Neural Models of Plasticity

Neural Models of Plasticity

Experimental and Theoretical Approaches

1st Edition - May 28, 1989

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  • Editors: John H. Byrne, William O. Berry
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483216874

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Description

Neural Models of Plasticity: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches is an outgrowth of a conference that was held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in the spring of 1987. The purpose of that conference was to review recent developments in both areas and to foster communication between those researchers pursuing theoretical approaches and those pursuing more empirical approaches. Contributions have been solicited from individuals who represent both ends of the spectrum of approaches as well as those using a combination of the two. These indicate that our knowledge of the plastic capabilities of the nervous system is accelerating rapidly due to rapid advances in the understanding of basic subcellular and molecular mechanisms of plasticity, and because of the computational capabilities and plastic properties that emerge from neural networks and assemblies. The book contains 19 chapters and opens with a study on the role of the neuromodulator in associative learning of the marine mollusk Hermissend. Subsequent chapters examine topics such as learning and memory in Aplysia; the Hebb rule for synaptic plasticity; olfactory processing and associative memory in the mollusk Limax maximus; simulation of a classically conditioned response; and the neural substrates of memory, focusing on the role of the hippocampus.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1 Associative Learning, Memory, and Neuromodulation in Hermissenda

    Introduction

    Organization of the Central Nervous System

    Conditioning Procedure

    Associative and Nonassociative Contributions to Phototactic Suppression

    Neuromodulation: Possible Contribution to Conditioning

    Short- and Long-Term Plasticity

    Discussion and Conclusions

    References

    2 Developmental Assembly of Multiple Components of Learning and Memory in Aplysia

    Introduction

    Different Forms of Learning in Aplysia Emerge According to Different Developmental Timetables

    Cellular Analogs of Learning Have the Same Developmental Timetables as Their Respective Behavioral Forms of Learning

    Analysis of Nondecremented Responses Prior to the Emergence of Sensitization Reveals a Novel Inhibitory Process

    Sensitization Emerges Simultaneously in Different Response Systems in Aplysia

    Widespread Proliferation of Central Neurons Occurs in the Same Developmental Stage as the Emergence of Sensitization

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    3 Turtles All the Way Down: Some Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Long-Term Sensitization in Aplysia

    Molecular Components Underlying Sensitization

    Long-Term Sensitization Is Accompanied by a Decrease in Regulatory Subunits

    A Molecular Mechanism for Enhanced Protein Phosphorylation

    The Mechanism by Which R Subunits Are Diminished

    Role of Synthesizing New Proteins for Long-Term Memory: The Mechanism behind the Other Mechanisms

    Turtles All the Way Down: An Indian Story

    References

    4 Mathematical Model of Cellular and Molecular Processes Contributing to Associative and Nonassociative Learning in Aplysia

    Introduction

    Subcellular Model for Associative and Nonassociative Learning

    Simulation and Predictions of the Model

    Discussion

    References

    5 A Simple Circuit Model for Higher-Order Features of Classical Conditioning

    Behavioral and Cellular Studies of Learning in Aplysia

    A Quantitative Model for Conditioning

    Simulations of Basic Features of Conditioning

    Simulations of Higher-Order Features of Conditioning

    Discussion

    References

    6 The Hebb Rule for Synaptic Plasticity: Algorithms and Implementations

    Introduction

    Levels of Analysis

    Implementations of the Hebb Rule

    Conditioning

    Conclusions

    References

    7. Classical Conditioning Phenomena Predicted by a Drive-Reinforcement Model of Neuronal Function

    Introduction

    The Neuronal Model

    Predictions of the Model

    Experimental Tests

    Summary

    References

    Appendix: Parameter Specifications for the Computer Simulations of the Neuronal Models

    8. Olfactory Processing and Associative Memory: Cellular and Modeling Studies

    Introduction

    Feeding Command Neurons

    The LIMAX Model

    Behavioral Aspects of the LIMAX Model

    Challenges to Umax from LIMAX

    Challenges to LIMAX from Umax

    Future Directions

    References

    9. Neural Circuit for Classical Conditioning of the Eyelid Closure Response

    Introduction

    The Dorsal Accessory Olive-Climbing Fiber System—The Essential US Reinforcing (Teaching) Pathway

    The Nature of Reinforcement in Classical Conditioning and the Role of Climbing Fibers

    References

    10 Long-Term Depression: Possible Cellular Mechanism for Learning Mediated by the Cerebellum

    Introduction

    Specification of LTD

    Involvement of Glutamate Receptors in LTD

    Involvement of Ca2+ Inflow in LTD

    Role of LTD in the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

    Discussion

    References

    11 Simulation of a Classically Conditioned Response: A Cerebellar Neural Network Implementation of the Sutton-Barto-Desmond Model

    Introduction

    The Model

    Neural Implementation in Cerebellum

    References

    12 Memory and the Hippocampus

    Introduction

    Human Amnesia

    Amnesia Can Result from Hippocampal Damage

    The Neuropsychological Data

    The Neurophysiological Data

    The Neuroanatomical Data: Topography of Sensory Inputs to Hippocampus and Intrinsic Hippocampal Connections

    Memory and the Hippocampus: Conclusions

    References

    13 Functions of Neuronal Networks in the Hippocampus and Neocortex in Memory

    Functions of the Primate Hippocampus in Memory

    Computational Theory of the Hippocampus

    Systems-Level Theory of Hippocampal Function

    Theoretical Significance of Backprojections in the Neocortex

    References

    14 Long-Term Potentiation in Two Synaptic Systems of the Hippocampal Brain Slice

    Introduction

    Hippocampal Circuitry and the Brain Slice

    LTP Induction and Expression in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    LTP in the Mossy-Fiber Synapses of the Hippocampus

    LTP in the Schaffer Collateral/Commissural Synapses of the Hippocampus

    Two Forms of Hippocampal LTP Based on Receptor-Mediated Controls

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    15 The Role of Norepinephrine in Long-Term Potentiation at Mossy-Fiber Synapses in the Hippocampus

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Mossy-Fiber Synapses

    Norepinephrine in Hippocampus

    Norepinephrine and Mossy-Fiber LTP

    Membrane Mechanisms of Norepinephrine

    Conclusions

    References

    16 Some Possible Functions of Simple Cortical Networks Suggested by Computer Modeling

    Introduction 329

    Network Operating Rules Deduced from Physiological Experiments

    Synaptic Modification Rules

    Simulations of a Cortical Layer

    References

    17 Neural Architecture and Biophysics for Sequence Recognition

    Introduction

    The Recognition Problem

    Model Circuitry Styled on Neurobiology

    What the Model Implies for Neurobiology

    References

    18 Local Synaptic and Electrical Interactions in Hippocampus: Experimental Data and Computer Simulations

    Introduction

    Results

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    References

    19 Models of Calcium Regulation in Neurons

    Introduction

    Calcium-Dependent Currents and Electrical Activity

    Presynaptic Calcium and Transmitter Release

    Conclusion

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 454
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1989
  • Published: May 28, 1989
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483216874

About the Editors

John H. Byrne

John H. Byrne
The June and Virgil Waggoner Professor and Chair, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Dr. Byrne is an internationally acclaimed Neuroscientist. He received his PhD under the direction of Noble Prize winner, Eric Kandel. Dr. Byrne is a prolific author and Editor-in-Chief of Learning and Memory (CSHP).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA

William O. Berry

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