Neural Models of Plasticity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121489557, 9780323149839

Neural Models of Plasticity

1st Edition

Experimental and Theoretical Approaches

Editors: John H. Byrne
eBook ISBN: 9780323149839
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1989
Page Count: 454
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Description

Neural Models of Plasticity: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches focuses on the use of theoretical and empirical methods in investigating the role of neuronal plasticity in learning, memory, and complex brain functions. It examines the neuromodulation in relation to associative learning and memory, developmental assembly of various components of learning and memory, cellular and molecular processes contributing to associative and non-associative learning, and higher-order features of classical conditioning. Organized into 19 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the central pathways mediating conditioning in the marine mollusk Hermissenda and the behavior modified by conditioning, along with the role of neuromodulation in associative learning in this organism. It then proceeds with a discussion of learning and memory in the marine mollusk Aplysia, the Hebb rule for synaptic plasticity, a drive-reinforcement model of neuronal function for predicting classical conditioning phenomena, and the relationship between olfactory processing and associative memory. The reader is also introduced to a neural circuit for classical conditioning of the eyelid closure response, molecular mechanisms and roles of long-term depression in cerebellar function, and functions of neuronal networks in the hippocampus and neocortex in memory. The book concludes with a chapter on models of calcium regulation in neurons. This book is a valuable resource for neurobiologists, psychologists, adaptive systems theorists, and others working in the fields of anatomy, physiology, neurophysiology, molecular biophysics, chemistry, biology, and psychiatry.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

1 Associative Learning, Memory, and Neuromodulation in Hermissenda

Introduction

Organization of the Central Nervous System

Conditioning Procedure

Associative and Nonassociative Contributions to Phototactic Suppression

Neuromodulation: Possible Contribution to Conditioning

Short- and Long-Term Plasticity

Discussion and Conclusions

References

2 Developmental Assembly of Multiple Components of Learning and Memory in Aplysia

Introduction

Different Forms of Learning in Aplysia Emerge According to Different Developmental Timetables

Cellular Analogs of Learning Have the Same Developmental Timetables as Their Respective Behavioral Forms of Learning

Analysis of Nondecremented Responses Prior to the Emergence of Sensitization Reveals a Novel Inhibitory Process

Sensitization Emerges Simultaneously in Different Response

Systems in Aplysia

Widespread Proliferation of Central Neurons Occurs in the Same Developmental Stage as the Emergence of Sensitization

Concluding Remarks

References

3 Turtles All the Way Down: Some Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Long-Term Sensitization in Aplysia

Molecular Components Underlying Sensitization

Long-Term Sensitization Is Accompanied by a Decrease in Regulatory Subunits

A Molecular Mechanism for Enhanced Protein Phosphorylation

The Mechanism by Which R Subunits Are Diminished

Role of Synthesizing New Proteins for Long-Term Memory: The Mechanism behind the Other Mechanisms?

Turtles All the Way Down: An Indian Story

References

4 Mathematical Model of Cellular and Molecular Processes Contributing to Associative and Nonassociative Learning in Aplysia

Introduction

Subcellular Model for Associative and Nonassociative Learning

Simulation and Predictions of the Model

Discussion

References

5 A Simple Circuit Model for Higher-Order Features of Classical Conditioning

Behavioral and Cellular Studies of Learning in Aplysia

A Quantitative Model for Conditioning

Simulations of Basic Features of Conditioning

Simulations of Higher-Order Features of Conditioning

Discussion

References

6 The Hebb Rule for Synaptic Plasticity: Algorithms and Implementations

Introduction

Levels of Analysis

Implementations of the Hebb Rule

Conditioning

Conclusions

References

7 Classical Conditioning Phenomena Predicted by a Drive-Reinforcement Model of Neuronal Function

Introduction

The Neuronal Model

Predictions of the Model

Experimental Tests

Summary

References

Appendix: Parameter Specifications for the Computer Simulations of the Neuronal Models

8 Olfactory Processing and Associative Memory: Cellular and Modeling Studies

Introduction

Feeding Command Neurons

The LIMAX Model

Behavioral Aspects of the LIMAX Model

Challenges to Umax from LIMAX

Challenges to LIMAX from Umax

Future Directions

References

9 Neural Circuit for Classical Conditioning of the Eyelid Closure Response

Introduction

The Dorsal Accessory Olive-Climbing Fiber System—The Essential US Reinforcing (Teaching) Pathway?

The Nature of Reinforcement in Classical Conditioning and the Role of Climbing Fibers

References

10 Long-Term Depression: Possible Cellular Mechanism for Learning Mediated by the Cerebellum

Introduction

Specification of LTD

Involvement of Glutamate Receptors in LTD

Involvement of Ca2+ Inflow in LTD

Role of LTD in the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

Discussion

References

11 Simulation of a Classically Conditioned Response: A Cerebellar Neural Network Implementation of the Sutton-Barto-Desmond Model

Introduction

The Model

Neural Implementation in Cerebellum

References

12 Memory and the Hippocampus

Introduction

Human Amnesia

Amnesia Can Result from Hippocampal Damage

The Neuropsychological Data

The Neurophysiological Data

The Neuroanatomical Data: Topography of Sensory Inputs to Hippocampus and Intrinsic Hippocampal Connections

Memory and the Hippocampus: Conclusions

References

13 Functions of Neuronal Networks in the Hippocampus and Neocortex in Memory

Functions of the Primate Hippocampus in Memory

Computational Theory of the Hippocampus

Systems-Level Theory of Hippocampal Function

Theoretical Significance of Backprojections in the Neocortex

References

14 Long-Term Potentiation in Two Synaptic Systems of the Hippocampal Brain Slice

Introduction

Hippocampal Circuitry and the Brain Slice

LTP Induction and Expression in Hippocampal Brain Slices

LTP in the Mossy-Fiber Synapses of the Hippocampus

LTP in the Schaffer Collateral/Commissural Synapses of the Hippocampus

Two Forms of Hippocampal LTP Based on Receptor-Mediated Controls

Summary and Conclusions

References

15 The Role of Norepinephrine in Long-Term Potentiation at Mossy-Fiber Synapses in the Hippocampus

Introduction

Characteristics of Mossy-Fiber Synapses

Norepinephrine in Hippocampus

Norepinephrine and Mossy-Fiber LTP

Membrane Mechanisms of Norepinephrine

Conclusions

References

16 Some Possible Functions of Simple Cortical Networks Suggested by Computer Modeling

Introduction

Network Operating Rules Deduced from Physiological Experiments

Synaptic Modification Rules

Simulations of a Cortical Layer

References

17 Neural Architecture and Biophysics for Sequence Recognition

Introduction

The Recognition Problem

18 Local Synaptic and Electrical Interactions in Hippocampus: Experimental Data and Computer

Simulations

Introduction

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

19 Models of Calcium Regulation in Neurons

Introduction

Calcium-Dependent Currents and Electrical Activity

Presynaptic Calcium and Transmitter Release

Conclusion

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
454
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1989
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323149839

About the Editor

John H. Byrne

The June and Virgil Waggoner Professor and Chair, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Dr. Byrne is an internationally acclaimed Neuroscientist. He received his PhD under the direction of Noble Prize winner, Eric Kandel. Dr. Byrne is a prolific author and Editor-in-Chief of Learning and Memory (CSHP).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA