Neuroendocrine Perspectives - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444903778, 9781483278131

Neuroendocrine Perspectives

1st Edition

Volume 3

Editors: Eugenio E. Müller Robert M. MacLeod
eBook ISBN: 9781483278131
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1984
Page Count: 398
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Description

Neuroendocrine Perspectives, Volume 3 provides information on amine and peptide biochemistry. This book discusses the availability of specific biochemical and histochemical techniques that have greatly advanced knowledge of central nervous system neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems. Organized into nine chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the structure of corticotropin releasing hormone. This text then examines the possible role of the cerebrospinal fluid in the regulation of pituitary function. Other chapters consider the importance of cerebrospinal fluid as a route for the hypothalamic regulation of pituitary function. This book discusses as well the available information concerning the neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in the onset of female puberty in primate and subprimate species. The final chapter deals with pineal indole metabolism and its controlling mechanisms as well as information on the interactions of the pineal hormones with neuroendocrine-reproductive axis. This book is a valuable resource for pharmacologists, research workers, and students.

Table of Contents


Contents

Introduction

Contributors

Chapter 1 Topography of Chemically Identified Neurons in the Central Nervous System: Progress in 1981-1983

Introduction

Amino Acids

1. GABA

2. Glycine

3. Glutamate

4. Aspartate

5. Taurine

Acetylcholine

Biogenic Amines

1. Dopamine

2. Norepinephrine

3. Epinephrine

4. Histamine

5. Serotonin

6. Minor Biogenic Amines

Neuropeptides

1. Hypothalamic Neuropeptides

2. Brain-Borne Pituitary Peptides

3. Opioid Peptides

4. Brain-Borne Gastro-Intestinal Peptides

5. Other Neuropeptides

Conclusions

Chapter 2 Hypothalamic Organization of Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) Producing Structures

Introduction

The Hypophysiotropic Neurons

Location of Hypothalamic CRF-Producing Structures

Early Studies

Reevaluation

The Role of The Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

Is The Neural Lobe Involved in the Control of ACTH Secretion?

What Is CRF?

The 41-Residue CRF (CRF-41)

1. Effects in Vitroand in Vivo

2. Functional Studies

3. Hypothalamic Distribution of Ocrf-41i

4. Conclusions

The Neurohypophyseal Peptides Vasopressinand Oxytocin

1. Effects in Vitroand in Vivo

2. Functional Studies

3. Hypothalamic Distribution of Vasopressinand Oxytocin

4. Conclusions

Angiotensin II

1. Effects in Vitroand in Vivo

2. Functional Studies

3. Hypothalamic Distribution of Angiotensin II

4. Conclusions

Epinephrineand Norepinephrine

1. Effects in Vitroand in Vivo

2. Functional Evidence

3. Hypothalamic Distribution of Epinephrineand Norepinephrine

4. Conclusions

Other Substances With CRF Activity

Perspectives of CRF

Chapter 3 Neuropeptides in the Cerebrospinal Fluid

Introduction

Hypophysiotropic Function

Mechanisms By Which Neural Peptides Might Reach The CSF

1. Trans-Median Eminence Transport

2. Circumventricular Organs

3. Diffusion From Nerve Cells

4. Transport Across The Blood-Brain Barrier

Biologic Action

1. Hypophysiotropic Effects

2. Biologic Effects of Neural Peptides Other Than Pituitary Regulation

3. Evidence Favoring the Specificity For Biologic Responses of Neural Peptides Placed in the CSF

Endogenous Neural Peptides in the CSF

1. TRH

2. LH-RH

3. Somatostatin

4. Opioid Peptides

5. Neurohypophyseal Peptides

6. Other 'Neural' Peptides

7. Adenohypophyseal Hormones

8. Sleep Factors

Summaryand Conclusions

Chapter 4 Neuropeptides in Shockand Traumatic Injury: Sitesand Mechanisms of Action

Introduction

Multiple Forms of Endogenous Opioidsand Their Localizations

1. Neuronal Localization

2. Hormonal Localization

Regulation of Endogenous Opioid Release

1. Pituitary Gland

2. Adrenal Gland

Multiple Opioid Receptors

1. Opioid Antagonists

Endogenous Opioid Systems in the Pathophysiology of Shock

1. Endotoxic Shock

2. Hemorrhagic Shock

3. Spinal Shockand Trauma

4. Other Forms of Circulatory Shock

Neuroendocrine-Endogenous Opioid Relationships in Experimental Shock

1. Sites of Action For Naloxone

2. Neuroendocrineand Autonomic Mechanisms That May Mediate Naloxone Responses

3. Which Endogenous Opioids Are Involved?

4. Multiple Opioid Receptors: Studies With Selective µand Δ Antagonists

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone As A Physiological Antagonist of Opioid Systems

1. TRH-Opioid Interactions

2. TRH in Shockand Spinal Trauma

3. TRHand Analogs: Sites of Action

Conclusionsand Perspectives

1. Endogenous Opioids As Neuroendocrine Substances

2. Speculation On Endogenous Opioidsand TRH in Shockand Trauma

3. Which Is Better: Opioid Antagonists Or TRH?

Chapter 5 Ectopic Hormone Production By Tumors: Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor

Introductionand Historical Background

Clinical Studies Suggesting Ectopic Production of GRF

Biologic Characterization of Ectopic GH-Releasing Factor

Isolationand Characterization of Ectopic GRF

Clinical Effects of Synthetic GRF

Radioimmunoassay of GRF

Clinical Implications of Endogenous GRF

Possible Role of Hypothalamic GRF in the Etiology of GH-Secreting Pituitary Tumors

Chapter 6 The Onset of Female Puberty: Underlying Neuroendocrine Mechanisms

Introduction

The Initiation of Gonadotropin Release

The Initiation of Ovarian Steroid Secretion

The Neonatal-Infantile Period

1. The Infantile Hypothalamic-Pituitary Unit

2. The Infantile Ovary

3. Infantile Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Interactions

The Juvenile Period (Childhood)

1. The Juvenile Hypothalamusand Its Control of Pituitary Function

2. The Juvenile Ovary. Hormonaland Neurogenic Control

3. Juvenile Ovarian Regulation of Gonadotropin Release

The Onset of Puberty

1. Gonadostat 'Resetting', Loss of A Central 'Restraint', Or Activation of Facilitory Mechanisms?

2. The Supportive Role of Pituitary Somatomammotropic Hormones

3. Metabolic Signals Influencing Puberty Onset

The First Preovulatory Surge of Gonadotropins

1. Development of Estradiol Positive Feedback. The Central Component

2. The Ovary As A Trigger. Acquisition of Preovulatory Competence

3. The Cascade of Events

Chapter 7 Prolactinand Ovarian Function

Introduction

Prolactinand The Normal Ovarian Cycle

1. Normal Follicular Growthand Development

2. Changes in Blood Concentrations of Prolactin

3. Changes in Ovarian Follicular Fluid Levels of Prolactin

4. Prolactin Receptors On The Ovary

5. Effect of Prolactin On Gonadotropin Receptors

6. Prolactinand Steroidogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

7. Prolactinand Steroidogenesis in the Follicle

8. Prolactinand Ovarian Interstitium

9. Prolactinand The Oocyte

10. Prolactin-Prostaglandin Interaction At The Ovary

Prolactinand Puberty

Lactationand Ovarian Activity

1. Suckling, Prolactinand The Suppression of Ovarian Activity

2. Pituitaryand Plasma Gonadotropinsand Response To LHRHand Estrogen

3. Role of Prolactin in Suppressing Gonadotropin Secretion

4. Changes Associated With The Resumption of Follicle Growthand Ovulation

5. Evidence For Direct Inhibition of Ovarian Function By Prolactin

6. Direct Effects of Prolactin On Gonadotropin Secretion

Conclusions

Chapter 8 Antimitotic Actions of Dopaminergic Drugs On Human Pituitary Tumors

Introduction

Effects On The Synthesisand Secretion of Prolactin

Effects On Cell Division

Data From Experimental Rat Pituitary Tumor Studies

Studies in Man

1. Tumor Shrinkage?

2. Studies On The Pathology of Tumor Tissue

3. (Partial) Unresponsiveness To Dopamine Agonists

Conclusions

Chapter 9 Pineal Indoles: Producton, Secretionand Actions

Introduction

Pineal Indole Metabolism

Control of Pineal Indole Metabolism

1. Extracellular Events

2. Intracellular Events

Pineal Indoles in Bodily Fluids

Reproductive Effects of Pineal Indoles

1. Melatonin

2. 5-Methoxytryptophol

3. 5-Methoxytryptamine

Commentary

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
398
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483278131

About the Editor

Eugenio E. Müller

Robert M. MacLeod