Network Recovery - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127150512, 9780080512518

Network Recovery

1st Edition

Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS

Authors: Jean-Philippe Vasseur Mario Pickavet Piet Demeester
eBook ISBN: 9780080512518
Hardcover ISBN: 9780127150512
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 20th July 2004
Page Count: 544
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Communications networks today 1.1.1 Fundamental networking concepts 1.1.2 Layered network representation 1.1.3 Network planes 1.2 Network reliability 1.2.1 Definitions 1.2.2 Which failures can occur? 1.2.3 Reliability requirements for various users and services 1.2.4 Measures to increase reliability 1.3 Different phases in a recovery process 1.3.1 Recovery cycle 1.3.2 Reversion cycle 1.4 Performance of recovery mechanisms: criteria 1.4.1 Scope of failure coverage 1.4.2 Recovery time 1.4.3 Backup capacity requirements 1.4.4 Guaranteed bandwidth 1.4.5 Reordering and duplication 1.4.6 Additive latency and jitter 1.4.7 State overhead 1.4.8 Scalability 1.4.9 Signaling requirements 1.4.10 Stability 1.4.11 Notion of recovery class 1.5 Classification of single-layer recovery mechanisms 1.5.1 Backup capacity: dedicated versus shared 1.5.2 Recovery paths: pre-planned versus dynamic 1.5.3 Protection versus restoration 1.5.4 Global versus local recovery 1.5.5 Control of recovery mechanisms 1.5.6 Ring networks versus mesh networks 1.5.7 Connection-oriented versus connectionless 1.5.8 Revertive versus non-revertive mode 1.6 Multi-layer recovery 1.7 Conclusion

Chapter 2: SONET-SDH

2.1 Introduction: transmission networks
2.1.1 Transmission Networks
2.1.2 Management of (Transmission) Networks
2.1.3 Structuring/Modeling Transmission Networks
2.1.4 Summarizing conclusions
2.2 SDH and SONET Networks 2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 Structure of SDH networks
2.2.3 SDH frame structure: overhead bytes relevant for network recovery 2.2.4 SDH Network Elements 2.2.5 Summarizing conclusion 2.2.6 Differences between SONET/SDH
2.3 Operational aspects
2.3.1 Fault management processes 2.3.2 Fault detection and propagation inside a network element
2.3.3 Fault propagation and notification on a network level
2.3.4 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) protocol
2.4 Ring protection 2.4.1 Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring (MS-SP Ring)
2.4.2 Multiplex Section Dedicated Protection Ring (MS-DP Ring)
2.4.3 Sub-Network Connection Protection Ring (SNCP Ring) 2.4.4 Ring Interconnection
2.4.5 Summarizing conclusions
2.4.6 Difference between Sonet and SDH
2.5 Linear Protection 2.5.1 Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) 2.5.2 Path protection 2.5.3 Summarizing conclusions
2.6 Restoration
2.6.1 Protection versus restoration 2.6.2 Summarizing conclusions 2.7 Case study
2.7.1 Assumptions: network scenario, node configurations, and protection strategies 2.7.3 Proposed network design and evaluation process 2.7.4 Cost comparison for different protection strategies 2.7.5 Summarizing conclusions 2.8 Summary 2.9 Recommended reference work and research-related topics

Chapter 3: Optical Networks

3.1 Evolution of the optical network layer 3.1.1 Wavelength Division Multiplexing in the point-to-point optical network layer 3.1.2 An optical networking layer with optical nodes 3.1.3 An optical network layer organized in rings 3.1.4 Meshed optical networks 3.1.5 Adding flexibility to the optical network layer 3.2. The Optical Transport Network 3.2.1 Architectural aspects and structure of the optical transport network 3.2.2 Structure of the Optical Transport Module 3.2.3 Overview of the standardization work on the Optical Transport Network 3.3 Fault detection and propagation 3.3.1 The optical network overhead 3.3.2 Defects in the optical transport network 3.3.3 OTN maintenance signals and alarm suppression 3.4 Recovery in optical networks 3.4.1 Recovery at the optical layer? 3.4.2 Standardization work on recovery in the optical transport network 3.4.3 Shared Risk Group 3.5 Recovery mechanisms in ring-based optical networks 3.5.1 Multiplex Section Protection in ring-based optical networks 3.5.2 Optical channel protection in ring-based optical networks 3.5.3 OMS versus OCh based approach 3.5.4 Shared versus dedicated approach 3.5.5 Interconnection of rings 3.6 Recovery mechanisms in mesh-based optical networks 3.6.1 Protection versus restoration 3.7 Ring-based versus mesh-based recovery schemes 3.8 Availability 3.8.1 Availability calculations 3.8.2 Availability: some observations 3.9 Som recent trends in research 3.9.1 p-cycles 3.9.2 Meta-mesh recovery technique 3.9.3 Flexible optical networks 3.10 Summary

Chapter 4: IP Routing

4.1 IP routing protocols 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Distance vector routing protocol overview 4.1.3 Link State routing protocol overview 4.1.4 IP routing: a local versus global restoration mechanism? 4.2 Analysis of the IP recovery cycle 4.2.1 Fault detection and characterization 4.2.2 Hold-off timer 4.2.3 Fault notification time 4.2.4 Computation of the routing table 4.2.5 An example of IP rerouting upon link failure 4.3 Failure profile and fault detection 4.3.1 Failure profiles 4.3.2 Failure detection 4.3.3 Failure characterization 4.3.4 Analysis of the various failure types and their impact on traffic 4.4 Dampening algorithms 4.5 FIS propagation (LSA origination and flooding) 4.5.1 LSA origination process 4.5.2 LSA flooding process 4.5.3 Time estimate for the LSA origination and flooding process 4.6 Route computation 4.6.1 Shortest path computation 4.6.2 The Dijkstra algorithm 4.6.3 Shortest path computation triggers 4.6.4 Routing Information Base (RIB) update 4.7 Temporary loops during network states changes 4.7.1 Temporary loops in the case of a node or a link failure 4.7.2 Temporary loops caused by a restored network element 4.8 Load balancing 4.9 QOS guarantees during failure 4.10 Non Stop Forwarding: an example with OSPF 4.11 A case study with IS-IS 4.12 Summary 4.13 Algorithm complexity 4.14 Incremental SPF 4.15 Interaction between fast IGP convergence and NSF 4.16 Research related topics

Chapter 5: MPLS Traffic Engineering

5.1 MPLS Traffic Engineering refresher 5.1.1 Traffic Engineering in data networks 5.1.2 Terminology 5.1.3 MPLS Traffic Engineering components 5.1.4 Notion of preemption in MPLS Traffic Engineering 5.1.5 Motivations for deploying MPLS Traffic Engineering 5.2. Analysis of the recovery cycle 5.2.1 Fault detection time 5.2.2 Hold-off timer 5.2.3 Fault notification time 5.2.4 Recovery operation time 5.2.5 Traffic recovery time 5.3. MPLS Traffic Engineering global default restoration 5.3.1 Fault Signal Indication 5.3.2 Mode of Operation 5.3.3 Recovery Time 5.4 MPLS Traffic engineering global path protection 5.4.1 Mode of operation 5.4.2 Recovery time 5.5 MPLS Traffic Engineering local protection 5.5.1 Terminology 5.5.2 Principles of local protection recovery techniques 5.5.3 Local Protection-"One to one backup" 5.5.4 Local Protection-"Facility backup" 5.5.5 Properties of a Traffic Engineering LSP 5.5.6 Notification of "Tunnel locally repaired" 5.5.7 Signaling extensions for MPLS Traffic Engineering local protection 5.5.8 Two strategies for deploying MPLS Traffic Engineering for fast recovery 5.6. Another MPLS Traffic Engineering recovery alternative 5.7. Load balancing 5.8 Comparison of global protection and local protection 5.8.1 Recovery time 5.8.2 Scalability 5.8.3 Bandwidth sharing capability 5.8.4 Summary 5.9 Revertive versus non revertive modes 5.9.1 MPLS Traffic Engineering default global restoration 5.9.2 MPLS Traffic Engineering global path protection 5.9.3 MPLS Traffic Engineering Local protection 5.10 Failure profiles and fault detection 5.10.1 MPLS-specific failure detection hello based protocol 5.10.2 Requirements for an accurate failure type characterization 5.10.3 Analysis of the various failure types and their impact on traffic forwarding 5.11 Case Studies 5.11.1 Case Study 1 5.11.2 Case Study 2 5.11.3 Case Study 3 5.12 Standardization 5.13 Summary 5.14 RSVP signaling extensions for MPLS TE local protection 5.14.1 SESSION-ATTRIBUTE object 5.14.2 FAST REROUTE object 5.14.3 DETOUR object 5.14.4 Route Record Object (RRO) 5.14.5 Signaling a protected Traffic Engineering LSP with a set of constraints 5.14.6 Identification of a signaled TE LSP 5.14.7 Signaling with Facility backup 5.14.8 Signaling with one-to-one backup 5.14.9 Detour merging 5.15 Backup path computation 5.15.1 Introduction 5.15.2 Requirements for strict QoS guarantees during failure 5.15.3 Network design considerations 5.15.4 Notion of bandwidth sharing between backup paths 5.15.5 Backup path computation – MPLS TE global path protection 5.15.6 Backup path computation – MPLS TE Fast Reroute Facility Backup 5.15.7 Backup tunnel path computation with MPLS TE Fast Reroute One-to-One Backup 5.15.8 Summary 5.16 Research related topics

Chapter 6 Multi-Layer Networks

6.1 ASON / GMPLS networks 6.1.1 The ASON/ASTN framework 6.1.2 Protocols for implementing a distributed control plane 6.1.3 Overview of control plane architectures (overlay, peer, augmented) 6.2 Generic multi-layer recovery approaches 6.2.1 Why multi-layer recovery? 6.2.2 Single-layer recovery schemes in multi-layer networks 6.2.3 Static multi-layer recovery schemes 6.2.4 Dynamic multi-layer recovery 6.2.5 Summary 6.3 Case studies 6.3.1 Case study 1: Optical restoration and MPLS Traffic Engineering Fast Reroute 6.3.2 Case study 2: SONET-SDH protection and IP routing 6.3.3 Case study 3: MPLS Traffic Engineering Fast Reroute (Link Protection) and IP Rerouting Fast convergence 6.4 Conclusion 6.5 References


Network Recovery is the first book to provide detailed information on protecting and restoring communication networks, and it sets a sky-high standard for any that may follow. Inside, you’ll learn specific techniques that work at each layer of the networking hierarchy—including optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS—as well as multi-layer escalation strategies that offer the highest level of protection. The authors begin with an incisive introduction to the issues that define the field of network protection and restoration, and as the book progresses they explain everything you need to know about the relevant protocols, providing theoretical analyses wherever appropriate. If you work for a network-dependent organization, large or small, you’ll want to keep Network Recovery within reach at all times.

Key Features

  • Shows you how to implement protection and recovery techniques that will save your organization time and money.
  • Documents techniques for the optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS layers, as well as multi-layer escalation strategies.
  • Shows you how to evaluate these techniques in relation to one another, so you can develop an optimal network recovery design.
  • Provides industry examples and simulation results.
  • Delves into the inner workings of relevant protocols and offers theoretical analyses wherever this information contributes to your practical knowledge.


Networking professionals in medium to large corporations (including gov't. and military) as well as telecom companies, i.e., network engineers and consultants, network managers, systems engineers, protocol designers, network architects and designers, service providers and equipment vendors.


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© Morgan Kaufmann 2004
Morgan Kaufmann
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"If one desires to learn as extensive and still evolving a field as network recovery, he or she will be interested in a book prepared by authors related to two somewhat separate worlds: industry and academia. ... This combination of knowledge gives an excellent overview of hot topics related to communications network resilience.... The advantage of this book is related to the fact that each chapter can be read separately, since the authors briefly repeat the most important ideas as necessary. The other benefit is that the current state of the development level of some techniques is signaled. To sum up, the book gives the reader a deep insight into "how it works." ... Thanks to this fact, the book can be recommended to everybody interested in network recovery, from layperson to experienced designer who would like to learn about the latest solutions." -- IEEE Communications Magazine, Book Reviews, July 2005. Reviewer: Piotr Cholda "This is the right book at the right time for anyone in the telecommunications business, or anyone who is dependent on the services provided by the telecommunications business that would like to understand the new Internet that is rapidly becoming the common reality." —From the Foreword by Scott Bradner, Senior Technical Consultant and University Technology, Security Officer at Harvard University "This book provides a welcome overview of the many techniques applied to protect and recover data paths in IP and MPLS networks as well as in SONET/SDH and optical transport networks. The analysis and case studies of MPLS Traffic Engineering recovery mechanisms will be particularly useful to operators intending to deploy MPLS protection within their networks." —Adrian Farrel, Old Dog Consulting & Co-Chair of the IETF CCAMP Working Group "I recommend this book to anyone responsible for the design, implementation and management of any-sized communications network." —David Cooper, Global Crossing "Writing a didactic and up-to-date book on protection and restoration techniques in new generation WDM networks is a real challenge. This requires two distinct fields of expertise in new generation IP/MPLS networks and in advanced optical transmission systems respectively. For the first time, such specialists have joined their efforts to make a book that gives readers a unique opportunity for understanding the details behind the main characteristics and challenges of multi-layer survivability." -Maurice Gagnaire, ENST, École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications

About the Authors

Jean-Philippe Vasseur Author

Jean-Philippe Vasseur is a Distinguished Engineer at Cisco Systems. He is the co-chair of the ROLL working group in the IETF and the chair of technology advisory board in the IP for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance. JP Vasseur has co-authored a number of RFCs on IP routing, MPLS, Traffic Engineering and Smart Object networks.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Engineer at Cisco Systems

Mario Pickavet Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Ghent University, Gent, Belgium

Piet Demeester Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Ghent University, Gent, Belgium