Neural Models of Plasticity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121489564, 9781483216874

Neural Models of Plasticity

1st Edition

Experimental and Theoretical Approaches

Editors: John H. Byrne William O. Berry
eBook ISBN: 9781483216874
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1989
Page Count: 454
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Description

Neural Models of Plasticity: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches is an outgrowth of a conference that was held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in the spring of 1987. The purpose of that conference was to review recent developments in both areas and to foster communication between those researchers pursuing theoretical approaches and those pursuing more empirical approaches. Contributions have been solicited from individuals who represent both ends of the spectrum of approaches as well as those using a combination of the two. These indicate that our knowledge of the plastic capabilities of the nervous system is accelerating rapidly due to rapid advances in the understanding of basic subcellular and molecular mechanisms of plasticity, and because of the computational capabilities and plastic properties that emerge from neural networks and assemblies.

The book contains 19 chapters and opens with a study on the role of the neuromodulator in associative learning of the marine mollusk Hermissend. Subsequent chapters examine topics such as learning and memory in Aplysia; the Hebb rule for synaptic plasticity; olfactory processing and associative memory in the mollusk Limax maximus; simulation of a classically conditioned response; and the neural substrates of memory, focusing on the role of the hippocampus.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 Associative Learning, Memory, and Neuromodulation in Hermissenda

Introduction

Organization of the Central Nervous System

Conditioning Procedure

Associative and Nonassociative Contributions to Phototactic Suppression

Neuromodulation: Possible Contribution to Conditioning

Short- and Long-Term Plasticity

Discussion and Conclusions

References

2 Developmental Assembly of Multiple Components of Learning and Memory in Aplysia

Introduction

Different Forms of Learning in Aplysia Emerge According to Different Developmental Timetables

Cellular Analogs of Learning Have the Same Developmental Timetables as Their Respective Behavioral Forms of Learning

Analysis of Nondecremented Responses Prior to the Emergence of Sensitization Reveals a Novel Inhibitory Process

Sensitization Emerges Simultaneously in Different Response Systems in Aplysia

Widespread Proliferation of Central Neurons Occurs in the Same Developmental Stage as the Emergence of Sensitization

Concluding Remarks

References

3 Turtles All the Way Down: Some Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Long-Term Sensitization in Aplysia

Molecular Components Underlying Sensitization

Long-Term Sensitization Is Accompanied by a Decrease in Regulatory Subunits

A Molecular Mechanism for Enhanced Protein Phosphorylation

The Mechanism by Which R Subunits Are Diminished

Role of Synthesizing New Proteins for Long-Term Memory: The Mechanism behind the Other Mechanisms

Turtles All the Way Down: An Indian Story

References

4 Mathematical Model of Cellular and Molecular Processes Contributing to Associative and Nonassociative Learning in Aplysia

Introduction

Subcellular Model for Associative and Nonassociative Learning

Simulation and Predictions of the Model

Discussion

References

5 A Simple Circuit Model for Higher-Order Features of Classical Conditioning

Behavioral and Cellular Studies of Learning in Aplysia

A Quantitative Model for Conditioning

Simulations of Basic Features of Conditioning

Simulations of Higher-Order Features of Conditioning

Discussion

References

6 The Hebb Rule for Synaptic Plasticity: Algorithms and Implementations

Introduction

Levels of Analysis

Implementations of the Hebb Rule

Conditioning

Conclusions

References

7. Classical Conditioning Phenomena Predicted by a Drive-Reinforcement Model of Neuronal Function

Introduction

The Neuronal Model

Predictions of the Model

Experimental Tests

Summary

References

Appendix: Parameter Specifications for the Computer Simulations of the Neuronal Models

8. Olfactory Processing and Associative Memory: Cellular and Modeling Studies

Introduction

Feeding Command Neurons

The LIMAX Model

Behavioral Aspects of the LIMAX Model

Challenges to Umax from LIMAX

Challenges to LIMAX from Umax

Future Directions

References

9. Neural Circuit for Classical Conditioning of the Eyelid Closure Response

Introduction

The Dorsal Accessory Olive-Climbing Fiber System—The Essential US Reinforcing (Teaching) Pathway

The Nature of Reinforcement in Classical Conditioning and the Role of Climbing Fibers

References

10 Long-Term Depression: Possible Cellular Mechanism for Learning Mediated by the Cerebellum

Introduction

Specification of LTD

Involvement of Glutamate Receptors in LTD

Involvement of Ca2+ Inflow in LTD

Role of LTD in the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

Discussion

References

11 Simulation of a Classically Conditioned Response: A Cerebellar Neural Network Implementation of the Sutton-Barto-Desmond Model

Introduction

The Model

Neural Implementation in Cerebellum

References

12 Memory and the Hippocampus

Introduction

Human Amnesia

Amnesia Can Result from Hippocampal Damage

The Neuropsychological Data

The Neurophysiological Data

The Neuroanatomical Data: Topography of Sensory Inputs to Hippocampus and Intrinsic Hippocampal Connections

Memory and the Hippocampus: Conclusions

References

13 Functions of Neuronal Networks in the Hippocampus and Neocortex in Memory

Functions of the Primate Hippocampus in Memory

Computational Theory of the Hippocampus

Systems-Level Theory of Hippocampal Function

Theoretical Significance of Backprojections in the Neocortex

References

14 Long-Term Potentiation in Two Synaptic Systems of the Hippocampal Brain Slice

Introduction

Hippocampal Circuitry and the Brain Slice

LTP Induction and Expression in Hippocampal Brain Slices

LTP in the Mossy-Fiber Synapses of the Hippocampus

LTP in the Schaffer Collateral/Commissural Synapses of the Hippocampus

Two Forms of Hippocampal LTP Based on Receptor-Mediated Controls

Summary and Conclusions

References

15 The Role of Norepinephrine in Long-Term Potentiation at Mossy-Fiber Synapses in the Hippocampus

Introduction

Characteristics of Mossy-Fiber Synapses

Norepinephrine in Hippocampus

Norepinephrine and Mossy-Fiber LTP

Membrane Mechanisms of Norepinephrine

Conclusions

References

16 Some Possible Functions of Simple Cortical Networks Suggested by Computer Modeling

Introduction 329

Network Operating Rules Deduced from Physiological Experiments

Synaptic Modification Rules

Simulations of a Cortical Layer

References

17 Neural Architecture and Biophysics for Sequence Recognition

Introduction

The Recognition Problem

Model Circuitry Styled on Neurobiology

What the Model Implies for Neurobiology

References

18 Local Synaptic and Electrical Interactions in Hippocampus: Experimental Data and Computer Simulations

Introduction

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

19 Models of Calcium Regulation in Neurons

Introduction

Calcium-Dependent Currents and Electrical Activity

Presynaptic Calcium and Transmitter Release

Conclusion

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
454
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1989
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483216874

About the Editor

John H. Byrne

John H. Byrne

The June and Virgil Waggoner Professor and Chair, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Dr. Byrne is an internationally acclaimed Neuroscientist. He received his PhD under the direction of Noble Prize winner, Eric Kandel. Dr. Byrne is a prolific author and Editor-in-Chief of Learning and Memory (CSHP).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA

William O. Berry