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Neural Surface Antigens - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128007815, 9780128011263

Neural Surface Antigens

1st Edition

From Basic Biology Towards Biomedical Applications

Editor: Jan Pruszak
eBook ISBN: 9780128011263
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007815
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd March 2015
Page Count: 254
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Neural Surface Antigens: From Basic Biology towards Biomedical Applications focuses on the functional
role of surface molecules in neural development, stem cell research, and translational biomedical paradigms.
With an emphasis on human and rodent model systems, this reference covers fundamentals of neural stem
cell biology and flow cytometric methodology. Addressing cell biologists as well as clinicians working in the
neurosciences, the book was conceived by an international panel of experts to cover a vast array of particular
surface antigen families and subtypes. It provides insight into the basic biology and functional mechanisms of
neural cell surface signaling molecules influencing mammalian development, regeneration, and treatments.

Key Features

  • Introduces early phase clinical trials of neural stem cells
  • Outlines characterization of surface molecule expression and methods for isolation which open unprecedented opportunities for functional study, quantitation & diagnostics
  • Highlights the role of stem cells in neural surface antigen and biomarker analysis and applications


Stem cell biologists of all levels working in neuroscience, regenerative medicine, and oncology (graduate student to senior principal investigator); neuroscientists; secondary audience: clinical pathologists, neurologists and oncologists

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cell Development
    • 1.1. Neurulation: Formation of the Central Nervous System Anlage
    • 1.2. Neurulation and Neural Tube Formation
    • 1.3. Regionalization of the Mammalian Neural Tube
    • 1.4. Onset of Neurogenesis in the Telencephalon
    • 1.5. The Transition of the Neurepithelium to Neural Stem Cells
    • 1.6. Progenitor Fate Commitment and Restriction
    • 1.7. Molecular Mechanisms of Neural Stem Cell Maintenance
    • 1.8. Interneuron Generation from the Ventral Telencephalon
    • 1.9. Formation of the Cerebral Isocortex and Cortical Layering
    • 1.10. Oligodendrogenesis and Astrogenesis
  • Chapter 2. A Brief Introduction to Neural Flow Cytometry from a Practical Perspective
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. What is Flow Cytometry?
    • 2.3. Challenges and Opportunities of Neural Flow Cytometry
    • 2.4. Cell Sorting of Neural Cells—Step by Step
    • 2.5. Flow Cytometric Analysis of NSCs
    • 2.6. Flow Cytometry of Neurons
    • 2.7. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Glial Cell Types
    • 2.8. Conclusion
  • Chapter 3. CD36, CD44, and CD83 Expression and Putative Functions in Neural Tissues
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. The Putative CD36 Functions in the CNS: A Multifunctional Scavenger Receptor and Lipid Sensor
    • 3.3. The Expression of CD44 Adhesion Molecule in Neural Cells
    • 3.4. The Glycoprotein CD83
    • 3.5. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 4. Life and Death in the CNS: The Role of CD95
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. CD95 Expression in the Healthy and Diseased Brain
    • 4.3. Functions and Signaling of CD95 in the CNS
    • 4.4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 5. Role of Fundamental Pathways of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Neural Differentiation: Focus on Toll-like Receptors, Complement System, and T-Cell-Related Signaling
    • 5.1. Molecules from Innate Immunity
    • 5.2. Molecules from Adaptive Immunity
    • 5.3. Conclusion
  • Chapter 6. Neuropilins in Development and Disease of the Nervous System
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Neuropilins Associate with Plexins to Mediate Semaphorin Signaling
    • 6.3. Neuropilins and Plexins Cooperate to Confer Specificity to Semaphorin Signaling
    • 6.4. Neuropilin-Mediated Repulsion in Axon Guidance
    • 6.5. Neuropilins Can Mediate Attractive Responses by Axons to Semaphorins
    • 6.6. Neuropilins Organize Axon Projections to Provide a Substrate for Migrating Neurons
    • 6.7. Semaphorin Signaling through Neuropilins in Neurons Promotes Neuronal Migration
    • 6.8. VEGF-A as an Alternative Neuropilin Ligand in the Nervous System
    • 6.9. Differential VEGF-A Isoform Affinity for the Two Neuropilins
    • 6.10. VEGF-A Signaling through Neuropilin 1
    • 6.11. NRP1 in CNS Angiogenesis
    • 6.12. VEGF-A/NRP1 Signaling Promotes Contralateral Axon Projection across the Optic Chiasm
    • 6.13. VEGF-A Signals through NRP1 to Promote Neuronal Migration
    • 6.14. Semaphorin Signaling through NRP1 Impairs CNS, but not PNS Regeneration
    • 6.15. VEGF Signaling through NRP1 Promotes Survival of Developing Neurons
    • 6.16. Neuropilin in Synaptogenesis and Plasticity
    • 6.17. Outlook
  • Chapter 7. Growth and Neurotrophic Factor Receptors in Neural Differentiation and Phenotype Specification
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Neurotrophins
    • 7.3. Nerve Growth Factor
    • 7.4. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
    • 7.5. Neurotrophin-3
    • 7.6. Epidermal Growth Factor
    • 7.7. Fibroblast Growth Factor
    • 7.8. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
    • 7.9. Insulin-like Growth Factor
    • 7.10. Conclusion
  • Chapter 8. Glycolipid Antigens in Neural Stem Cells
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-1 (CD15)
    • 8.3. SSEA-4
    • 8.4. GD3 Ganglioside
    • 8.5. 9-O-acetyl GD3
    • 8.6. GM1 Ganglioside
    • 8.7. The C-series Gangliosides
    • 8.8. GalCer and Sulfatide
    • 8.9. Sialosyl Galactosylceramide
    • 8.10. Phosphatidylglucoside
    • 8.11. Conclusions and Prospective Studies
  • Chapter 9. NG2 (Cspg4): Cell Surface Proteoglycan on Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells in the Developing and Mature Nervous System
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. The Structure of NG2
    • 9.3. Expression of NG2 in the Nervous System
    • 9.4. The Role of NG2 in Cell Attachment and Migration
    • 9.5. The Role of NG2 in Axon–NG2 Cell Interactions
    • 9.6. The Role of NG2 in Cell Proliferation
    • 9.7. The Role of NG2 in Intracellular Signaling
    • 9.8. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 10. Comprehensive Overview of CD133 Biology in Neural Tissues across Species
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Cell Biology of CD133 Protein in the Nervous System
    • 10.3. Compartmentalization of CD133 in Mammalian Neural Tissues
    • 10.4. CD133+ Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells across Species
    • 10.5. CD133+ Cells and Regeneration
    • 10.6. CD133 and Neural Diseases
    • 10.7. CD133 and Photoreceptor Neuron Morphogenesis
  • Chapter 11. Fundamentals of NCAM Expression, Function, and Regulation of Alternative Splicing in Neuronal Differentiation
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. NCAM Gene and Alternative Splicing Isoforms
    • 11.3. Molecular Structure and Function of NCAM
    • 11.4. Alternative Splicing Regulation
    • 11.5. Chromatin Structure Regulates Alternative Splicing
    • 11.6. Background in NCAM Alternative Splicing Regulation
    • 11.7. Regulation of NCAM Alternative Splicing by Chromatin Changes in Neuronal Differentiation
    • 11.8. Conclusions
  • Chapter 12. Role of the Clustered Protocadherins in Promoting Neuronal Diversity and Function
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. The Cadherin Superfamily and the Clustered Pcdhs
    • 12.3. Genomic Structures of the Clustered Pcdh Genes
    • 12.4. Gene Expression of the Clustered Pcdhs
    • 12.5. Gene Regulation of the Clustered Pcdhs
    • 12.6. Cell Adhesion Activity of the Clustered Pcdhs
    • 12.7. Cell Signaling Mediated by the Clustered Pcdhs
    • 12.8. Roles of Clustered Pcdhs in the Nervous System
    • 12.9. Conclusions
  • Chapter 13. ß1-Integrin Function and Interplay during Enteric Nervous System Development
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Functions of the ECM and Integrins during ENS Development
    • 13.3. Effectors of the Integrin Signaling Pathway during ENS Development
    • 13.4. β1-Integrin Crosstalk with ENS Genes and N-Cadherin during ENS Development
    • 13.5. Control of Integrin Gene Expression
    • 13.6. Conclusion
  • Chapter 14. Neural Flow Cytometry – A Historical Account from a Personal Perspective
    • 14.1. Surface Markers on Neural Progenitor Cells
    • 14.2. CD15
    • 14.3. CD133
    • 14.4. GD2 Ganglioside
    • 14.5. Tetraspanins: CD9 and CD81
    • 14.6. MHC
    • 14.7. Fas/CD95
    • 14.8. Retinal Progenitor Cells
    • 14.9. Further Studies of Surface Markers
    • 14.10. Conclusions
  • Chapter 15. Multimarker Flow Cytometric Characterization, Isolation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors of the Normal and Injured Mouse Subventricular Zone
    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors
    • 15.3. Flow Cytometric Studies on Neural Precursors – Technical Considerations
    • 15.4. Flow Cytometry Studies of the Fetal Mouse Forebrain
    • 15.5. Studies Using Flow Cytometry on the Neonatal SVZ
    • 15.6. Studies Using Flow Cytometry on the Adult SVZ
    • 15.7. Using Flow Cytometry to Evaluate Effects of Cytokines and Growth Factors on Neural Precursors
    • 15.8. Using Flow Cytometry to Evaluate Effects of Neurological Injuries and Diseases on Neural Precursors
    • 15.9. Using Flow Cytometry to Better Understand Glioblastoma
    • 15.10. Conclusion
  • Chapter 16. Multiparameter Flow Cytometry Applications for Analyzing and Isolating Neural Cell Populations Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Methods for Neural Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
    • 16.3. Cell Surface Signatures for Neural Cell Isolation from Pluripotent Stem Cells
    • 16.4. Neural Applications for Multiparameter Flow Cytometry
    • 16.5. Cell Transplantation
    • 16.6. The Detection of Intracellular Antigens by Flow Cytometry
    • 16.7. The Utility of Flow Cytometry for Analyzing Human PSC-Derived Neural Cells
    • 16.8. Cell Surface Marker Screening Applications for Nonneural Stem Cell Populations
    • 16.9. Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Derivatives
    • 16.10. Adult Stem Cells
    • 16.11. Cancer Stem Cells
    • 16.12. Conclusions and Future Considerations
  • Chapter 17. Flow-Cytometric Identification and Characterization of Neural Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells for Pathophysiological Study and Biomedical Applications
    • 17.1. Introduction to Neural Stem Cells
    • 17.2. Tumors of the Central Nervous System
    • 17.3. Cancer Stem-Cell Hypothesis
    • 17.4. Brain Tumor Initiating Cells
    • 17.5. Identification of Neural Surface Antigens
    • 17.6. Flow-Cytometric Identification and Characterization
    • 17.7. Limitations of Current CSC Markers
    • 17.8. Applications of Functional BTIC Assays
    • 17.9. Conclusion
  • Chapter 18. Using Cell Surface Signatures to Dissect Neoplastic Neural Cell Heterogeneity in Pediatric Brain Tumors
    • 18.1. Cell Surface Markers to Distinguish Heterogeneity in the Neural Lineage Hierarchy
    • 18.2. Medulloblastoma: An Example of Genomic, Molecular, and Cellular Heterogeneity
    • 18.3. The CSC Hypothesis and Brain Tumors
    • 18.4. In Search of New Markers: The Case for CD271/p75NTR
    • 18.5. CD271: Its Role in Neurodevelopment and Progenitor/Stem Cell Function
    • 18.6. Extending beyond CD133: Using High-Throughput Flow Cytometry to Identify Novel Markers of Neural Tumor Cell Phenotypes
    • 18.7. Clinical Implications of Cell Surface Signatures in MB and Other Brain Tumor Pathologies
  • Chapter 19. Synopsis and Epilogue: Neural Surface Antigen Studies in Biology and Biomedicine—What We Have Learned and What the Future May Hold
    • 19.1. Introduction
    • 19.2. Progress in Neural Stem Cell and Cancer Biology Hinges Upon Understanding Cell–Cell Interactions
    • 19.3. Neural Flow Cytometry and Cell Isolation Are Tricky, but Feasible
    • 19.4. Neural Surface Antigens Are Critical Mediators of Cellular Crosstalk in Neurobiology
    • 19.5. Expression of Even Some of the Better-Characterized Neural Surface Antigens Is Exceedingly Complex
    • 19.6. Toward an Integrated View of Neural Surface Antigen Signaling
    • 19.7. Neural Surface Antigens Serve as Valuable Markers for Cell Analysis and Cell Selection
    • 19.8. What’s Around the Corner?
    • 19.9. Conclusion
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
23rd March 2015
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
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About the Editor

Jan Pruszak

Dr. Jan Pruszak obtained his medical degree from Hannover Medical School in Germany and went on to pursue postdoctoral training at Harvard Medical School, with Dr. Ole Isacson at the Center for Neuroregeneration Research, and at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, with Dr. Thijn Brummelkamp. From 2007 to 2010 he held an academic appointment as an Instructor at Harvard Medical School and was an affiliated faculty member of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute. Since early 2011, he has been a research group leader at the University of Freiburg, Germany leading research in the regulation of growth and neural lineage specification of stem cells, in the context of developmental biology and regenerative medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emmy Noether-Group for Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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