Neurobiology of Language - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124077942, 9780124078628

Neurobiology of Language

1st Edition

Editors: Gregory Hickok Steven Small
eBook ISBN: 9780124078628
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124077942
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st September 2015
Page Count: 1188
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Description

Neurobiology of Language explores the study of language, a field that has seen tremendous progress in the last two decades. Key to this progress is the accelerating trend toward integration of neurobiological approaches with the more established understanding of language within cognitive psychology, computer science, and linguistics.

This volume serves as the definitive reference on the neurobiology of language, bringing these various advances together into a single volume of 100 concise entries. The organization includes sections on the field's major subfields, with each section covering both empirical data and theoretical perspectives. "Foundational" neurobiological coverage is also provided, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, linguistic, and psycholinguistic data, and models.

Key Features

  • Foundational reference for the current state of the field of the neurobiology of language
  • Enables brain and language researchers and students to remain up-to-date in this fast-moving field that crosses many disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries
  • Provides an accessible entry point for other scientists interested in the area, but not actively working in it – e.g., speech therapists, neurologists, and cognitive psychologists
  • Chapters authored by world leaders in the field – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Readership

Advanced students and researchers concerned with neurobiology of language, speech-language pathology clinicians.

Table of Contents

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  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Acknowledgement
  • Section A: Introduction
    • Chapter 1. The Neurobiology of Language
      • 1.1 History
      • 1.2 Lesion Analysis
      • 1.3 From Neuropsychology to Cognitive Neuroscience
      • 1.4 The Neurobiology of Language
      • 1.5 Some Common Fallacies
      • 1.6 Humans in Particular
      • 1.7 Cognition and the Neurobiology of Language
      • 1.8 Brain Disease, Treatment, and the Neurobiology of Language
      • 1.9 Summary
      • References
  • Section B: Neurobiological Foundations
    • Chapter 2. A Molecular Genetic Perspective on Speech and Language
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 The Discovery of FOXP2
      • 2.3 FOXP2 Mutations in Speech and Language Disorders
      • 2.4 Functions of FOXP2: The View from the Bench
      • 2.5 Insights from Animal Models
      • 2.6 FOXP2 in Human Evolution
      • 2.7 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 3. The Ventrolateral Frontal Region
      • 3.1 Cytoarchitectonic Areas of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex
      • 3.2 Parietal and Temporal Cortico-Cortical Connection Patterns of the Language Production Areas in the Ventrolateral Frontal Region
      • 3.3 Functional Implications
      • 3.4 Non-ventrolateral Prefrontal Areas and Their Possible Role in Language
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 4. On the Neuroanatomy and Functional Role of the Inferior Parietal Lobule and Intraparietal Sulcus
      • 4.1 Gross Anatomy of the IPL and IPS
      • 4.2 Modern Parcellation of the IPL and IPS
      • 4.3 Connectivity of the IPL and IPS
      • 4.4 Anatomical Differences Between Humans and Monkeys
      • 4.5 Functions and Functional Connectivity of the IPL and IPS
      • 4.6 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Human Auditory Cortex
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Cortical Field Maps
      • 5.3 Tonotopy: The First Dimension of AFMs
      • 5.4 Cortical Organization of the Monkey Auditory System
      • 5.5 Cortical Organization of the Human Auditory System
      • 5.6 Periodotopy: The Second Dimension of AFMs
      • 5.7 Similarities to AFM Organization in the Human Visual System
      • 5.8 “Clover Leaf” Clusters Across Senses
      • 5.9 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Motor Cortex and Mirror System in Monkeys and Humans
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Anatomy of the Monkey Motor Cortex
      • 6.3 The Human Motor Cortex
      • 6.4 Motor System and Communication
      • 6.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Cerebellar Contributions to Speech and Language
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Macroscopic and Microscopic Anatomy of the Human Cerebellum
      • 7.3 Comparative Anatomic Perspectives on Size and Composition of the Cerebellum
      • 7.4 Cerebellar Support of Motor Control in Humans: Upper Limb Movements
      • 7.5 Contributions of the Cerebellum to Speech Motor Control
      • 7.6 Engagement of the Cerebellum in Nonmotor Functions
      • 7.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 8. The Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Historical Background
      • 8.3 Overview of Basal Ganglia Anatomy
      • 8.4 The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Speech Motor Control
      • 8.5 The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Language
      • 8.6 Segregated Functional Loops for Speech and Language
      • 8.7 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 9. The Thalamus and Language
      • 9.1 Overview of Thalamic Organization
      • 9.2 Defining the Role of the Thalamus in Language
      • 9.3 A Thalamic “Locus” for Language?
      • 9.4 Imaging of the Thalamus in Language Tasks
      • 9.5 Thalamic Circuitry and Physiology
      • 9.6 Models of Thalamus and Language
      • 9.7 Summary and Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 10. The Insular Cortex
      • 10.1 Gross Anatomy
      • 10.2 Cytoarchitecture
      • 10.3 Vasculature
      • 10.4 Connectivity
      • 10.5 Insular Cortex and Behavior
      • 10.6 Association with Speech–Language Behavior
      • References
    • Chapter 11. White Matter Pathways in the Human
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Projection Pathways
      • 11.3 Long-Distance Association Pathways
      • 11.4 Implication of a Hodotopical View of Brain Organization in Humans: Rethinking the Connectivity of Language and Its Relationships with Cognition
      • 11.5 The Limiting Role of Axonal Connectivity in Brain Plasticity
      • 11.6 Conclusion
      • References
  • Section C: Behavioral Foundations
    • Chapter 12. Phonology
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Speech Sounds and the MAP Loop
      • 12.3 Features or the Internal Composition of Sounds
      • 12.4 Local Sound Combinations and Chunking
      • 12.5 Nonlocal Sound Combinations
      • 12.6 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Morphology
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Why Morphology?
      • 13.3 What Makes Morphology, Morphology
      • 13.4 Types of Morphemes, Types of Morphologies, Types of Morphological Theories
      • 13.5 The View from Above
      • 13.6 Words and Rules: The Modern Consensus on Decomposition
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Syntax and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Syntactic Structure Building
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 A Brief History of Syntactic Theory
      • 14.3 Two Concrete Examples of Syntactic Structure-Building Computations
      • 14.4 Additional Properties of Syntactic Theories That One Would Expect from a Theory of Cognitive Computations
      • 14.5 The Collaboration Necessary to Engage in This Program
      • 14.6 Challenges to This Research Program
      • 14.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Speech Perception as a Perceptuo-Motor Skill
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Research Findings
      • 15.3 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Speech Perception: The View from the Auditory System
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Effects of Auditory Distinctiveness on the Form of Speech
      • 16.3 Effects of Auditory Interaction on the Form of Speech
      • 16.4 Effects of Learnability on the Form of Speech
      • 16.5 Moving Forward
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Understanding Speech in the Context of Variability
      • 17.1 Speech and Speakers
      • 17.2 The Lack of Invariance Problem
      • 17.3 Adaptive Processing and Perceptual Learning
      • 17.4 Empirical Evidence for Active Processing in Talker Normalization
      • 17.5 Toward an Active Theory of Contextual Normalization
      • 17.6 Neurobiological Theories of Speech Perception
      • 17.7 Subcortical Structures and Adaptive Processing
      • 17.8 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Successful Speaking: Cognitive Mechanisms of Adaptation in Language Production
      • 18.1 Language Production
      • 18.2 Long-Term speaker Tuning: Implicit Learning
      • 18.3 Short-Term Speaker Tuning
      • 18.4 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Speech Motor Control from a Modern Control Theory Perspective
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 The Role of the CNS in Processing Sensory Feedback During Speaking
      • 19.3 The CNS as a Feedforward Source of Speech Motor Commands
      • 19.4 Current Models of the Role of the CNS in Speech Motor Control
      • 19.5 The Concept of Dynamical State
      • 19.6 A Model of Speech Motor Control Based on State Feedback
      • 19.7 SFC Models Motor Actions as an Optimal Control Process
      • 19.8 Speaking Behaves Like an Optimal Control Process
      • 19.9 SFC Explains the Task-Specific Role of the CNS in Speech Feedback Processing
      • 19.10 Is SFC Neurally Plausible?
      • 19.11 SFC Accounts for Efference Copy Phenomena
      • 19.12 Neural Substrate of the SFC Model
      • 19.13 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Spoken Word Recognition: Historical Roots, Current Theoretical Issues, and Some New Directions
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Historical Roots and Precursors to SWR
      • 20.3 Principle Theoretical Issues in SWR
      • 20.4 SWR and the Mental Lexicon
      • 20.5 Some New Directions and Future Challenges
      • 20.6 Summary and Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Visual Word Recognition
      • 21.1 The Architecture of Visual Word Recognition
      • 21.2 Orthographic Representation
      • 21.3 Processing Dynamics and Mechanisms of Selection
      • 21.4 Visual Word Recognition and the Reading System
      • 21.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Sentence Processing
      • 22.1 Sources of Information for Sentence Processing
      • 22.2 Theoretical Controversies
      • 22.3 Classes of Models of Sentence Processing
      • 22.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Gesture’s Role in Learning and Processing Language
      • 23.1 Gesture Not Only Reflects Thought, It Can Play a Role in Changing Thought
      • 23.2 Role of Gesture in Language Learning
      • 23.3 Role of Gesture in Language Processing
      • 23.4 Implications for the Neurobiology of Language
      • References
  • Section D: Large-Scale Models
    • Chapter 24. Pathways and Streams in the Auditory Cortex: An Update on How Work in Nonhuman Primates has Contributed to Our Understanding of Human Speech Processing
      • 24.1 Human Speech Perception
      • 24.2 Where Is “Wernicke’s Area”?
      • 24.3 Dual Processing Streams and Hierarchical Organization in the Auditory Cortex of the Monkey
      • 24.4 Dual Processing Streams in the Auditory Cortex of Humans
      • 24.5 Conclusions: A Common Computational Function for the Postero-Dorsal Stream?
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Neural Basis of Speech Perception
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 The Dual Route Model of Speech Processing
      • 25.3 Clinical Correlates of the Dual Stream Model
      • 25.4 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 26. Brain Language Mechanisms Built on Action and Perception
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Phonemes
      • 26.3 Signs
      • 26.4 Meaning
      • 26.5 Combinations and Constructions
      • 26.6 Speech Acts and Social-Communicative Interaction
      • 26.7 Outlook: Key Issues in Brain Language Research
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 27. The Dual Loop Model in Language
      • 27.1 Patients
      • 27.2 Neurospsychology
      • 27.3 Functions of the Dual Loop Model
      • 27.4 Anatomy, Hubs, Divisions
      • 27.5 Development
      • References
    • Chapter 28. MUC (Memory, Unification, Control): A Model on the Neurobiology of Language Beyond Single Word Processing
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Memory, Unification, and Control
      • 28.3 The Network Topology of the Language Cortex
      • 28.4 The Empirical Evidence for the MUC Model
      • 28.5 A General Account of the Role of LIFC in Language Processing
      • 28.6 The Dynamic Interplay Between Memory and Unification
      • 28.7 Attentional Control
      • 28.8 Beyond the Classical Model
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 29. The Neuroanatomical Pathway Model of Language: Syntactic and Semantic Networks
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 From Dorsal and Ventral Streams to Fiber Tracts
      • 29.3 The Neuroanatomical Pathway Model of Language
      • 29.4 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 30. The Argument Dependency Model
      • 30.1 Introduction
      • 30.2 A Brief History of the Development of eADM
      • 30.3 Design Principles
      • 30.4 The Model Architecture
      • 30.5 Evidence for the Model
      • 30.6 Consequences for Electrophysiology
      • 30.7 Outlook
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section E: Development, Learning, and Plasticity
    • Chapter 31. Language Development
      • 31.1 Precursors to Language
      • 31.2 First Words
      • 31.3 Individual Variability, Developmental Trajectories, and the Vocabulary “Burst”
      • 31.4 Early Language and Its Relationship to Nonlinguistic Abilities
      • 31.5 Relationship Between Early Development and Later Language Abilities
      • 31.6 The Relationship Between Vocabulary and Grammar
      • 31.7 The Nature of Children’s Early Grammar
      • 31.8 Language Development in Older Children
      • 31.9 Neural Measures of Language Development
      • 31.10 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 32. The Neurobiology of Gesture and Its Development
      • 32.1 Exploring Gesture and Its Development at the Behavioral Level
      • 32.2 Gesture and Its Development in the Context of a Broader Neurobiology of Language
      • 32.3 The Neurobiology of Gesture: Electrophysiology
      • 32.4 The Neurobiology of Gesture: Functional Imaging
      • 32.5 The Neurobiology of Gesture Development
      • 32.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 33. Development of the Brain’s Functional Network Architecture
      • 33.1 What Is a Network and How Can We Study Brain Networks?
      • 33.2 Organization of the Brain’s Functional Network Architecture
      • 33.3 Is There a Language Network?
      • 33.4 Development of Brain Networks
      • 33.5 Implications of Development of Brain Networks to Language-Related Brain Regions
      • 33.6 Future Directions
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 34. Bilingual Development and Age of Acquisition
      • 34.1 Introduction
      • 34.2 Age of Acquisition
      • 34.3 AoA in a Single Language
      • 34.4 The Relationship Between AoA and Sensitive Periods
      • 34.5 AoA and Second Language Learning
      • 34.6 Phonology in a Second Language
      • 34.7 AoA and the Bilingual Brain
      • 34.8 Grammatical Processing and AoA
      • 34.9 Isolating AoA
      • 34.10 AoA Effects During Grammatical Processing
      • 34.11 Comparing First and Second Languages
      • 34.12 AoA and Development
      • References
    • Chapter 35. Bilingualism: Switching
      • 35.1 Introduction
      • 35.2 Language Switching: Instantiating the Paradigm
      • 35.3 Evidence from Electrophysiology
      • 35.4 The Neural Correlates of Language Control: A Frontal, Parietal, and Subcortical Network
      • 35.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 36. Neurobiology of Sign Languages
      • 36.1 Introduction
      • 36.2 Sign Language Aphasia
      • 36.3 Right Hemisphere Damage
      • 36.4 Neuroimaging
      • 36.5 Sign Language and the Mirror Neuron System
      • 36.6 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section F: Perceptual Analysis of the Speech Signal
    • Chapter 37. Phoneme Perception
      • 37.1 Neuropsychological Studies
      • 37.2 Functional Imaging Studies
      • 37.3 Direct Electrophysiological Recordings
      • 37.4 The Role of Articulatory Representations in Phoneme Perception
      • 37.5 Hemispheric Specialization in Phoneme Perception
      • References
    • Chapter 38. A Neurophysiological Perspective on Speech Processing in “The Neurobiology of Language”
      • 38.1 Overview
      • 38.2 Cortical Processing of Continuous Sounds Streams
      • 38.3 Broadening the Scope: Functional Models
      • References
    • Chapter 39. Direct Cortical Neurophysiology of Speech Perception
      • 39.1 Introduction
      • 39.2 Invasive Neural Recording Methods
      • 39.3 Intracranial Contributions to the Neurobiology of Language
      • 39.4 The Future of Invasive Methods in Language Research
      • References
    • Chapter 40. Factors That Increase Processing Demands When Listening to Speech
      • 40.1 Types of Processing Demand
      • 40.2 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 41. Neural Mechanisms of Attention to Speech
      • 41.1 Overview and History
      • 41.2 Neural Networks for Attentional Control
      • 41.3 Levels of Attentional Selection
      • 41.4 Speech Representations that Attention Selects
      • 41.5 Neural Mechanisms and Top-Down/Bottom-Up Interactions
      • 41.6 Interactions Between Attention, Perception, and Prediction
      • 41.7 Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 42. Audiovisual Speech Integration: Neural Substrates and Behavior
      • 42.1 Neuroarchitecture of Audiovisual Speech Integration
      • 42.2 Behavioral Approaches for Studying Audiovisual Speech Integration
      • 42.3 Intersubject Variability
      • 42.4 Neural Substrates of the McGurk Effect
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 43. Neurobiology of Statistical Information Processing in the Auditory Domain
      • 43.1 Introduction
      • 43.2 Brain Systems Involved in Statistical Information Processing
      • 43.3 Connectional Anatomy of the Statistical Network
      • 43.4 Related Work and Further Afield
      • 43.5 Conclusion and Future Work
      • References
  • Section G: Word Processing
    • Chapter 44. The Neurobiology of Lexical Access
      • 44.1 Introduction
      • 44.2 Three Challenges for Lexical Access in Speech
      • 44.3 Mapping Lexical Computations onto Neurobiology
      • 44.4 Functional Segregation and Convergence in Lexical Processing
      • 44.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 45. A Common Neural Progression to Meaning in About a Third of a Second
      • 45.1 Part 1: The Timecourse of Semantic Access Out of Context
      • 45.2 Part 2: Context and the Timecourse of Semantic Access
      • 45.3 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 46. Left Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Processing of Words and Sentences
      • 46.1 Introduction
      • 46.2 VLPFC in Single-Word Processing
      • 46.3 VLPFC in Sentence Processing
      • 46.4 Summary
      • 46.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Avenues
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section H: Sentence Processing
    • Chapter 47. The Role of the Anterior Temporal Lobe in Sentence Processing
      • 47.1 What About Broca’s Area?
      • 47.2 Where Is the ATL?
      • 47.3 Domain-General Semantics
      • 47.4 The ATL Responds to Sentence Structure
      • 47.5 Syntax
      • 47.6 Combinatorial Semantics
      • 47.7 Prosody
      • 47.8 The ATL Is Part of a Large Language Network
      • 47.9 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 48. Neural Systems Underlying the Processing of Complex Sentences
      • 48.1 Introduction
      • 48.2 Why Are Word-Order Deviations Difficult to Process?
      • 48.3 Why Are Embedded Sentences Difficult to Process?
      • 48.4 Which Brain Regions Are Involved in Processing Complex Sentences?
      • 48.5 What Do Word-Order Deviations and Embedding Have in Common?
      • 48.6 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 49. The Timecourse of Sentence Processing in the Brain
      • 49.1 Preliminaries: Challenges to a Neurobiological Perspective on the Timecourse of Sentence Processing
      • 49.2 Neurobiological Considerations
      • 49.3 Differing Perspectives on the Timecourse of Sentence Processing in the Brain
      • 49.4 Behavioral Insights
      • 49.5 Open Questions/Perspectives for Future Research
      • References
    • Chapter 50. Composition of Complex Meaning: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Left Anterior Temporal Lobe
      • 50.1 “Semantics” in the Brain Sciences Versus Linguistics
      • 50.2 The Sentence Versus List Paradigm
      • 50.3 An Empirical Question: Do Concepts Matter for Composition?
      • 50.4 Methodological Starting Points for the Cognitive Neuroscience of Semantic Composition
      • 50.5 The LATL as a Combinatory Region: Evidence from MEG
      • 50.6 Delving Deeper: What Types of Representations Does the LATL Combine?
      • 50.7 Closing Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 51. Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension
      • 51.1 Early Studies of STM/WM and Its Relation to Comprehension
      • 51.2 Changes in Models of STM/WM
      • 51.3 Retrieval Mechanisms in Parsing
      • 51.4 Capacity Limits in STM/WM and Sentence Comprehension
      • 51.5 An Alternative Framework for Viewing the Memory System for Parsing and Interpretation
      • 51.6 A Comment on the Neural Basis of Procedural (LT-WM) Memory Mechanisms Underlying Sentence Comprehension
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 52. Grounding Sentence Processing in the Sensory-Motor System
      • 52.1 Introduction
      • 52.2 Grounding of Action-Related Sentence Processing in the Sensory-Motor System
      • 52.3 Flexible Modulations of Sensory-Motor Grounding by Grammatical and Syntactic Aspects
      • 52.4 Figurative Language as an Abstract Sentential-Semantic Context for Action-Related Verbs
      • 52.5 Emotion-Related Language: Abstract but Partially Grounded in the Sensory-Motor System
      • 52.6 Abstract Sentence Processing Is Grounded in Experiential Neurocognitive Systems
      • 52.7 Concluding Remarks
      • References
  • Section I: Discourse Processing and Pragmatics
    • Chapter 53. Discourse Comprehension
      • 53.1 Cohesion
      • 53.2 Coherence
      • 53.3 Situation Model Construction
      • 53.4 Shifting and Mapping
      • 53.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 54. At the Core of Pragmatics: The Neural Substrates of Communicative Intentions
      • 54.1 Communicative Intention: The Core Feature of Pragmatic Phenomena
      • 54.2 Neural Substrates of Communicative Intention: The Intention Processing Network
      • 54.3 Communication Is More than Language
      • 54.4 Communicative Exchange
      • 54.5 Steps Toward an Ecology of Communication
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section J: Speaking
    • Chapter 55. Neurobiology of Speech Production: Perspective from Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics
      • 55.1 Introduction
      • 55.2 Historical Perspective: Speech Production Deficits in Aphasia
      • 55.3 Phonological Processes in Speech Production
      • 55.4 Phonetic Processes in Production
      • 55.5 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 56. Word Production from the Perspective of Speech Errors in Aphasia
      • 56.1 Speech Errors in Aphasia: The Neurological Tradition
      • 56.2 Two Stages of Lexical Access in Production
      • 56.3 Model-Inspired Lesion Analysis of Semantic Errors
      • 56.4 Summation Dual-Route Model of Repetition
      • 56.5 Implications for Neurocognitive Models of Language
      • 56.6 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 57. Motor-Timing and Sequencing in Speech Production: A General-Purpose Framework
      • 57.1 Formal and Temporal Prediction: Fundamentals in Speech Processing
      • 57.2 A Synchronized Speech Processing Mode
      • 57.3 Timing Speech: Subcortico-Cortical Interactions
      • 57.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 58. Neural Models of Motor Speech Control
      • 58.1 Introduction
      • 58.2 The Planning of Speech Movements
      • 58.3 Brain Regions Involved in Speech Articulation
      • 58.4 Neurocomputational Models of Speech Production
      • 58.5 The DIVA Model
      • 58.6 The GODIVA Model of Speech Sound Sequencing
      • 58.7 The HSFC Model
      • 58.8 Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 59. Neurobiology of Speech Production: A Motor Control Perspective
      • 59.1 Introduction
      • 59.2 Neurobiology of Speech Motor Control
      • 59.3 Speech Movement Execution
      • 59.4 Feedback Processing and Sensory-Motor Integration
      • 59.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 60. Sentence and Narrative Speech Production: Investigations with PET and fMRI
      • 60.1 Introduction
      • 60.2 What Have We Learned from Meta-Analyses of Language Studies
      • 60.3 Narrative Speech Production
      • 60.4 Functional MRI Studies of Sentence Production
      • 60.5 Conclusion
      • References
  • Section K: Conceptual Semantic Knowledge
    • Chapter 61. The Hub-and-Spoke Hypothesis of Semantic Memory
      • 61.1 Introduction
      • 61.2 The Importance of the Spokes and the Regions from Which They Emanate
      • 61.3 The Insufficiency of the Spokes and Their Sources: Why We Need a Hub
      • 61.4 Why Should the Hub Be Centered on the ATL?
      • 61.5 Evidence for and Possible Reasons for a Bilateral ATL Hub
      • 61.6 The Graded Hub Hypothesis
      • 61.7 Concluding Comment
      • References
    • Chapter 62. What Does It Mean? A Review of the Neuroscientific Evidence for Embodied Lexical Semantics
      • 62.1 Introduction
      • 62.2 Models of Embodied Semantics
      • 62.3 Methods for Neuroscientific Research on Embodied Semantics
      • 62.4 Review of the Empirical Literature
      • 62.5 The Influence of Task, Context, and Individual Experience
      • 62.6 Conclusion
      • References
  • Section L: Written Language
    • Chapter 63. Acquired Dyslexia
      • 63.1 Introduction
      • 63.2 Peripheral Dyslexias
      • 63.3 Central Dyslexias
      • 63.4 Computational Models of Reading
      • 63.5 Assessment of Reading
      • References
    • Chapter 64. Imaging Brain Networks for Language: Methodology and Examples from the Neurobiology of Reading
      • 64.1 Introduction
      • 64.2 Functional Connectivity Analyses: A Set of Exploratory Techniques
      • 64.3 Effective Connectivity Analyses: A Set of Confirmatory Techniques
      • 64.4 Techniques Spanning Both Functional and Effective Domains
      • 64.5 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 65. Developmental Dyslexia
      • 65.1 Introduction
      • 65.2 Functional Anatomy of Reading
      • 65.3 Neuroanatomical Bases of Dyslexia
      • 65.4 Neurofunctional Bases of Dyslexia
      • 65.5 Genetic and Physiological Mechanisms in Dyslexia
      • 65.6 Neurobiology of Reading Interventions
      • 65.7 Cause Versus Consequence?
      • 65.8 Important Variables in Studies of Dyslexia
      • 65.9 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section M: Animal Models for Language
    • Chapter 66. Rodent Models of Speech Sound Processing
      • 66.1 Rodent Models Are Important for Studying Neural Correlates of Speech Perception
      • 66.2 Speech Sound Discrimination by Rodents
      • 66.3 Speech Sound Neural Coding
      • 66.4 Speech Sound Processing Problems
      • References
  • Section N: Memory for Language
    • Chapter 67. Introduction to Memory
      • 67.1 Introduction: Amnesia and Patient H.M.
      • 67.2 Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System
      • 67.3 Episodic Memory
      • 67.4 Semantic Memory
      • 67.5 Procedural Memory
      • 67.6 Memory Consolidation and Sleep
      • 67.7 Neurogenesis
      • 67.8 Aging and Memory
      • 67.9 Language Learning and the Medial Temporal Lobe
      • References
    • Chapter 68. Neural Basis of Phonological Short-Term Memory
      • 68.1 Theoretical Perspectives on Phonological Short-Term Memory
      • 68.2 Neural Perspectives on Short-Term Phonological Memory
      • 68.3 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 69. Working Memory and Language
      • 69.1 Introduction
      • 69.2 The Emergence of the Concept of Short-Term Memory
      • 69.3 Neurological Evidence for a Separation of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
      • 69.4 The Emergence of the Concept of Working Memory
      • 69.5 The Phonological Loop
      • 69.6 Neural Basis of Verbal Working Memory
      • 69.7 Neurological Studies of Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory
      • 69.8 Functional Neuroimaging Investigations of Verbal Working Memory
      • 69.9 Event-Related fMRI Studies of Verbal and Auditory Working Memory
      • 69.10 Reconciling Neuropsychological and Functional Neuroimaging Data
      • 69.11 Summary and Conclusion
      • References
  • Section O: Language Breakdown
    • Chapter 70. Language Development in Autism
      • 70.1 Delay in Autistic Language Development
      • 70.2 Heterogeneity and Variability in Autistic Language Development
      • 70.3 Trajectories of Language Development
      • 70.4 Language Delay Versus Language Deviance
      • References
    • Chapter 71. Symptoms and Neurobiological Models of Language in Schizophrenia
      • 71.1 Introduction
      • 71.2 Phenomenology, Assessment, and Course of Formal Thought and Language Disorder
      • 71.3 Structural Brain Changes and FTD
      • 71.4 Neural Correlates of FTD (Symptom Catching)
      • 71.5 Semantics
      • 71.6 Pragmatics
      • 71.7 Auditory Sensory, Phonological, and Prosodic Processing
      • 71.8 Syntax
      • 71.9 Neurotransmitter Dysfunction
      • 71.10 Genetic Influence on Speech and Language Dysfunctions in Schizophrenia
      • 71.11 Lateralization Asymmetry in Schizophrenia
      • 71.12 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • References
    • Chapter 72. Specific Language Impairment
      • 72.1 Introduction
      • 72.2 Neuropsychological Profile
      • 72.3 Structural Imaging of SLI
      • 72.4 Functional Imaging of SLI
      • 72.5 Conclusion
      • 72.6 Towards a Neurobiology of SLI
      • References
    • Chapter 73. Vascular Aphasia Syndromes
      • 73.1 Introduction
      • 73.2 Classic Aphasia Categorization: Vascular Syndromes
      • 73.3 Vascular Syndromes and Contemporary Paradigms
      • 73.4 Cognitive Processes Underlying Aphasia
      • 73.5 Potential Usefulness of Vascular Syndromes
      • 73.6 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 74. Psycholinguistic Approaches to the Study of Syndromes and Symptoms of Aphasia
      • 74.1 Introduction
      • 74.2 The Aphasia Syndromes
      • 74.3 Some Caveats and Challenges
      • 74.4 Language Deficits Underlying Aphasia Syndromes
      • 74.5 Lexical Impairments
      • 74.6 Syntactic Impairments
      • 74.7 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 75. Introduction to Primary Progressive Aphasia
      • 75.1 Introduction and History of Primary Progressive Aphasia
      • 75.2 The Nonfluent/Agrammatic Variant
      • 75.3 The Semantic Variant
      • 75.4 The Logopenic Variant (lvPPA)
      • 75.5 Future Directions in PPA
      • References
    • Chapter 76. The Declarative/Procedural Model: A Neurobiological Model of Language Learning, Knowledge, and Use
      • 76.1 The Memory Systems
      • 76.2 Predictions for Language
      • 76.3 Evidence
      • 76.4 Summary and Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 77. Perinatal Focal Brain Injury: Scope and Limits of Plasticity for Language Functions
      • 77.1 Perinatal Focal Brain Injury: Language Development and Neural Plasticity
      • 77.2 Four Central Questions
      • 77.3 How Do Focal perinatal lesions Affect Language Development?
      • 77.4 How Do Biological Characteristics of Early Focal Lesions Relate to Language Functioning?
      • 77.5 What Is the Role of Language Input on the Language Development of Children with Perinatal Lesions?
      • 77.6 What Is the Mechanism of Language Plasticity After Early Lesions?
      • 77.7 Summary and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 78. Motor Speech Impairments
      • 78.1 Introduction
      • 78.2 Motor Impairments Within a Neurological Framework
      • 78.3 Motor Impairments for Spoken Language Production
      • 78.4 Sensory-Motor Aspects of Speech Sound Production Impairment
      • 78.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 79. The Neurobiology of Developmental Stuttering
      • 79.1 Introduction
      • 79.2 Developmental Stuttering
      • 79.3 Enhancing Fluency in People Who Stutter
      • 79.4 Genetic Studies of Developmental Stuttering
      • 79.5 The Neural Basis of Developmental Stuttering
      • 79.6 Conclusion
      • References
  • Section P: Language Treatment
    • Chapter 80. Neuroplasticity Associated with Treated Aphasia Recovery
      • 80.1 Neuroplasticity
      • 80.2 Acute and Chronic Considerations
      • 80.3 Structural Brain Changes and Aphasia Recovery
      • 80.4 Functional Brain Changes and Aphasia Recovery
      • References
    • Chapter 81. Melodic Intonation Therapy
      • 81.1 The Impact of Nonfluent Aphasia
      • 81.2 The Basis and Components of Intonation-Based Speech Therapy for Patients with Nonfluent Aphasia
      • 81.3 Experiences with the Application of MIT
      • 81.4 Examining Aspects of Rhythm and Melody in Cross-Sectional Studies
      • 81.5 Neural Correlates of MIT: Neuroimaging Findings
      • 81.6 Possible Mechanisms Explaining the Effects of an Intonation-Based Speech Therapy
      • 81.7 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 82. Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy: A Neuroscience-Centered Translational Method
      • 82.1 Aphasia Therapy: Relevance and Classic Paradigms
      • 82.2 Neuroscience and Language Evidence
      • 82.3 CIAT: Methods and Efficacy
      • 82.4 Variants and Extensions of Original CIAT Methods
      • 82.5 Summary and Outlook
      • References
    • Chapter 83. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Aphasia Therapy: Lessons from TMS and tDCS
      • 83.1 Introduction
      • 83.2 TMS as Treatment for Aphasia
      • 83.3 tDCS as Therapy for Aphasia
      • 83.4 tDCS as a Treatment for Aphasia
      • 83.5 General Discussion
      • References
    • Chapter 84. Imitation-Based Aphasia Therapy
      • 84.1 Introduction: Repetition and Imitation in Aphasia
      • 84.2 Neurobiological Approaches to Language and Aphasia
      • 84.3 Mirror Neuron System
      • 84.4 Mirror Neuron System and Language
      • 84.5 Dual Streams for Speech
      • 84.6 Aphasia Therapy: Speech Imitation as Therapeutic Tool
      • 84.7 Mirror Neuron System and Rehabilitation
      • 84.8 Aphasia Therapy: Speech Imitation as Therapeutic Theory
      • 84.9 Aphasia Therapy: Nonspeech Motor Observation and Imitation
      • 84.10 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 85. Pharmacotherapy for Aphasia
      • 85.1 Introduction
      • 85.2 Major Challenges
      • 85.3 Mechanisms of Recovery and Pharmacotherapy
      • 85.4 Human Studies: Pharmacotherapy for Aphasia
      • 85.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 86. Cell-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Aphasia
      • 86.1 Introduction
      • 86.2 Stem Cell Therapies: Introduction
      • 86.3 Human Neural Stem Cells
      • 86.4 Adult/Fetal hNSCs
      • 86.5 Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Neural Derivatives
      • 86.6 Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Neural Derivatives
      • 86.7 Mesenchymal Stem Cells
      • 86.8 Issues Related to Clinical Application of Stem Cell Therapies
      • References
  • Section Q: Prosody, Tone, and Music
    • Chapter 87. Processing Tone Languages
      • 87.1 Introduction
      • 87.2 Tone Languages of East and Southeast Asia
      • 87.3 Lexical Versus Sublexical Units
      • 87.4 Tonal Versus Segmental Units
      • 87.5 Tonal Features
      • 87.6 Tonal Processing at the Level of the Auditory Brainstem
      • 87.7 Categorical Perception of Tone
      • 87.8 Tone Versus Other Suprasegmental Units
      • 87.9 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 88. The Neurocognition of Prosody
      • 88.1 Introduction
      • 88.2 Brain Mapping of Prosody
      • 88.3 The Neural Basis of Linguistic Prosody Processing
      • 88.4 The Neural Basis of Emotional Prosody Processing
      • 88.5 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 89. Environmental Sounds
      • 89.1 What Are Environmental Sounds?
      • 89.2 Perceptual, Cognitive, and Neural Processing of Environmental Sounds
      • 89.3 Section One: Perceptual and Cognitive Factors in Processing Environmental Sounds
      • 89.4 Section Two: Neural Factors in Processing Environmental Sounds
      • 89.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1188
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124078628
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124077942

About the Editor

Gregory Hickok

Professor in the Department of Cognitive Sciences and Director for the Center of Cognitive Neuroscience at UC Irvine, Dr. Hickok’s research focuses on the neuroanatomy of language and cognitive neuroscience. He serves as Associate Editor for Human Brain Mapping and for Cognitive Neuropsychology and is past-Chair for the Society or the Neurobiology of Language. He has authored 88 journal publications (h-index 26), 18 book chapters, and is editing a volume entitled The Functional anatomy of Language for MIT Press.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

Steven Small

Professor and Chair of Neurology at UC Irvine’s School of Medicine, Dr. Small’s research focuses on the neurobiology of language. He serves as EIC for the ELS journal Brain and Language founded the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, and has authored 109 journal publications (h-index 25)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA