Neurobiology of Attention

Neurobiology of Attention

1st Edition - March 9, 2005

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  • Editors: Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees, John Tsotsos
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080454313
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123757319

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Description

A key property of neural processing in higher mammals is the ability to focus resources by selectively directing attention to relevant perceptions, thoughts or actions. Research into attention has grown rapidly over the past two decades, as new techniques have become available to study higher brain function in humans, non-human primates, and other mammals. Neurobiology of Attention is the first encyclopedic volume to summarize the latest developments in attention research.An authoritative collection of over 100 chapters organized into thematic sections provides both broad coverage and access to focused, up-to-date research findings. This book presents a state-of-the-art multidisciplinary perspective on psychological, physiological and computational approaches to understanding the neurobiology of attention. Ideal for students, as a reference handbook or for rapid browsing, the book has a wide appeal to anybody interested in attention research.

Key Features

* Contains numerous quick-reference articles covering the breadth of investigation into the subject of attention
* Provides extensive introductory commentary to orient and guide the reader
* Includes the most recent research results in this field of study

Readership

Students and researchers studying computational, perceptual, and cognitive neuroscience, as well as neuropsychologists.

Table of Contents

  • Dedications

    Contributors

    Foreword: Neurobiology of Attention

    Preface

    A Brief and Selective History of Attention

    A Tour of This Volume

    I: FOUNDATIONS

    Chapter 1: Computational Foundations for Attentive Processes

    I. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

    II. THE COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY OF VISION

    III. COMPLEXITY CONSTRAINS THE ARCHITECTURE FOR VISUAL PROCESSING

    IV. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 2: Capacity Limits for Spatial Discrimination

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. FEATURE SEGREGATION

    III. FEATURE INTEGRATION

    IV. FEATURE DETECTION

    APPENDIX

    Chapter 3: Directed Visual Attention and the Dynamic Control of Information Flow

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. DYNAMIC ROUTING

    III. DYNAMIC ROUTING CIRCUIT ARCHITECTURE

    IV. AUTONOMOUS CONTROL

    V. NEUROBIOLOGICAL SUBSTRATES AND MECHANISMS

    VI. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 4: Selective Attention as an Optimal Computational Strategy

    I. THE ATTENTION–AWARENESS MODEL: AN INTRODUCTION

    II. LEARNING MOTION WITH AN ARTICULATED ARM

    III. ROLE OF THE ATTENTION–AWARENESS MODEL IN LEARNING

    IV. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 5: Surprise: A Shortcut for Attention?

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. COMPUTATION OF SURPRISE

    III. HABITUATION AND SURPRISE

    IV. DISCUSSION: A SHORTCUT FOR ATTENTION

    Chapter 6: A Heteromodal Large-Scale Network for Spatial Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT

    III. THE SPATIAL ATTENTION NETWORK

    IV. BRAIN–BEHAVIOR CORRELATIONS

    V. INTRANETWORK SPECIALIZATIONS

    VI. HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY

    VII. INTERNETWORK RELATIONSHIPS

    VIII. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 7: Parietal Mechanisms of Attentional Control: Locations, Features, and Objects

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. CUING STUDIES OF ATTENTIONAL CONTROL

    III. DYNAMIC ATTENTIONAL CONTROL SIGNALS

    IV. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 8: Visual Cortical Circuits and Spatial Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SPATIAL ATTENTION: FACILITATION AND SELECTION

    III. CONTRAST-DEPENDENT RESPONSE MODULATION IN VISUAL CORTEX

    IV. A LINKING HYPOTHESIS: DIRECTING SPATIAL ATTENTION TO A STIMULUS INCREASES ITS EFFECTIVE CONTRAST

    V. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 9: Psychopharmacology of Human Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE NORADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    III. THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 10: Neuropharmacology of Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SUSTAINED ATTENTION

    III. SELECTIVE SPATIAL ATTENTION/ATTENTIONAL SHIFT

    IV. NEUROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ATTENTION

    V. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 11: Identifying the Neural Systems of Top-Down Attentional Control: A Meta-analytic Approach

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. METHOD

    III. RESULTS

    IV. DISCUSSION

    V. CONCLUDING REMARKS

    Chapter 12: Attention Capture: The Interplay of Expectations, Attention, and Awareness

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. IMPLICIT ATTENTION CAPTURE

    III. EXPLICIT ATTENTION CAPTURE AND INATTENTIONAL BLINDNESS

    IV. COMBINING IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT ATTENTION CAPTURE

    Chapter 13: Change Blindness

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE NATURE OF VISUAL ATTENTION

    III. VISUAL ATTENTION AND SCENE PERCEPTION

    IV. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 14: Development of Covert Orienting in Young Infants

    I. INFANTS CAN SHIFT ATTENTION COVERTLY TO PERIPHERAL STIMULI

    II. INFANT COVERT ORIENTING OCCURS DURING CENTRAL STIMULUS ATTENTION

    III. CORTICAL BASES OF SPATIAL ATTENTION DEVELOPMENT?

    Chapter 15: Prior Entry

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE TASK

    III. EARLY PRIOR ENTRY RESEARCH

    IV. SPATIAL CONFOUND IN MULTISENSORY PRIOR ENTRY RESEARCH

    V. RESPONSE BIAS CONFOUND

    VI. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PRIOR ENTRY

    VII. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 16: Inhibition of Return

    I. MODEL TASK FOR EXPLORING IOR

    II. BEHAVIORAL PROPERTIES OF IOR

    III. IOR FUNCTIONS AS A FORAGING FACILITATOR

    IV. NEURAL IMPLEMENTATION OF IOR

    Chapter 17: Guidance of Visual Search by Preattentive Information

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. LOOKING FOR PREATTENTIVE FEATURES

    III. HOW GUIDANCE WORKS

    IV. WHAT ARE THE PREATTENTIVE FEATURES?

    Chapter 18: The Top in Top-Down Attention

    I. DEFINITIONS OF TOP-DOWN EFFECTS

    II. WHEN IS TOP-DOWN NOT TOP-DOWN?

    III. DO WE HAVE TOP-DOWN CONTROL OF SELECTIVE ATTENTION?

    IV. TOP-DOWN CONTROL AS THE MAINTENANCE OF TASK PRIORITIES

    V. WHAT IS AT THE TOP OF TOP-DOWN CONTROL?

    Chapter 19: Allocation of Attention in Three-Dimensional Space

    I. THE PROBLEM OF ATTENTION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

    II. RESEARCH DEMONSTRATING ATTENTION IN DEPTH

    III. THE INTERACTION OF ATTENTION IN DEPTH AND OTHER PROCESSES

    IV. UNRESOLVED ISSUES

    Chapter 20: Covert Attention and Saccadic Eye Movements

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. VISUAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION NORMALLY INVOLVES OVERT ATTENTION (EYE MOVEMENTS)

    III. COVERT ATTENTION OPERATES IN CONJUNCTION WITH SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENTS

    IV. SACCADIC TARGET SELECTION INVOLVES A SALIENCE MAP

    V. PLANNING AHEAD IN THE SACCADIC SYSTEM

    VI. WHEN MIGHT COVERT ATTENTION OPERATE WITHOUT THE EYES MOVING?

    Chapter 21: Prefrontal Selection and Control of Covert and Overt Orienting

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. VISUAL SELECTION INVOLVING CONSPICUOUS STIMULI

    III. VISUAL SELECTION BASED ON KNOWLEDGE

    IV. CONTROL OF OVERT ORIENTING

    V. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 22: Dissociation of Selection from Saccade Programming

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE FRONTAL EYE FIELD

    III. TARGET SELECTION IN FEF

    IV. DISSOCIATION OF TARGET SELECTION FROM SACCADE PRODUCTION

    V. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 23: Space- and Object-Based Attention

    I. TWO MODES OF ATTENTIONAL SELECTION

    II. CLARIFYING THE NOTION OF OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

    III. EVIDENCE POINTS TO ONE ACCOUNT OF OBJECT-BASED ATTENTIONAL SELECTION

    IV. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPACE-BASED AND OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

    V. TOWARD A UNIFIED THEORY OF SPACE- AND OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

    Chapter 24: Attention and Binding

    I. WHAT MUST BE BOUND?

    II. IS THERE A BINDING PROBLEM?

    III. ATTENTION AND BINDING

    IV. IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT BINDING

    V. SUMMARY

    Chapter 25: Top-Down Facilitation of Visual Object Recognition

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ACTIVATING THE TOP FROM THE BOTTOM

    III. THE CORTICAL ORIGIN OF TOP-DOWN FACILITATION

    IV. OBJECT REPRESENTATIONS IN THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX?

    V. PREDICTIONS AND OPEN QUESTIONS

    Chapter 26: Spatial Processing of Environmental Representations

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL REPRESENTATIONS

    III. ACCESSING MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL REPRESENTATIONS

    IV. SPATIAL UPDATING IN NESTED ENVIRONMENTS

    V. NAVIGATION IN NESTED ENVIRONMENTS

    VI. PROCESSING OF ENVIRONMENTAL REPRESENTATIONS

    VII. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 27: Decision and Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

    III. PRECIS OF SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY

    IV. CRITERION ATTRACTION AND ITS INTERPRETATION, THE UNIQUE INTERNAL REPRESENTATION

    V. DECISION AND ATTENTION

    VI. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 28: Visual Attention and Emotional Perception

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTION IS NEEDED TO PROCESS VISUAL STIMULI

    III. IS ATTENTION NECESSARY FOR THE PROCESSING OF EMOTION-LADEN FACES?

    IV. A STRONG TEST OF AUTOMATIC AMYGDALA ACTIVATION

    V. EMOTIONAL STIMULI CAN BIAS COMPETITION FOR PROCESSING RESOURCES

    VI. WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF THE BIASING SIGNAL FOR EMOTIONAL STIMULI?

    VII. ATTENTION AND AWARENESS

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 29: The Difference between Visual Attention and Awareness: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    I. TWO FORMS OF SELECTION: IDENTICAL OR NOT?

    II. STARTING POINTS: PROCESSING AND MEMORY

    III. ATTENTION = PROCESSING × MEMORY

    IV. VISUAL AWARENESS = RECURRENT PROCESSING

    V. AWARENESS × ATTENTIONAL SELECTION: THREE STAGES OF PROCESSING

    VI. A CASE FOR PHENOMENAL AWARENESS

    VII. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 30: Reaching Affects Saccade Trajectories

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SACCADE POPULATION CODE SELECTION

    III. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN EYE & HAND

    IV. CONCLUSIONS

    Acknowledgment

    Chapter 31: The Premotor Theory of Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE PREMOTOR THEORY OF ATTENTION

    III. EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF THE PREMOTOR THEORY OF ATTENTION

    IV. ACTIVATION OF OCULOMOTOR AREAS DURING ORIENTING OF SPATIAL ATTENTION: BRAIN IMAGING STUDIES

    V. NON-OCULOMOTOR ATTENTION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 32: Cross-Modal Consequences of Human Spatial Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE FOR CROSS-MODAL EFFECTS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

    III. ERP EVIDENCE FOR SENSORY EFFECTS OF CROSS-MODAL SPATIAL ATTENTION

    IV. NEUROIMAGING EVIDENCE FOR MODULATION OF SENSORY CORTEX BY CROSS-MODAL SPATIAL ATTENTION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 33: Attention and Scene Understanding

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. BASIC COMPONENTS OF SCENE UNDERSTANDING

    III. DISCUSSION: SUMMARY OF A PUTATIVE FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE

    IV. CONCLUSION

    II: FUNCTIONS

    Chapter 34: Visual Search and Popout in Infancy

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SEARCH, SEGREGATION, POPOUT, AND SELECTION MECHANISMS IN ADULTS

    III. FEATURE SEARCH, SEGREGATION, AND POPOUT IN INFANCY

    IV. PARALLEL SEARCH IN INFANTS

    V. CONJUNCTION SEARCH IN INFANTS

    VI. DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PREATTENTIVE AND ATTENTIVE MECHANISMS

    VII. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 35: Attention in Conditioning

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTION IN LEARNING

    III. ATTENTION IN PREDICTION

    IV. DISCUSSION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 36: Electrophysiology of Reflexive Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SHORT ISI EFFECTS

    III. LONG ISI EFFECTS

    IV. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-MODAL ATTENTIONAL CAPTURE ON CORTICAL VISUAL PROCESSING

    V. CONCLUSION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 37: Natural Scene Statistics and Salient Visual Features

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. STATISTICS OF FIXATED REGIONS

    III. SALIENCY DETECTORS

    IV. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 38: Salience of Feature Contrast

    I. MEASURES OF SALIENCE

    II. PHENOMENOLOGY OF SALIENCE

    III. POPOUT FROM FEATURE CONTRAST

    IV. NEUROBIOLOGY OF SALIENCE

    V. CONTEXTUAL MODULATION IN AREA V1

    VI. STUDYING PROPERTIES OF CONTEXTUAL MODULATION IN SALIENCE PERCEPTION

    VII. THE ROLE OF SALIENCE AND FEATURE CONTRAST IN VISION

    Chapter 39: Stimulus-Driven Guidance of Visual Attention in Natural Scenes

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. EYE MOVEMENTS IN NATURAL SCENES

    III. STIMULUS SALIENCE IN NATURAL SCENES

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 40: Contextual Guidance of Visual Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE CONTEXTUAL CUEING TASK

    III. STATISTICAL LEARNING

    IV. CLOSING COMMENTS

    Chapter 41: Gist of the Scene

    I. WHAT IS THE “GIST OF A SCENE”?

    II. THE NATURE OF THE GIST

    III. A HOLISTIC REPRESENTATION OF GIST

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 42: Temporal Orienting of Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. USING TEMPORAL INFORMATION TO ORIENT ATTENTION

    III. COMPARISON OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ORIENTING

    IV. IMPLICATIONS OF TEMPORAL EXPECTANCIES FOR COGNITIVE RESEARCH

    V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 43: Visual Search: The Role of Memory for Rejected Distractors

    I. SAMPLING IN VISUAL SEARCH

    II. EMPIRICAL TESTS OF THE STANDARD MODEL

    III. MEMORY IN THE OCULOMOTOR DOMAIN

    IV. THE COST OF SYSTEMATIC SEARCH?

    V. LIMITED-CAPACITY MEMORY?

    VI. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 44: The Neuropsychology of Visual Feature Binding

    Chapter 45: Visual Saliency and Spike Timing in the Ventral Visual Pathway

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. A “BEHAVIORAL” DEFINITION OF VISUAL SALIENCY

    III. VISUAL SALIENCY IN THE VENTRAL VISUAL PATHWAY

    IV. SPIKE TIMING AND VISUAL SALIENCY

    V. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 46: Object Recognition in Cortex: Neural Mechanisms, and Possible Roles for Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. OBJECT RECOGNITION IN CORTEX: SOME EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    III. THE “STANDARD MODEL”

    IV. EXTENDING THE FEEDFORWARD SYSTEM: ROLES FOR TOP-DOWN ATTENTIONAL AND TASK-DEPENDENT MODULATIONS

    V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 47: Binding Contour Segments into Spatially Extended Objects

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. AN ALGORITHM FOR GROUPING OF CONNECTED IMAGE ELEMENTS

    III. THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF CONTOUR GROUPING

    IV. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CONTOUR GROUPING

    V. CONCLUSIONS

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 48: Scanpath Theory, Attention, and Image Processing Algorithms for Predicting Human Eye Fixations

    ABSTACT

    I. SCANPATH AND ATTENTION

    II. SALIENCY PREDICTS INFORMATIVENESS

    Chapter 49: The Feature Similarity Gain Model of Attention: Unifying Multiplicative Effects of Spatial and Feature-based Attention

    I. MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION IN AREA MT

    II. MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF FEATURE-BASED ATTENTION IN AREA MT

    III. FEATURE SIMILARITY GAIN CAN EXPLAIN ATTENTIONAL EFFECTS

    Chapter 50: Biasing Competition in Human Visual Cortex

    I. LIMITED PROCESSING CAPACITY AND COMPETITION

    II. A NEURAL BASIS FOR COMPETITION AMONG MULTIPLE STIMULI

    III. EVIDENCE FOR AN ATTENTIONAL TOP-DOWN BIAS IN VISUAL CORTEX

    Chapter 51: Nonsensory Signals in Early Visual Cortex

    I. NEURAL CORRELATES OF VISUAL ATTENTION

    II. NEURAL CORRELATES OF VISUAL PERCEPTION

    III. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 52: Effects of Attention on Auditory Perceptual Organization

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. AUDITORY STREAMING

    III. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

    IV. INDIRECT EFFECTS OF STREAMING ON COMPETING TASKS

    V. MANIPULATING ATTENTION DURING THE BUILDUP OF AUDITORY STREAMING

    VI. THE HIERARCHICAL DECOMPOSITION MODEL

    VII. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

    VIII. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 53: Attention in Language

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTION AND THE STRUCTURE OF DISCOURSE

    III. ATTENTION AND SEMANTICS

    Chapter 54: Attention and Spatial Language

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTION IS NECESSARY FOR APPREHENDING SPATIAL RELATIONS

    III. THE ROLE OF ATTENTION IN APPREHENDING SPATIAL RELATIONS

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 55: The Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART)

    I. VALIDITY

    II. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES

    III. NEURAL BASIS OF SART PERFORMANCE

    Chapter 56: ERP Measures of Multiple Attention Deficits Following Prefrontal Damage

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SELECTIVE ATTENTION

    III. NOVELTY AND DEVIANCE DETECTION AND INVOLUNTARY ATTENTION SHIFT

    Chapter 57: Nonspatially Lateralized Mechanisms in Hemispatial Neglect

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SPATIALLY LATERALIZED DEFICITS MAY NOT BE ENOUGH

    III. NONSPATIALLY LATERALIZED DEFICITS MIGHT BE IMPORTANT

    IV. SELECTIVE ATTENTION CAPACITY

    V. NONSPATIALLY LATERALIZED SUSTAINED ATTENTION

    VI. DETECTING SALIENCE OVER SPACE AND TIME

    VII. TRANS-SACCADIC SPATIAL WORKING MEMORY

    VIII. COMBINING NONLATERALIZED AND SPATIALLY LATERALIZED IMPAIRMENTS

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 58: Visual Extinction and Hemispatial Neglect after Brain Damage: Neurophysiological Basis of Residual Processing

    I. BEHAVIORAL AND ANATOMICAL ASPECTS

    II. IMPLICIT RESIDUAL PROCESSING

    III. FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 59: Attention in Split-Brain Patients

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SPATIAL ORIENTING

    III. VISUAL SEARCH

    IV. RESOURCES AND DUAL-TASK PERFORMANCE

    V. TOP-DOWN VS. BOTTOM-UP CONTROL

    VI. CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 60: Divided Attention in the Normal and the Split Brain: Chronometry and Imaging

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ACCOUNTS OF REDUNDANCY GAIN

    III. PARADOXICAL INTERHEMISPHERIC RG INCREASE IN THE SPLIT BRAIN

    IV. THE FUNCTIONAL AND NEURAL LOCUS OF RG IN THE NORMAL BRAIN

    III: MECHANISMS

    Chapter 61: Neurophysiological Correlates of the Attentional Spotlight

    I. VISUAL ATTENTION IS SPATIALLY SELECTIVE

    II. NEUROIMAGING THE SPATIAL TOPOGRAPHY OF ATTENTION

    III. IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORIES OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

    Chapter 62: Spatially-Specific Attentional Modulation Revealed by fMRI

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTIONAL MODULATION IN AREA VI AND OTHER VISUAL CORTICAL AREAS

    III. SELECTION MECHANISMS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

    IV. FLEXIBLE WINDOWS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

    V. SUMMARY

    Chapter 63: The Neural Basis of the Attentional Blink

    I. THE ATTENTIONAL BLINK

    II. THE NEURAL BASIS OF THE AB BOTTLENECK

    III. NEURAL FATE OF T2

    IV. EFFECTS OF REAL AND VIRTUAL BRAIN LESIONS ON THE ATTENTIONAL BLINK

    V. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 64: Neurophysiological Correlates of the Reflexive Orienting of Spatial Attention

    Chapter 65: Specifying the Components of Attention in a Visual Search Task

    I. A THREE-STEP PLAN FOR BEATING ATTENTION ADDICTION

    II. SEARCHING FOR ATTENTIONAL COMPONENTS IN A VISUAL SEARCH TASK

    III. A NEUROCOMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF EYE MOVEMENTS DURING VISUAL SEARCH

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 66: Neural Evidence for Object-based Attention

    I. OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

    II. fMRI OF OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

    III. DISCUSSION AND RELATED STUDIES

    Chapter 67: Location- or Feature-based Targeting of Spatial Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. METHODS

    III. RESULTS

    IV. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 68: Dimension-based Attention in Pop-out Search

    I. VISUAL SEARCH FOR POP-OUT TARGETS: AUTOMATIC OR ATTENTIONALLY MODULATED?

    II. DIMENSION-SPECIFIC EFFECTS IN POP-OUT SEARCH

    III. THE FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF DIMENSION-BASED INTER-TRIAL MEMORY AND REDUNDANCY GAINS

    Chapter 69: Irrelevant Singletons Capture Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. FEATURE SINGLETONS CAPTURE ATTENTION

    III. ATTENTION AND EYE MOVEMENTS

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 70: Attentional Modulation of Apparent Stimulus Contrast

    I. EFFECTS OF ATTENTION AND STIMULUS CONTRAST ON NEURONAL RESPONSES

    II. MEASURING ATTENTIONAL MODULATION AS A FUNCTION OF STIMULUS CONTRAST

    III. A COMMON SUBSTRATE FOR ATTENTIONAL AND CONTRAST MODULATION OF RESPONSES

    Chapter 71: Attentional Suppression Early in the Macaque Visual System

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. A RING OF METABOLIC SUPPRESSION

    III. DISCUSSION AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 72: Attentional Modulation in the Human Lateral Geniculate Nucleus and Pulvinar

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTIONAL MODULATION IN THE HUMAN LGN

    III. ATTENTIONAL MODULATION IN THE HUMAN PULVINAR

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 73: Transient Covert Attention Increases Contrast Sensitivity and Spatial Resolution: Support for Signal Enhancement

    I. TRANSIENT ATTENTION INCREASES SENSITIVITY ACROSS THE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION

    II. TRANSIENT ATTENTION INCREASES SENSITIVITY ACROSS THE CONTRAST PSYCHOMETRIC FUNCTION

    III. TRANSIENT ATTENTION INCREASES APPARENT CONTRAST

    IV. TRANSIENT ATTENTION IMPROVES ACUITY

    V. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 74: External Noise Distinguishes Mechanisms of Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE PERCEPTUAL TEMPLATE MODEL (PTM) APPROACH

    III. EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND TAXONOMY OF MECHANISMS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

    IV. OTHER APPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS

    Acknowledgment

    Chapter 75: Attentional Modulation and Changes in Effective Connectivity

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY ANALYSES

    III. DISCUSSION

    IV. EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY VERSUS CATEGORICAL COMPARISONS

    SUMMARY

    Chapter 76: Attentional Modulation of Surround Inhibition

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. METHODS

    III. RESULTS

    IV. DISCUSSION

    NOTES

    Chapter 77: Attentional Processes in Texture Perception

    I. TEXTURE JUDGMENTS IN DAILY LIFE

    II. CASE STUDY: THE ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF BLACKSHOT

    III. ATTENTIONAL CONTROL OF TEXTURE JUDGMENTS

    IV. CHALLENGES

    Chapter 78: Mechanisms of Perceptual Learning

    I. PERCEPTUAL LEARNING

    II. MECHANISMS OF PERCEPTUAL LEARNING

    III. RETUNING VERSUS REWEIGHTING

    IV. PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF LEARNING

    V. IMPACT OF PERCEPTUAL LEARNING

    Chapter 79: Lateral Interactions between Targets and Flankers Require Attention

    I. STIMULUS AND TASK-RELATED CONTEXT EFFECTS IN EARLY VISION

    II. BASIC DUAL-TASK DUAL-AXIS PROCEDURE

    III. STRENGTH AND SPECIFICITY OF ATTENTIONAL MODULATION

    IV. MECHANISM OF ATTENTIONAL MODULATION

    V. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF LATERAL INTERACTIONS AND ATTENTIONAL MODULATION THEREOF

    VI. PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF LATERAL INTERACTIONS AND ATTENTIONAL MODULATION

    VII. CONCLUSIONS

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 80: Attention and Changes in Neural Selectivity

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. EXPERIMENTAL FINDINGS

    III. IMPLICATIONS

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 81: Attentional Effects on Motion Processing

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STUDIES

    III. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

    IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEURAL AND PSYCHOPHYSICAL EFFECTS OF ATTENTION

    V. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 82: ERP Studies of Selective Attention to Nonspatial Features

    I. NONSPATIAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION

    II. DORSAL AND VENTRAL STREAMS

    III. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 83: Effects of Attention on Figure-Ground Responses in the Primary Visual Cortex during Working Memory

    I. ATTENTION AND WORKING MEMORY

    II. FIGURE-GROUND SEGREGATION

    III. WORKING MEMORY IN THE PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX

    IV. ATTENTION CONTROLS WORKING MEMORY

    V. EFFECTS OF ATTENTION ON THE NEURAL RESPONSES DURING DELAY PERIOD

    VI. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 84: Electrophysiological and Neuroimaging Approaches to the Study of Visual Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION—ERPS

    II. ANALYZING THE NEURAL SOURCE(S) OF ERP COMPONENTS

    III. ERP MEASURES OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

    IV. SOURCE MODELING OF ATTENTION-RELATED ERP COMPONENTS

    V. ERP STUDIES OF ATTENTION TO NONSPATIAL FEATURES

    VI. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 85: The Timing of Attentional Modulation of Visual Processing as Indexed by ERPs

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ERPS AND THE TIMING OF SPACE- AND FEATURE-DIRECTED VISUAL ATTENTION

    III. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 86: Selective Visual Attention Modulates Oscillatory Neuronal Synchronization

    I. ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS MODULATE NEURONAL IMPACT

    II. SELECTIVE ATTENTION MODULATES OSCILLATORY NEURONAL SYNCHRONIZATION

    III. CHANGES IN NEURONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY BE A GENERAL MECHANISM TO MODULATE NEURONAL IMPACT

    Chapter 87: Putative Role of Oscillations and Synchrony in Cortical Signal Processing and Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. TAGGING RESPONSES AS RELATED

    III. RATE CODES VERSUS TEMPORAL CODES

    IV. SYNCHRONY AS A CODE FOR THE DEFINITION OF RELATIONS

    V. SYNCHRONIZATION AND FEATURE BINDING

    VI. THE ROLE OF RESPONSE SYNCHRONIZATION IN RESPONSE SELECTION AND ATTENTION

    Chapter 88: Attention to Tactile Stimuli Increases Neural Synchrony in Somatosensory Cortex

    I. THE NEED FOR SOMATOSENSORY SELECTION

    II. CANDIDATE NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SOMATOSENSORY SELECTION

    III. POPULATION ACTIVITY

    IV. SUMMARY

    Chapter 89: Crossmodal Attention in Event Perception

    I. CONVENTIONAL CROSSMODAL PHENOMENA AND CROSSMODAL SPATIAL ATTENTION

    II. ATTENTIONAL EFFECTS ON EVENT PERCEPTION

    III. DEVELOPMENTAL ASSAY UTILIZING THE CROSSMODAL DISPLAY

    IV. CROSSMODAL EVENT PERCEPTION BY DYNAMIC ATTENTIONAL ALLOCATION

    IV: SYSTEMS

    Chapter 90: The FeatureGate Model of Visual Selection

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. SELECTING LOCATIONS IN FEATUREGATE

    III. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE

    IV. INHIBITION OF RETURN AND SERIAL SEARCH

    V. ACCOUNTING FOR FEATURE-DRIVEN SELECTION AND DISTRACTOR INHIBITION

    Chapter 91: Probabilistic Models of Attention Based on Iconic Representations and Predictive Coding

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. PROBABILISTIC CONTROL OF ATTENTION USING ICONIC REPRESENTATIONS

    III. PREDICTIVE CODING MODEL OF ATTENTION

    IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

    Chapter 92: The Selective Tuning Model for Visual Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE SELECTIVE TUNING MODEL

    III. COMPUTATIONAL AND BIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 93: The Primary Visual Cortex Creates a Bottom-up Saliency Map

    I. THE BOTTOM-UP SALIENCY MAP REGARDLESS OF VISUAL FEATURES SIGNALLED BY FEATURE-SELECTIVE CELLS IN V1

    II. DEMONSTRATING THE SALIENCY MAP BY A V1 MODEL

    III. BASIC FEATURES AND CONJUNCTION SEARCHES EXPLAINED BY V1 SALIENCY MECHANISM

    IV. SALIENCY AND INTERACTIONS AMONG FEATURE DIMENSIONS

    V. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 94: Models of Bottom-up Attention and Saliency

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. PREATTENTIVE FEATURES AND SALIENCY MAP

    III. IMPLEMENTED ARCHITECTURES

    IV. ATTENTION AND RECOGNITION

    V. APPLICATIONS

    VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

    Chapter 95: Saliency in Computer Vision

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE TENSOR VOTING FRAMEWORK

    Chapter 96: Contextual Influences on Saliency

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE SCENE CONTEXT

    III. THE REPRESENTATION OF SCENES

    IV. MODEL FOR SCENE PRIORS AND THE MODULATION OF SALIENCY

    V. RESULTS

    VI. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 97: A Neurodynamical Model of Visual Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. VISUAL ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS

    III. A UNIFYING NEURODYNAMICAL COMPUTATIONAL MODEL

    IV. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    V. CONCLUSION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 98: How the Detection of Objects in Natural Scenes Constrains Attention in Time

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. THE MODEL

    III. RESULTS

    IV. DISCUSSION

    Chapter 99: Memory-Driven Visual Attention: An Emergent Behavior of Map-Seeking Circuits

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. MAP-SEEKING CIRCUITS

    III. ATTENTION SHIFTS

    IV. CROSS-MODAL ATTENTION: FINDING 2D TARGETS USING 3D MEMORIES

    V. BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    VI. RELATIONSHIP TO BOTTOM-UP ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS

    VII. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 100: The Role of Short-Term Memory in Visual Attention

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTION AND WORKING MEMORY

    III. CONCLUSION

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 101: Scene Segmentation through Synchronization

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. MODELING

    III. SIMULATION RESULTS

    IV. CONCLUSIONS

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 102: Attentive Wide-Field Sensing for Visual Telepresence and Surveillance

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. PHYSICAL DESIGN

    III. FUSION

    IV. SACCADIC CONTROL

    V. TRACKING AND SMOOTH PURSUIT

    VI. MEMORY

    VII. FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Acknowledgements

    Chapter 103: Neuromorphic Selective Attention Systems

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. MULTICHIP SELECTIVE ATTENTION MODELS

    III. THE SELECTIVE ATTENTION CHIP

    IV. A TWO-CHIP ACTIVE VISION SYSTEM

    V. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 104: The Role of Visual Attention in the Control of Locomotion

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. MODEL

    III. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 105: Attention Architectures for Machine Vision and Mobile Robots

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. ATTENTIVE COMPUTER VISION SYSTEMS

    III. ATTENTION IN ROBOTIC SYSTEMS

    IV. CONCLUSION

    Chapter 106: Attention for Computer Graphics Rendering

    I. EFFICIENT REALISTIC RENDERING OF SYNTHETIC IMAGES

    II. VISUAL ATTENTION–BASED RENDERING ALGORITHM

    III. RELATED WORK IN THE FIELD

    Chapter 107: Linking Attention to Learning, Expectation, Competition, and Consciousness

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. LINKING ATTENTION TO LEARNING, EXPECTATION, COMPETITION, SYNCHRONIZATION, AND CONSCIOUSNESS

    III. ATTENTION IS MODULATORY

    IV. LAMINAR ORGANIZATION OF BOTTOM-UP, HORIZONTAL, AND TOP-DOWN CONNECTIONS

    V. ATTENTION, COMPETITION, AND MATCHING

    VI. OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION VIA THE PRE-ATTENTIVE-ATTENTIVE INTERFACE

    VII. THE LINK BETWEEN ATTENTION AND LEARNING

    VIII. DIVIDED, OBJECT VERSUS SPATIAL, AND HIERARCHICAL ATTENTION

    Acknowledgment

    Chapter 108: Attention-Guided Recognition Based on “What” and “Where”: Representations: A Behavioral Model

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. A MODEL OF ATTENTION-GUIDED RECOGNITION BASED ON “WHAT” AND “WHERE” REPRESENTATIONS

    III. DISCUSSION: INVARIANT IMAGE REPRESENTATION AND RECOGNITION

    Chapter 109: A Model of Attention and Recognition by Information Maximization

    I. INTRODUCTION

    II. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR PREPROCESSING

    III. SENSORIMOTOR FEATURES AND HIGH-LEVEL SCENE CONCEPTS

    IV. THE INFERENCE STRATEGY IBIG

    V. SYSTEM BEHAVIOR

    VI. DISCUSSION

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 744
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2005
  • Published: March 9, 2005
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080454313
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123757319

About the Editors

Laurent Itti

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Southern California, Computer Science Department, Los Angeles, USA

Geraint Rees

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Cognitive Neurology, University College London, U.K.

John Tsotsos

Affiliations and Expertise

Director Center for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Canada

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