Neural Models of language Processes  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120597802, 9780323140812

Neural Models of language Processes

1st Edition

Editors: Michael Arbib
eBook ISBN: 9780323140812
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th March 1982
Page Count: 592
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Description

Neural Models of Language Processes offers an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the nature of human language and the means whereby we use it. The book is organized into five parts. Part I provides an opening framework that addresses three tasks: to place neurolinguistics in current perspective; to provide two case studies of aphasia; and to discuss the ""rules of the game"" of the various disciplines that contribute to this volume. Part II on artificial intelligence (AI) and processing models discusses the contribution of AI to neurolinguistics. The chapters in this section introduce three AI systems for language perception: the HWIM and HEARSAY systems that proceed from an acoustic input to a semantic interpretation of the utterance it represents, and Marcus9 system for parsing sentences presented in text. Studying these systems demonstrates the virtues of implemented or implementable models. Part III on linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives includes studies such as nonaphasic language behavior and the linguistics and psycholinguistics of sign language. Part IV examines neurological perspectives such as the neuropathological basis of Broca's aphasia and the simulation of speech production without a computer. Part V on neuroscience and brain theory includes studies such as the histology, architectonics, and asymmetry of language areas; hierarchy and evolution in neurolinguistics; and perceptual-motor processes and the neural basis of language.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

I An Opening Perspective

1 Neurolinguistics in Historical Perspective

Introduction

Early Observation and Theory

The Transition to Modernity

The Diagram Makers

Problems and Attacks

Where Were We in 1908 and in 1958?

Representations, Processes, and Instantiations

Coda

References

2 Two Case Studies: Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

Introduction

The Western Aphasia Battery and Classification

Localization of Lesions

The Syndromes

Case Presentations

Conclusion

References

3 Brain and Language: The Rules of the Game

Anatomical and Evolutive Aspects of Behavior

Physiology of Language

The Visible and the Invisible Aspects of Brain Activities and Behavior

Information Processing Analysis

Artificial Models, Theories, and Language Processing

Brain and Language Theories: A History of Disparity

References

II Artificial Intelligence and Processing Models

4 From Artificial Intelligence to Neurolinguistics

Introduction

Syntax as a Symptom of Translation

Planning as an Ongoing Process

Toward a C2 Methodology for Neurolinguistics

ATNS, Broca's Aphasia, and the Evolutionary Substrate

Conclusion

References

5 HWIM: A Speech Understanding System on a Computer

Incremental Simulation of Human Speech Understanding

The HWIM System

A Sample Analysis of an Utterance

References

6 Consequences of Functional Deficits in a Parsing Model: Implications for Broca's Aphasia

A Sketch of the Language Understanding System

The Parser

Hypothetical Deficit 1Loss of Closed Class Lexicon

Conclusion

References

7 Production Strategies: A Systems Approach to Wernicke's Aphasia

Wernicke's Aphasia Seen as a Processing Deficit, Not as a Knowledge Loss

Jargonaut, a Research Tool in Language Processing

Neural Machines and Fuzzing Effects

How Errors Are Generated

The Effect of Lesions upon the Fuzzied System: Distorting Transformations

Appendix

References

III Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Perspectives

8 Three Perspectives for the Analysis of Aphasic Syndromes

On Modeling Linguistic CapacitySome General Considerations

A Grammatical Analysis of Agrammatism

Two Processing Analyses of Agrammatism

Conclusion

References

9 The Use of Data from Aphasia in Constructing a Performance Model of Language

Grammatical and Processing Accounts of Broca's Aphasia

Access to Features of Structure and Meaning and Some On-Line Considerations

Some Other Issues for Future Research

References

10 Remarks on the Relation between Language Production and Language Comprehension Systems

Introduction

Structural Targets in Production and Comprehension

Using the Lexicon for Recognition and Recall

Phrasal Structure

Organization of Production and Comprehension Systems

Conclusion

References

11 Shared Components of Production and Perception

Shared Syntactic Knowledge

Shared Processing Units

Shared Complexity Rankings

References

12 The Translational Hierarchy of Language

Introduction

Evidence from Language Pathology

Linguistic Theory

Competence and Performance

Conduction Aphasia

Nonlesion Evidence

The Mind-Body Problem

The Problem of Control

Relational Networks and Aphasia

Some Illustrations

Summary

References

13 Prospects for the Study of Aphasia in a Visual-Gestural Language

Introduction

The Structure of a Visual-Gestural Language

Background to the Study of Aphasia in Deaf Signers

Issues in the Study of Aphasia in Deaf Signers

References

IV Neurological Perspectives

14 The Neuropathological Basis of Broca's Aphasia and Its Implications for the Cerebral Control of Speech

Evidence from Neuropathological Studies

Anatomical and Physiological Studies

The Cortical Mediation of SpeechAn Alternative Model

References

15 Localization of Lesions in Fluent Aphasies

Introduction

Localization in Wernicke's Aphasia

Lesions in Neologistic Jargon

Lesions in Semantic Jargon

Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

Pure Word Deafness

Conduction Aphasia

Mumbling Jargon

Undifferentiated Jargon

Conclusion

References

16 Simulation of Speech Production without a Computer

Process Control and Motivation in Glossolalia: Comments on Lecours' Presentation by Pierre Lavorel

References

17 The Neurology of Reading Disorders

What Is Reading?

What Is a Reading Disorder?

Acquired Reading Disorders (Alexias)

References

18 What Is a Symptom-Complex?

Introduction

Syndromes in Practice

Modifications within the Clinical Paradigm

A Little History

Two Syndromes

Conclusion

References

19 Reconciling the Categories: Representation in Neurology and in Linguistics

V Neuroscience and Brain Theory

20 Histology, Architectonics, and Asymmetry of Language Areas

General Principles of Architectonic Organization

Broca's Region

Wernicke's Region

Other Language Areas

References

21 Hierarchy and Evolution in Neurolinguistics

Microgenesis and Modularity

Maturation and Aphasia

The Nature of Agrammatism

The Defect in Motor Aphasia

The Defect in Posterior Aphasia

The Role of the Right Hemisphere

Perceptuomotor Systems and Language Representation

Mind and Microgenesis

References

22 Organization of Frontal Association Cortex in Normal and Experimentally Brain-Injured Primates

Modular Organization of Cortical Connections

Recovery of Associative Functions after Brain Damage

References

23 Implications of Simulated Lesion Experiments for the Interpretation of Lesions in Real Nervous Systems

Introduction

Anderson's Model of Associative Memory

Simulated Lesion Experiments

Implications for the Interpretation of Real Lesion Experiments

References

24 Confrontation Naming: Computational Model and Disconnection Simulation

Qualitative Model Outline

Processing Dynamics

Neural Basis

Assumptions for Simulation

Lesioning

Model Results

Deficiencies

Accomplishments

References

25 Perceptual-Motor Processes and the Neural Basis of Language

Introduction

Jacksonian Levels and Cooperative Computation

From the Action-Perception Cycle to Conversation

From Prey Selection to Object Naming

Conclusion

References

Index






Details

No. of pages:
592
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323140812

About the Editor

Michael Arbib