7. The S-100 Protein

I. Introduction and History

II. Purification of S-100

III. Antibodies and Immunology

IV. Distribution of S-100 in Neural and Nonneural Tissues

V. Species Comparisons and Evolution

VI. Development

VII. Structure and Chemistry of S-100 Protein

VIII. The S-100 Protein in Tumors

IX. Function of S-100 Protein

X. Summary and Future Work


8. Growth Factors for the Nervous System

I. Nerve Growth Factor

II. Other Factors Acting on Cells from the Nervous System


9. Protein Gene Product 9.5: A New Neuronal and Neuroendocrine Marker

I. Introduction

II. Properties of PGP 9.5

III. Production of Antibodies to Human PGP 9.5

IV. Possible Functional Roles and Primary Structure of PGP 9.5


Section III Membrane-Associated Nervous System Proteins

10. Structural, Functional, and Clinical Aspects of Myelin Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Myelin

III. Major Protein Components of Central Nervous System Myelin

IV. Proteins of Peripheral Nervous System Myelin

V. Nonenzyme-Catalyzed Alterations of Myelin Proteins

VI. Immunological Studies

VII. Molecular Genetics

VIII. Infectious Agents

IX. Conclusions


11. Myelin Proteolipid Protein

I. Introduction

II. Isolation and Identification

III. Properties of Proteolipid Apoprotein

IV. Biosynthesis of the Myelin Proteolipid Protein

V. Posttranslational Modification: Acylation

VI. Molecular and Genetic Approaches

VII. Proteolipids in Disease

VIII. Functions of the Myelin Proteolipid

IX. Future Directions


12. Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: Functional and Clinical Aspects

I. Introduction

II. General Properties of Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein

III. Functional Aspects

IV. Clinical Aspects

V. Conclusions


13. Microtubules: Structural, Functional, and Clinical Aspects

I. Introduction

II. Methods Used in the Study of Microtubules

III. Microtubule Assembly-Disassembly

IV. Functions of Microtubules

V. Clinical Aspects and Applications


14. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: A Review of Structure, Function, and Clinical Application

I. Introduction

II. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Chemistry

III. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Immunochemistry

IV. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Metabolism

V. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Reactive Astrogliosis

VI. Vimentin in Central Nervous System Development and Reactive Astrogliosis

VII. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Clinical Studies

VIII. Future Prospectives


15. Thy-1: Possible Functions in Nervous and Immune Systems

I. Introduction

II. Evidence from Structure

III. Evidence from Tissue Distribution

IV. Evidence from Antibody Perturbation of Cellular Function

V. Evidence from Genetic Manipulation

VI. Conclusions and Prospects




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© Academic Press 1987
28th January 1987
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Paul Marangos

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