Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set

21st Edition - April 1, 2019

Write a review

  • Authors: Robert Kliegman, Joseph St. Geme
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323568906
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323568883
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323529501

Purchase options

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Welcome to the 21st Edition of Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics – the reference of choice among pediatricians, pediatric residents, and others involved in the care of young patients. This fully revised edition continues to provide the breadth and depth of knowledge you expect from Nelson, while also keeping you up to date with new advances in the science and art of pediatric practice. Authoritative and reader-friendly, it delivers the information you need in a concise, easy-to-use format for everyday reference and study. From rapidly changing diagnostic and treatment protocols to new technologies to the wide range of biologic, psychologic, and social problems faced by children today, this comprehensive 2-volume reference keeps you on the cutting edge of the very best in pediatric care.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Videos
  • Volume 1
  • Part I The Field of Pediatrics
  • 1 Overview of Pediatrics
  • Vital Statistics About Children's Health Globally
  • The Changing Pediatric World
  • The New Morbidities
  • Chronic Illness and Children With Special Health Care Needs
  • Systems of Care
  • Bibliography
  • 2 Child Health Disparities
  • Determinants of Health and Health Disparities
  • Disparities in Child Health and Healthcare:
  • Approaches to Eradicating Disparities: Interventions
  • Keywords
  • Racism as Social Determinant
  • Explaining Racial Disparities: A Taxonomy of Racism
  • Opportunities to Address Racism
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 3 Global Child Health
  • Global Burden and Trends in Child Health
  • Social Determinants of Child Health
  • Evidence-Based Interventions and Innovations to Address Child Health Inequities
  • Challenges in Global Health
  • Bibliography
  • 4 Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children
  • The Need for Improvement in Quality and Value
  • What Is Quality?
  • Framework for Quality
  • Developing Guidelines to Establish the Standard for Quality
  • Improving Quality
  • Measuring Quality
  • Analyzing Quality Data
  • Comparing and Reporting Quality
  • Implications of the U.S. Healthcare Reform for Quality
  • Information Technology and Quality Improvement
  • Expanding Individual Quality Improvement Initiatives to Scale
  • Bibliography
  • 5 Safety in Healthcare for Children
  • Error vs Harm
  • Safety Frameworks
  • Identifying and Analyzing Harm, Errors, and Latent Threats
  • Safety Culture
  • Reliability Science and High-Reliability Organizations
  • Serious Harm Events and Healthcare-Associated Conditions
  • Safety Opportunities and Gaps
  • Emerging Areas of Safety Research and Improvement
  • Bibliography
  • 6 Ethics in Pediatric Care
  • Assent and Parental Permission
  • Treatment of Critically Ill Children
  • Neonatal Ethics
  • Declaring Death and Organ Donation
  • Religious or Cultural Objections to Treatment
  • Pediatric Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultation
  • Newborn Screening
  • Genetics, Genomics, and Precision Medicine
  • Adolescent Healthcare
  • Research
  • Balancing Maternal and Fetal Interests
  • Justice and Pediatric Ethics
  • Emerging Issues
  • Bibliography
  • 7 Pediatric Palliative Care
  • Care Settings
  • Communication, Advance Care Planning, and Anticipatory Guidance
  • Bibliography
  • 8 Domestic and International Adoption
  • Domestic Adoption
  • Intercountry Adoption
  • Role of Pediatricians
  • Bibliography
  • 9 Foster and Kinship Care
  • Epidemiology
  • Legislation in the United States
  • Early Childhood Trauma Leads to Poor Health Outcomes
  • Health Issues
  • Healthcare for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care
  • Bibliography
  • 10 Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child
  • Commonly Encountered Infections
  • Immunizations
  • Bibliography
  • 11 Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care
  • What Is Culture?
  • Culturally Informed Care
  • Bibliography
  • 12 Maximizing Children's Health
  • Periodicity Schedule and Guidelines
  • Tasks of Well-Child Care
  • Infancy and Early Childhood
  • Middle Childhood and Adolescence
  • Office Intervention for Behavioral and Mental Health Issues
  • Evidence
  • Caring for the Child and Youth in the Context of the Family and Community
  • Bibliography
  • 13 Injury Control
  • Scope of the Problem
  • Principles of Injury Control
  • Risk Factors for Childhood Injuries
  • Mechanisms of Injury
  • Psychosocial Consequences of Injuries
  • Bibliography
  • 14 Impact of Violence on Children
  • Impacts of Violence
  • Keywords
  • Bullying and Cyberbullying
  • School Violence
  • Treatment and Prevention of Bullying and School Violence
  • Bibliography
  • Resources
  • Keywords
  • Screening
  • Recommendations (see Table 14.1)
  • Bibliography
  • Resources
  • Keywords
  • Susceptibility of Children in Times of War
  • Psychological Impact of War
  • Efforts to Protect Children From the Effects of War
  • Role of Pediatricians and Allied Health Professionals
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 15 Child Trafficking for Sex and Labor
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Approach to the Potentially Trafficked Child
  • Examination and Diagnostic Testing
  • Referrals and Resources
  • Bibliography
  • 16 Abused and Neglected Children
  • Definitions
  • Incidence and Prevalence
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • General Principles for Assessing Possible Abuse and Neglect
  • General Principles for Addressing Child Maltreatment
  • Outcomes of Child Maltreatment
  • Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Advocacy
  • Keywords
  • Definition
  • Presentation of Sexual Abuse
  • Role of General Pediatrician in Assessment and Management of Possible Sexual Abuse
  • Physical Examination of the Child With Suspected Sexual Abuse
  • Additional Management
  • Sexual Abuse Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 17 Strategies for Health Behavior Change
  • Unified Theory of Behavior Change
  • Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change
  • Common Factors Approach
  • Motivational Interviewing
  • Shared Decision-Making
  • Bibliography
  • Part II Growth, Development, and Behavior
  • 18 Developmental and Behavioral Theories
  • Biopsychosocial Model and Ecobiodevelopmental Framework: Models of Development
  • Bibliography
  • 19 Positive Parenting and Support
  • The Importance of Parenting
  • The Role of the Family
  • Parenting Styles
  • Child Temperament
  • Child Behavioral Problems
  • Defining Positive Parenting
  • Parenting as an Intervention
  • The Role of the Pediatrician
  • Bibliography
  • 20 Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development
  • Somatic Development
  • Neurologic Development
  • Behavioral Development
  • Psychologic Changes in Parents
  • Threats to Fetal Development
  • Bibliography
  • 21 The Newborn
  • Parental Role in Mother–Infant Attachment
  • The Infant's Role in Mother–Infant Attachment
  • Implications for the Pediatrician
  • Bibliography
  • 22 The First Year
  • Age 0-2 Months
  • Age 2-6 Months
  • Age 6-12 Months
  • Bibliography
  • 23 The Second Year
  • Age 12-18 Months
  • Age 18-24 Months
  • Bibliography
  • 24 The Preschool Years
  • Structural Development of the Brain
  • Physical Development
  • Language, Cognition, and Play
  • Bibliography
  • 25 Middle Childhood
  • Physical Development
  • Cognitive Development
  • Social, Emotional, and Moral Development
  • Bibliography
  • 26 Adolescence
  • 27 Assessment of Growth
  • Techniques to Measure Growth
  • Growth Curves
  • Other Growth Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • 28 Developmental and Behavioral Surveillance and Screening
  • Developmental and Behavioral Surveillance
  • Developmental and Behavioral Screening
  • Beyond Surveillance and Screening
  • Bibliography
  • 29 Childcare
  • Provision, Regulation, and Use of Childcare in America
  • Childcare's Role in Child Health and Development
  • Role of Pediatric Providers in Childcare
  • Bibliography
  • 30 Loss, Separation, and Bereavement
  • Separation and Loss
  • Divorce
  • Move/Family Relocation
  • Separation Because of Hospitalization
  • Military Families
  • Parental/Sibling Death
  • Grief and Bereavement
  • Developmental Perspective
  • Role of the Pediatrician in Grief
  • Treatment
  • Spiritual Issues
  • Bibliography
  • 31 Sleep Medicine
  • Basics of Sleep and Chronobiology
  • Developmental Changes in Sleep
  • Common Sleep Disorders
  • Health Supervision
  • Evaluation of Pediatric Sleep Problems
  • Bibliography
  • Part III Behavioral and Psychiatric Disorders
  • 32 Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing
  • Aims of Assessment
  • Presenting Problems
  • General Principles of the Psychosocial Interview
  • Indications for Referral
  • Psychiatric Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Special Considerations in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Infants and Young Children
  • Bibliography
  • 33 Psychopharmacology
  • Stimulants and Other ADHD Medications
  • Antidepressants
  • Antipsychotics
  • Mood Stabilizers
  • Medication Use in Physical Illness
  • Bibliography
  • 34 Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization
  • Psychotherapy
  • Psychiatric Hospitalization
  • Bibliography
  • 35 Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Assessment
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • 36 Rumination and Pica
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 37 Motor Disorders and Habits
  • Description
  • Clinical Course
  • Epidemiology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Comorbidities
  • Etiology
  • Sequelae
  • Screening
  • Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Description
  • Clinical Course
  • Epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Etiology
  • Treatment
  • Habits
  • Bibliography
  • 38 Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety Associated With Medical Conditions
  • Safety and Efficacy Concerns About SSRIs
  • Bibliography
  • 39 Mood Disorders
  • Description
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Course
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Comorbidity
  • Sequelae
  • Etiology and Risk Factors
  • Prevention
  • Screening/Case Finding
  • Early Intervention
  • Treatment
  • Level of Care
  • Bibliography
  • Description
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Course
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Comorbidity
  • Sequelae
  • Etiology and Risk Factors
  • Prevention
  • Case Finding
  • Treatment
  • Level of Care
  • Bibliography
  • 40 Suicide and Attempted Suicide
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Assessment and Intervention
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 41 Eating Disorders
  • Definitions
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 42 Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders
  • Description
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Course
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Comorbidity
  • Sequelae
  • Etiology and Risk Factors
  • Prevention
  • Screening/Case Finding
  • Early Intervention
  • Treatment
  • Level of Care
  • Bibliography
  • 43 Tantrums and Breath-Holding Spells
  • Bibliography
  • 44 Lying, Stealing, and Truancy
  • Lying
  • Stealing
  • Truancy
  • Bibliography
  • 45 Aggression
  • Bibliography
  • 46 Self-Injurious Behavior
  • Bibliography
  • 47 Childhood Psychoses
  • Description
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Course
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Comorbidity
  • Sequelae
  • Etiology and Risk Factors
  • Neuroanatomic Abnormalities
  • Prevention
  • Screening/Case Finding
  • Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Part IV Learning and Developmental Disorders
  • 48 Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction
  • Terminology and Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Core Neurodevelopmental Functions
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Assessment and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 49 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 50 Dyslexia
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 51 Math and Writing Disabilities
  • Keywords
  • Math Learning Disability Defined
  • Epidemiology
  • Causes of Math Learning Disability
  • Treatment and Interventions
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Skill Deficits Associated With Impaired Writing
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 52 Language Development and Communication Disorders
  • Normal Language Development
  • Language and Communication Disorders
  • Motor Speech Disorders
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Rare Causes of Language Impairment
  • Noncauses of Language Delay
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Comorbid Disorders
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Etiology
  • Comorbidities
  • Developmental Progression
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 53 Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability
  • Definition
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic Psychologic Testing
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care and Management
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 54 Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Definition
  • Diagnostic Criteria and Symptoms
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Comorbid Conditions
  • Screening
  • Assessment
  • Treatment and Management
  • Outcome
  • Bibliography
  • Part V Nutrition
  • 55 Nutritional Requirements
  • Dietary Reference Intakes
  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fiber
  • Micronutrients
  • Water
  • Measuring Nutritional Adequacy
  • Bibliography
  • 56 Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents
  • Feeding During the First Year of Life
  • Cow's Milk Protein–Based Formulas
  • Soy Formulas
  • Protein Hydrolysate Formulas
  • Amino Acid Formulas
  • Milk and Other Fluids in Infants and Toddlers
  • Complementary Feeding
  • Feeding Toddlers and Preschool-Age Children
  • Feeding School-Age Children and Adolescents
  • Nutrition Issues of Importance Across Pediatric Ages
  • Bibliography
  • 57 Nutrition, Food Security, and Health
  • Malnutrition as the Intersection of Food Insecurity and Health Insecurity
  • Food Security
  • Undernutrition
  • Severe Acute Malnutrition
  • Bibliography
  • 58 Refeeding Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • 59 Malnutrition
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Etiology and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 60 Overweight and Obesity
  • Epidemiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Etiology
  • Comorbidities
  • Identification
  • Evaluation
  • Intervention
  • Prevention
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Etiology: Studies and Hypotheses
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 61 Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess
  • Overview of Vitamin A
  • Metabolism of Vitamin A
  • Functions of Vitamin A and Mechanisms of Action
  • Vitamin A Deficiency
  • Hypervitaminosis A
  • Bibliography
  • 62 Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess
  • Keywords
  • Thiamine Deficiency
  • Thiamine Toxicity
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Riboflavin Deficiency
  • Riboflavin Toxicity
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Niacin Deficiency
  • Niacin Toxicity
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Vitamin B6 Deficiency
  • Vitamin B6 Toxicity
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Folate Deficiency
  • Folate Toxicity
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • 63 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Deficiency and Excess
  • Dietary Needs and Sources of Vitamin C
  • Vitamin C Deficiency
  • Vitamin C Toxicity
  • Bibliography
  • 64 Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess
  • Rickets
  • Vitamin D Disorders
  • Calcium Deficiency
  • Phosphorus Deficiency
  • Rickets of Prematurity
  • Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis
  • Hypervitaminosis D
  • Bibliography
  • 65 Vitamin E Deficiency
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 66 Vitamin K Deficiency
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 67 Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies
  • Bibliography
  • Part VI Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders
  • 68 Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders
  • Keywords
  • Total Body Water
  • Fluid Compartments
  • Electrolyte Composition
  • Osmolality
  • Point-of-Care Testing
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Regulation of Osmolality
  • Regulation of Volume
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Sodium Metabolism
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hyponatremia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Potassium Metabolism
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Magnesium Metabolism
  • Hypomagnesemia
  • Hypermagnesemia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Phosphorus Metabolism
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Acid-Base Physiology
  • Normal Acid-Base Balance
  • Clinical Assessment of Acid-Base Disorders
  • Metabolic Acidosis
  • Metabolic Alkalosis
  • Respiratory Acidosis
  • Respiratory Alkalosis
  • Bibliography
  • 69 Maintenance and Replacement Therapy
  • Maintenance Therapy
  • Maintenance Water
  • Intravenous Solutions
  • Glucose
  • Selection of Maintenance Fluids
  • Variations in Maintenance Water and Electrolytes
  • Replacement Fluids
  • Bibliography
  • 70 Deficit Therapy
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Calculation of the Fluid Deficit
  • Approach to Severe Dehydration
  • Monitoring and Adjusting Therapy
  • Hyponatremic Dehydration
  • Hypernatremic Dehydration
  • Bibliography
  • 71 Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders
  • Acute Diarrhea
  • Pyloric Stenosis
  • Perioperative Fluids
  • Part VII Pediatric Drug Therapy
  • 72 Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics
  • Definition of Terms
  • Developmental or Pediatric Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
  • Drug Biotransformation: Applications to Pediatric Therapy
  • Pharmacogenetics of Drug Transporters
  • Polymorphisms in Drug Receptors
  • Current and Future Applications in Pediatrics
  • Bibliography
  • 73 Principles of Drug Therapy
  • General Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles
  • Impact of Ontogeny on Drug Disposition
  • Impact of Ontogeny on Pharmacodynamics
  • Additional Considerations in Pediatric Therapeutics
  • Drug Formulation and Administration
  • Adherence and Compliance
  • Drug-Drug Interactions
  • Adverse Drug Reactions
  • Personalized Medicine
  • Bibliography
  • 74 Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
  • Preanesthetic Evaluation
  • Preoperative Preparation
  • General Anesthesia
  • Induction of General Anesthesia
  • Maintenance of Anesthesia
  • Postanesthesia Care Unit
  • Postoperative Pain Management
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 75 Procedural Sedation
  • Bibliography
  • 76 Pediatric Pain Management
  • Definition and Categories of Pain
  • Assessment and Measurement of Pain in Children
  • Conceptual Framework for Treatment of Pediatric Pain
  • Unconventional Medications in Pediatric Pain
  • Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Pain
  • Invasive Interventions for Treating Pain
  • Intrathecal Analgesia
  • Nerve Ablation and Destruction
  • Considerations for Special Pediatric Populations
  • Chronic and Recurrent Pain Syndromes
  • Managing Complex Chronic Pain Problems
  • Bibliography
  • 77 Poisoning
  • Prevention
  • Approach to the Poisoned Patient
  • Principles of Management
  • Select Compounds in Pediatric Poisoning
  • Bibliography
  • 78 Complementary Therapies and Integrative Medicine
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Dietary Supplement Safety
  • Dietary Supplement Efficacy
  • Massage and Chiropractic
  • Mind-Body Therapies
  • Acupuncture
  • Cannabis
  • Bibliography
  • Part VIII Emergency Medicine and Critical Care
  • 79 Emergency Medical Services for Children
  • Primary Care Physician and Office Preparedness
  • Pediatric Prehospital Care
  • The Emergency Department
  • Keywords
  • Communications and Dispatch Center
  • Medical Control Physician
  • Transport Team
  • Ground vs Air Ambulance
  • Transport Physiology
  • Safety
  • Family-Centered Care
  • Referring Hospital Responsibilities
  • Educational Outreach
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Outcome Measures in Emergency Medical Services for Children
  • Risk Adjustment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Continuum-of-Care Model
  • Humanitarian Disasters
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 80 Triage of the Acutely Ill Child
  • Assessment of Vital Signs
  • History
  • Physical Examination
  • Management
  • Disposition
  • Bibliography
  • 81 Pediatric Emergencies and Resuscitation
  • Approach to the Emergency Evaluation of a Child
  • Recognition and Treatment of Respiratory Distress and Failure
  • Recognition and Management of Shock
  • Recognition of Bradyarrhythmias and Tachyarrhythmias
  • Recognition and Management of Cardiac Arrest
  • Vascular Access
  • Nonvascular Emergency Procedures
  • Postresuscitation Care
  • Bibliography
  • 82 Acute Care of Multiple Trauma
  • Epidemiology
  • Regionalization and Trauma Teams
  • Primary Survey
  • Secondary Survey
  • Psychological and Social Support
  • Bibliography
  • 83 Spinal Cord Injuries in Children
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Clearing the Cervical Spine in Children
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 84 Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations
  • Lacerations and Cuts
  • Abrasions
  • Bibliography
  • 85 Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization
  • Neurocritical Care Principles
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Bibliography
  • 86 Brain Death
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Observation Periods
  • Ancillary Studies
  • Documentation
  • Supportive Care
  • Objections to the Idea of Brain Death
  • Bibliography
  • 87 Syncope
  • Mechanisms
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 88 Shock
  • Epidemiology
  • Types of Shock
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 89 Respiratory Distress and Failure
  • Respiratory Distress
  • Respiratory Failure
  • Monitoring a Child in Respiratory Distress and Respiratory Failure
  • Management
  • Keywords
  • Basic Concepts of Ventilator Management
  • Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
  • Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
  • Additional Ventilatory Modalities
  • Conventional Ventilator Settings
  • Patient-Ventilator Asynchrony
  • Monitoring Respiratory Mechanics
  • Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 90 Altitude-Associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)
  • Etiology
  • General Effects of Hypobaric Hypoxia
  • Acute Mountain Sickness
  • High-Altitude Cerebral Edema
  • High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
  • Special Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • 91 Drowning and Submersion Injury
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Management
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 92 Burn Injuries
  • Epidemiology
  • Prevention
  • Acute Care, Resuscitation, and Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Electrical Burns
  • Bibliography
  • 93 Cold Injuries
  • Pathophysiology
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Cold-Induced Fat Necrosis (Panniculitis)
  • Bibliography
  • Part IX Human Genetics
  • 94 Integration of Genetics Into Pediatric Practice
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Predictive Testing
  • Predispositional Testing
  • Pharmacogenetic Testing
  • Talking to Families
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Physiologic Therapies
  • Replacement Therapies
  • Bibliography
  • 95 The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine
  • The Burden of Genetic Disorders in Childhood
  • The Changing Paradigm of Genetics in Medicine
  • Ethics Issues
  • Bibliography
  • 96 The Human Genome
  • Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in Genetic Disease
  • Human Genome Project
  • Bibliography
  • 97 Patterns of Genetic Transmission
  • Family History and Pedigree Notation
  • Mendelian Inheritance
  • Y-Linked Inheritance
  • Inheritance Associated With Pseudoautosomal Regions
  • Digenic Inheritance
  • Pseudogenetic Inheritance and Familial Clustering
  • Nontraditional Inheritance
  • Multifactorial and Polygenic Inheritance
  • Bibliography
  • 98 Cytogenetics
  • Bibliography
  • Aneuploidy and Polyploidy
  • Down Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Translocations
  • Inversions
  • Deletions and Duplications
  • Insertions
  • Isochromosomes
  • Marker and Ring Chromosomes
  • Bibliography
  • Turner Syndrome
  • Klinefelter Syndrome
  • 47,XYY
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Pallister-Killian Syndrome
  • Hypomelanosis of Ito
  • Uniparental Disomy
  • Imprinting
  • Bibliography
  • 99 Genetics of Common Disorders
  • Linkage Mapping
  • Genetic Association
  • Bibliography
  • 100 Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease
  • Epigenetic Mechanisms of Disease: Viable Yellow Mouse Model
  • Epigenetics and Regulation of Gene Expression
  • Pediatric Diseases Involving Epigenetic Processes
  • Epigenome-Wide Association Studies: DNA Methylation
  • Cell Fate Variability as Model for Epigenetics and Disease
  • Epigenetic Disease and Therapeutic Interventions
  • Bibliography
  • 101 Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases
  • Scope of Genetic Disease
  • Clinical Evaluation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays
  • Exome Sequencing
  • Gene Function Studies
  • Pediatric Issues
  • The Diagnostic Spectrum
  • Bibliography
  • Part X Metabolic Disorders
  • 102 An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Newborn Screening
  • Clinical Manifestations of Genetic Metabolic Diseases
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 103 Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids
  • Keywords
  • Severe Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency (Classic Phenylketonuria)
  • Hyperphenylalaninemia Caused by Deficiency of the Cofactor Tetrahydrobiopterin
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin Defects Without Hyperphenylalaninemia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Tyrosinemia Type I (Fumarylacetoacetate Hydrolase Deficiency, Hepatorenal Tyrosinemia)
  • Tyrosinemia Type II (Tyrosine Aminotransferase Deficiency, Richner-Hanhart Syndrome, Oculocutaneous Tyrosinemia)
  • Tyrosinemia Type III (Primary Deficiency of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase)
  • Hawkinsinuria
  • Transient Tyrosinemia of the Newborn
  • Alkaptonuria
  • Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency
  • Albinism
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Homocystinuria (Homocystinemia)
  • Hypermethioninemia
  • Primary Cystathioninemia (Cystathioninuria)
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency and Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Hartnup Disorder
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
  • Branched-Chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Kinase Deficiency
  • Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transporter Deficiency
  • Isovaleric Acidemia
  • Multiple Carboxylase Deficiencies (Defects of Biotin Cycle)
  • 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency
  • 3-Methylglutaconic Acidurias
  • β-Ketothiolase (3-Oxothiolase) Deficiency (Mitochondrial Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase [T2] Deficiency)
  • Cytosolic Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase Deficiency
  • Mitochondrial 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency
  • 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency (3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaric Aciduria)
  • Succinyl-CoA:3-Oxoacid-CoA Transferase Deficiency
  • Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency
  • Propionic Acidemia (Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency)
  • Isolated Methylmalonic Acidemias
  • Combined Methylmalonic Aciduria and Homocystinuria (cblC, cblD, cblF, cblJ, and cblX Defects)
  • Isolated Homocystinuria
  • Combined Malonic and Methylmalonic Aciduria (ACSF3-Related Disorder)
  • Bibliography
  • Hypoglycinemia
  • Hyperglycinemia
  • Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia (Glycine Encephalopathy)
  • Sarcosinemia
  • Primary Trimethylaminuria
  • Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • 3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Phosphoserine Aminotransferase Deficiency
  • 3-Phosphoserine Phosphatase Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Hyperprolinemia Type I
  • Hyperprolinemia Type II
  • Prolidase Deficiency
  • Disorders of De Novo Proline Synthesis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency
  • γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase Deficiency (Glutathionemia)
  • Genetic Disorders of Metabolism of γ-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency (Infantile Parkinsonism, Autosomal Recessive Dopa-Responsive Dystonia, Autosomal Recessive Segawa Syndrome)
  • Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency
  • Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Deficiency
  • Monoamine Oxidase a Deficiency
  • Disorders of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism
  • Defects in Neurotransmitter Transporter Proteins
  • Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency
  • Hyperprolinemia
  • 3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Phosphoserine Aminotransferase Deficiency
  • Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Genetic Causes of Hyperammonemia
  • Clinical Manifestations of Hyperammonemia
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment of Acute Hyperammonemia
  • Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 and N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Deficiencies
  • Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency
  • Citrullinemia
  • Argininosuccinate Lyase Deficiency (Argininosuccinic Aciduria)
  • Arginase 1 Deficiency (Hyperargininemia)
  • Transient Hyperammonemia of the Newborn
  • Disorders of Ornithine Metabolism
  • Congenital Glutamine Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)–Dependent Epilepsy
  • Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 (Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency)
  • Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (Familial Protein Intolerance)
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Atypical Canavan Disease
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 104 Defects in Metabolism of Lipids
  • Keywords
  • Defects in the β-Oxidation Cycle
  • Defects in the Carnitine Cycle
  • Defects in the Electron Transfer Pathway
  • Defects in the Ketone Synthesis Pathway
  • Defects in Ketone Body Utilization
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Peroxisomal Disorders
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology of Blood Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Blood Lipids and Atherogenesis
  • Plasma Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • GM1 Gangliosidosis
  • The GM2 Gangliosidoses
  • Gaucher Disease
  • Niemann-Pick Disease
  • Fabry Disease
  • Fucosidosis
  • Schindler Disease
  • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
  • Multiple-Sulfatase Deficiency
  • Krabbe Disease
  • Farber Disease
  • Wolman Disease and Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • I-Cell Disease
  • Pseudo-Hurler Polydystrophy
  • Bibliography
  • 105 Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates
  • Keywords
  • Liver Glycogenoses
  • Muscle Glycogenoses
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase Deficiency Galactosemia
  • Galactokinase Deficiency
  • Uridine Diphosphate Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Deficiency of Fructokinase (Essential or Benign Fructosuria)
  • Deficiency of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase (Aldolase B, Hereditary Fructose Intolerance)
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Disorders of Gluconeogenesis
  • Disorders of Pyruvate Metabolism
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Essential Pentosuria
  • Transaldolase Deficiency
  • Ribose-5-Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Sialidosis and Galactosialidosis
  • Aspartylglucosaminuria
  • α-Mannosidosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Congenital Disorders of Protein N-Glycosylation
  • Congenital Disorders of Protein O-Glycosylation
  • Defects in Lipid Glycosylation and in Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Biosynthesis
  • Defects in Multiple Glycosylation Pathways and in Other Pathways, Including Dolicholphosphate Biosynthesis Defects
  • Congenital Disorders of Deglycosylation
  • Therapeutic Summary
  • Bibliography
  • 106 Mitochondrial Disease Diagnosis
  • Overview of Mitochondrial Disease
  • When to Suspect Mitochondrial Disease
  • Mitochondrial Disease Inheritance
  • Diagnostic Testing for Mitochondrial Disease
  • Treatment Principles for Mitochondrial Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 107 Mucopolysaccharidoses
  • Disease Entities
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 108 Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
  • Gout
  • Abnormalities in Purine Salvage
  • Disorders Linked to Purine Nucleotide Synthesis
  • Disorders Resulting From Abnormalities in Purine Catabolism
  • Disorders of Pyrimidine Metabolism
  • Bibliography
  • 109 Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (Progeria)
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Molecular Pathogenesis
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Patient Resources
  • Bibliography
  • 110 The Porphyrias
  • The Heme Biosynthetic Pathway
  • Classification and Diagnosis of Porphyrias
  • δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Deficient Porphyria
  • Acute Intermittent Porphyria
  • Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria
  • Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
  • Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria
  • Hereditary Coproporphyria
  • Variegate Porphyria
  • Erythropoietic Protoporphyria and X-Linked Protoporphyria
  • Dual Porphyria
  • Porphyria Resulting From Tumors
  • Bibliography
  • 111 Hypoglycemia
  • Definition
  • Significance and Sequelae
  • Substrate, Enzyme, and Hormonal Integration of Glucose Homeostasis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Classification of Hypoglycemia in Infants and Children
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Part XI The Fetus and the Neonatal Infant
  • 112 Overview of Morbidity and Mortality
  • Infant Mortality
  • Major Causes of Infant Death
  • Infant Mortality Reduction
  • Bibliography
  • 113 The Newborn Infant
  • General Appearance
  • Skin
  • Skull
  • Face
  • Neck
  • Chest
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Abdomen
  • Genitals
  • Anus
  • Extremities
  • Neurologic Examination
  • Bibliography
  • Maintenance of Body Heat
  • Antiseptic Skin and Cord Care
  • Newborn Prophylaxis and Screening
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Rooming-in and Breastfeeding
  • Bibliography
  • 114 High-Risk Pregnancies
  • Genetic Factors
  • Maternal Factors
  • Bibliography
  • 115 The Fetus
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Noninfectious Diseases (see Table 114.2)
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 116 Fetal Intervention and Surgery
  • Fetal Therapy Ethics
  • Obstructive Uropathy
  • Nonobstructive Renal Disease
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation
  • Myelomeningocele
  • Other Indications
  • Fetal Centers
  • Bibliography
  • 117 The High-Risk Infant
  • Keywords
  • Monozygotic vs Dizygotic Twins
  • Incidence
  • Etiology
  • Atypical Twinning
  • Complications
  • Twin Syndromes (TRAP, TTTS)
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Incidence
  • Etiology
  • Assessment of Gestational Age
  • Nursery Care
  • Immaturity of Drug Metabolism
  • Morbidity and Mortality
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Moderate Preterm Infant
  • Late Preterm Infant
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Small for Gestational Age and IUGR
  • Large-for-Gestational-Age Infants
  • Postterm Infants
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Discharge From the Hospital
  • Postdischarge Follow-Up
  • Bibliography
  • 118 Transport of the Critically Ill Newborn
  • Regionalized Care of Newborns
  • Levels of Neonatal Care
  • Transport of the Critically Ill Neonate
  • Bibliography
  • 119 Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period
  • Abnormal Movements
  • Altered Mental Status
  • Apnea
  • Congenital Anomalies
  • Cyanosis
  • Gastrointestinal Disturbances
  • Hypotension
  • Jaundice
  • Pain
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 120 Nervous System Disorders
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Pathophysiology and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Brachial Palsy
  • Phrenic Nerve Paralysis
  • Facial Nerve Palsy
  • Bibliography
  • 121 Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies
  • Neonatal Resuscitation
  • Resuscitation of the Preterm Infant
  • Special Circumstances in the Delivery Room
  • Injury During Delivery
  • Ongoing Care After Resuscitation
  • Bibliography
  • 122 Respiratory Tract Disorders
  • Keywords
  • The First Breath
  • Breathing Patterns in Newborns
  • Keywords
  • Apnea of Prematurity
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Apnea of Prematurity and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Incidence
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Incidence
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Incidence and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (Bochdalek)
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 123 Digestive System Disorders
  • Keywords
  • Meconium Plugs
  • Meconium Ileus
  • Meconium Peritonitis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Physiologic Jaundice (Icterus Neonatorum)
  • Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Jaundice Associated With Breastfeeding
  • Neonatal Cholestasis
  • Congenital Atresia of the Bile Ducts
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Incidence and Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment of Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Bibliography
  • 124 Blood Disorders
  • Keywords
  • Normal Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Newborn Infants
  • Classification of Anemia and Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment Options for Neonatal Anemia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Hemolytic Disease Caused by Rh Incompatibility
  • Hemolytic Disease Caused by Blood Group A and B Incompatibility
  • Other Forms of Hemolytic Disease
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding
  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy
  • Neonatal Thrombocytopenia
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 125 The Umbilicus
  • Umbilical Cord
  • Hemorrhage
  • Granuloma
  • Infections
  • Umbilical Hernia
  • Congenital Omphalocele
  • Tumors
  • Bibliography
  • 126 Abstinence Syndromes
  • Keywords
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnostic Criteria
  • Clinical Features
  • Interventions and Treatment
  • Outcomes
  • The Pediatrician's Role
  • Bibliography
  • 127 The Endocrine System
  • Keywords
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 128 Dysmorphology
  • Classification of Birth Defects
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Malformations
  • Approach to the Dysmorphic Child
  • Bibliography
  • 129 Epidemiology of Infections
  • Incidence and Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • General Approach to Management
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 130 Healthcare-Acquired Infections
  • Incidence
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Types of Infection
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 131 Congenital and Perinatal Infections
  • General Approach
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Specific Infectious Agents
  • General Approach
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Specific Infectious Agents
  • Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • Part XII Adolescent Medicine
  • 132 Adolescent Physical and Social Development
  • Physical Development
  • Neurologic, Cognitive, and Moral Development
  • Psychosocial Development
  • Implications for Providers, Parents, and Policymakers
  • Bibliography
  • 133 Gender and Sexual Identity
  • Terms and Definitions
  • Factors That Influence Sexual Identity Development
  • Nonconformity in Gender Expression Among Children and Adolescents
  • Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Identities Among Children and Adolescents
  • Bibliography
  • 134 Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents
  • Prevalence of Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Youth
  • Development of Sexual Orientation in Childhood and Adolescence
  • Stigma, Risk, and Resilience
  • Health
  • Recommendations for Care
  • Bibliography
  • 135 Transgender Care
  • Cultural and Clinical Competence
  • Gender Literacy
  • Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Families
  • Bibliography
  • 136 The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems
  • Access to Healthcare
  • Bibliography
  • 137 Delivery of Healthcare to Adolescents
  • Bibliography
  • Interviewing the Adolescent
  • Psychosocial Assessment
  • Physical Examination
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 138 Transitioning to Adult Care
  • Bibliography
  • 139 Violent Behavior
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 140 Substance Abuse
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Screening for Substance Abuse Disorders
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Pharmacology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Cigarettes
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes)
  • Hookah
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Synthetic Marijuana
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Complications
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
  • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • Phencyclidine
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Withdrawal
  • Overdose Syndrome
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 141 The Breast
  • Female Disorders
  • Male Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • 142 Menstrual Problems
  • Normal Menstruation
  • Menstrual Irregularities
  • Keywords
  • History and Physical Examination
  • Laboratory Studies
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Irregular Menstrual Bleeding
  • Heavy and Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 143 Contraception
  • Contraceptive Effectiveness
  • Keywords
  • Sexual Activity
  • Use of Contraception Among Teens
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Intrauterine Devices
  • Implants
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Depo-Provera
  • Progestin-Only Pills
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Combined Oral Contraceptives
  • Transdermal Patch
  • Vaginal Ring
  • Contraindications
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Copper IUD
  • Ulipristal Acetate
  • Levonorgestrel
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Condoms
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Diaphragm, Cervical Cap, and Sponge
  • Keywords
  • Spermicides
  • Withdrawal
  • Fertility Awareness–Based Methods
  • Lactational Amenorrhea Method
  • Bibliography
  • 144 Adolescent Pregnancy
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Pregnancy Counseling and Initial Management
  • Adolescent Fathers
  • Medical Complications of Mothers and Babies
  • Psychosocial Outcomes/Risks for Mother and Child
  • Prevention of Teen Pregnancies
  • Bibliography
  • 145 Adolescent Sexual Assault
  • Epidemiology
  • Types of Rape
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Interview and Physical Examination
  • Laboratory Data
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 146 Sexually Transmitted Infections
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Screening
  • Common Infections and Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 147 Chronic Overlapping Pain Conditions
  • Prevalence
  • Symptom/Disorder Overlap
  • Psychiatric Comorbidities
  • Predisposing Factors
  • Natural History
  • Proposed Pathophysiology
  • Treatment
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Part XIII Immunology
  • Section 1 Evaluation of the Immune System
  • 148 Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency
  • Advanced Testing
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 The T-, B-, and NK-Cell Systems
  • 149 Lymphocyte Development and Function
  • Lymphopoiesis in the Fetus
  • Postnatal Lymphocyte Behavior
  • Inheritance of Abnormalities in T-, B-, and NK-Cell Development
  • Bibliography
  • 150 Primary Defects of Antibody Production
  • X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia
  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency
  • Selective IgA Deficiency
  • IgG Subclass Deficiencies
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy- and Light-Chain Deletions
  • Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy
  • Class Switch Defects
  • X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 151 Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity
  • Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
  • T-Cell Activation Defects
  • Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
  • Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis–Ectodermal Dysplasia
  • Bibliography
  • 152 Immunodeficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types
  • Keywords
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Genetics
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
  • Ataxia-Telangiectasia
  • Autosomal Dominant Hyper-IgE Syndrome
  • DOCK8 Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Interferon-γ Receptors 1 and 2, IL-12 Receptor β1, and IL-12P40 Defects
  • IL-1R–Associated Kinase 4 Deficiency and Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
  • Natural Killer Cell Deficiency
  • Defects in Innate Responses to Viral Infection
  • Defects in Innate Responses to Fungi
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
  • Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-Linked Syndrome
  • Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) Deficiency
  • Lipopolysaccharide (Lps)-Responsive Beige-Like Anchor Protein (LRBA) Deficiency
  • Activated Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) δ Syndromes
  • Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) Pathway Defects
  • Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway Defects
  • Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain 7A (TTC7A) Deficiency
  • Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2)
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 The Phagocytic System
  • 153 Neutrophils
  • The Phagocytic Inflammatory Response
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Neutrophil Maturation and Kinetics
  • Neutrophil Function
  • Bibliography
  • 154 Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells
  • Development
  • Activation
  • Functional Activities
  • Dendritic Cells
  • Abnormalities of Monocyte-Macrophage or Dendritic Cell Function
  • Bibliography
  • 155 Eosinophils
  • Diseases Associated With Eosinophilia
  • Bibliography
  • 156 Disorders of Phagocyte Function
  • Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome
  • Myeloperoxidase Deficiency
  • Chronic Granulomatous Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 157 Leukopenia
  • Neutropenia
  • Lymphopenia
  • Bibliography
  • 158 Leukocytosis
  • Neutrophilia
  • Additional Forms of Leukocytosis
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 The Complement System
  • 159 Complement Components and Pathways
  • Classical and Lectin Pathways
  • Alternative Pathway
  • Membrane Attack Complex
  • Control Mechanisms
  • Participation in Host Defense
  • Bibliography
  • 160 Disorders of the Complement System
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Section 5 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • 161 Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • HSCT From an HLA-Identical Sibling Donor
  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes Other Than Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin Disease
  • Acquired Aplastic Anemia
  • Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes
  • Thalassemia
  • Sickle Cell Disease
  • Immunodeficiency Disorders
  • Inherited Metabolic Diseases
  • Bibliography
  • 162 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation From Alternative Sources and Donors
  • Unrelated Donor Transplants
  • Umbilical Cord Blood Transplants
  • Haploidentical Transplants
  • Donor Versus Recipient NK-Cell Alloreactivity
  • Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Bibliography
  • 163 Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Venoocclusive Disease
  • Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease
  • Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease
  • Graft Failure
  • Venoocclusive Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 164 Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Bibliography
  • 165 Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Endocrine Effects
  • Cardiovascular Effects
  • Secondary Malignancy
  • Graft-Versus-Host Disease
  • Other Effects
  • Special Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • Part XIV Allergic Disorders
  • 166 Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease
  • Key Elements of Allergic Diseases
  • Mechanisms of Allergic Tissue Inflammation
  • Genetic Basis of Atopy
  • Bibliography
  • 167 Diagnosis of Allergic Disease
  • Allergy History
  • Physical Examination
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Bibliography
  • 168 Allergic Rhinitis
  • Etiology and Classification
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 169 Childhood Asthma
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 170 Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)
  • Etiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Avoiding Triggers
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 171 Insect Allergy
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 172 Ocular Allergies
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 173 Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Physical Urticaria
  • Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Angioedema
  • Treatment
  • Hereditary Angioedema
  • Bibliography
  • 174 Anaphylaxis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 175 Serum Sickness
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 176 Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods
  • Genetics
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 177 Adverse Reactions to Drugs
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Part XV Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood (Connective Tissue Disease, Collagen Vascular Diseases)
  • 178 Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease
  • Symptoms Suggestive of Rheumatic Disease
  • Signs Suggestive of Rheumatic Disease
  • Laboratory Testing
  • Imaging Studies
  • Bibliography
  • 179 Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases
  • Pediatric Rheumatology Teams and Primary Care Physicians
  • Therapeutics
  • Bibliography
  • 180 Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 181 Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 182 Reactive and Postinfectious Arthritis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 183 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 184 Juvenile Dermatomyositis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 185 Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Classification
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 186 Behçet Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 187 Sjögren Syndrome
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 188 Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases
  • Classification of Autoinflammatory Disorders
  • Autoinflammatory Diseases With Periodic or Prominent Fevers
  • Other Mendelian Autoinflammatory Diseases
  • Genetically Complex Autoinflammatory Diseases
  • Bibliography
  • 189 Amyloidosis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 190 Sarcoidosis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 191 Kawasaki Disease
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory and Radiology Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 192 Vasculitis Syndromes
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 193 Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 194 Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis
  • Relapsing Polychondritis
  • Mucha-Habermann Disease/Pityriasis Lichenoides Et Varioliformis Acuta
  • Sweet Syndrome
  • Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy
  • Plant Thorn Synovitis
  • Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis
  • Bibliography
  • Part XVI Infectious Diseases
  • Section 1 General Considerations
  • 195 Diagnostic Microbiology
  • Specimen Collection
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial and Fungal Infections
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
  • Point-of-Care Diagnostics
  • Laboratory Detection of Parasitic Infections
  • Serologic Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections
  • Bibliography
  • 196 The Microbiome and Pediatric Health
  • Measuring the Microbiome
  • Early Childhood Development of the Microbiome
  • The Microbiome and Physiologic Development
  • Contributions of Microbiome to Disease
  • Therapeutic Manipulation of the Microbiome
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 Preventive Measures
  • 197 Immunization Practices
  • Passive Immunity
  • Active Immunization
  • Vaccination System in the United States
  • Recommended Immunization Schedule
  • Vaccines Recommended in Special Situations
  • Precautions and Contraindications
  • Medical Exemptions
  • Improving Immunization Coverage
  • Vaccine Hesitancy
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 198 Infection Prevention and Control
  • Hand Hygiene
  • Standard Precautions
  • Isolation
  • Additional Measures
  • Surgical Prophylaxis
  • Employee Health
  • Bibliography
  • 199 Childcare and Communicable Diseases
  • Epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections
  • Gastrointestinal Tract Infections
  • Skin Diseases
  • Invasive Organisms
  • Herpesviruses
  • Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Antibiotic Use and Bacterial Resistance
  • Prevention
  • Standards
  • Bibliography
  • 200 Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally
  • The Pediatric Travel Medicine Consultation
  • Safety and Preventive Counseling Topics
  • Routine Childhood Vaccinations Required for Pediatric Travel
  • Specialized Pediatric Travel Vaccinations
  • Traveler's Diarrhea
  • Insect-Borne Infections
  • Malaria Chemoprophylaxis
  • The Returning Traveler
  • The Adolescent Traveler
  • Bibliography
  • 201 Fever
  • Pathogenesis
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Evaluation
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • 202 Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate and Young Infant
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 203 Fever in the Older Child
  • Diagnosis
  • General Approach
  • Evaluation
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • 204 Fever of Unknown Origin
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 205 Infections in Immunocompromised Persons
  • Abnormalities of the Phagocytic System
  • Defective Splenic Function, Opsonization, or Complement Activity
  • B Cell Defects (Humoral Immunodeficiencies)
  • T Cell Defects (Cell-Mediated Immunodeficiencies)
  • Combined B Cell and T Cell Defects
  • Bibliography
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency From Infectious Agents
  • Malignancies
  • Fever and Neutropenia
  • Fever Without Neutropenia
  • Transplantation
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 206 Infection Associated With Medical Devices
  • Intravascular Access Devices
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts
  • Urinary Catheters
  • Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters
  • Orthopedic Prostheses
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 Antibiotic Therapy
  • 207 Principles of Antibacterial Therapy
  • Age- and Risk-Specific Use of Antibiotics in Children
  • Antibiotics Commonly Used in Pediatric Practice
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
  • 208 Staphylococcus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 209 Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 210 Group A Streptococcus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 211 Group B Streptococcus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 212 Non–Group A or B Streptococci
  • Bibliography
  • 213 Enterococcus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 214 Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 215 Listeria monocytogenes
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 216 Actinomyces
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 217 Nocardia
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical and Radiographic Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Section 5 Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
  • 218 Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 219 Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 220 Kingella kingae
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Disease
  • Spondylodiscitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 221 Haemophilus influenzae
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 222 Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • 223 Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis of Infection
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 224 Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 225 Salmonella
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Complications
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Complications
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 226 Shigella
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Immunity
  • Clinical Manifestations and Complications
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 227 Escherichia coli
  • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
  • Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli
  • Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
  • Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli
  • Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli
  • Diffusely Adherent Escherichia coli
  • Enteroaggregative Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention of Illness
  • Bibliography
  • 228 Cholera
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 229 Campylobacter
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 230 Yersinia
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 231 Aeromonas and Plesiomonas
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 232 Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Burkholderia mallei (Glanders)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis)
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 233 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 234 Brucella
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 235 Legionella
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 236 Bartonella
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bacillary Angiomatosis
  • Bacillary Peliosis
  • Bacteremia and Endocarditis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Section 6 Anaerobic Bacterial Infections
  • 237 Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 238 Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 239 Clostridium difficile Infection
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 240 Other Anaerobic Infections
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Common Anaerobic Pathogens
  • Bibliography
  • Section 7 Mycobacterial Infections
  • 241 Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy
  • Agents Used Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
  • Agents Used Against Mycobacterium Leprae
  • Agents Used Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
  • Bibliography
  • 242 Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Tools
  • Mycobacterial Sampling, Susceptibility and Culture
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 243 Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)
  • Microbiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Disease Classification
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Long-Term Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 244 Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Section 8 Spirochetal Infections
  • 245 Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 246 Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 247 Leptospira
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 248 Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 249 Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Section 9 Mycoplasmal Infections
  • 250 Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • The Organism
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 251 Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Section 10 Chlamydial Infections
  • 252 Chlamydia pneumoniae
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 253 Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 254 Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Section 11 Rickettsial Infections
  • 255 Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Supportive Care
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 256 Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Supportive Care
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 257 Typhus Group Rickettsioses
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 258 Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications and Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 259 Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Complications
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Section 12 Fungal Infections
  • 260 Principles of Antifungal Therapy
  • Polyenes
  • Pyrimidine Analogs
  • Azoles
  • Echinocandins
  • Bibliography
  • 261 Candida
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prophylaxis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Oral Candidiasis
  • Diaper Dermatitis
  • Ungual and Periungual Infections
  • Vulvovaginitis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Primary Immune Defects
  • Bibliography
  • 262 Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 263 Malassezia
  • Bibliography
  • 264 Aspergillus
  • Asthma
  • Extrinsic Alveolar Alveolitis
  • Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
  • Allergic Aspergillus Sinusitis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pulmonary Aspergilloma
  • Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis
  • Sinusitis
  • Otomycosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis
  • Cutaneous Aspergillosis
  • Invasive Sinonasal Disease
  • Central Nervous System
  • Eye
  • Bone
  • Heart
  • Empirical Antifungal Therapy
  • Bibliography
  • 265 Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 266 Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 267 Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 268 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 269 Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 270 Mucormycosis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 271 Pneumocystis jirovecii
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Section 13 Viral Infections
  • 272 Principles of Antiviral Therapy
  • Antivirals Used for Herpesviruses
  • Antivirals Used for Respiratory Viral Infections
  • Antivirals Used for Hepatitis
  • Antiviral Immune Globulins
  • Bibliography
  • 273 Measles
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Modified Measles Infection
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 274 Rubella
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnoses
  • Differential Diagnoses
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Vaccination
  • Bibliography
  • 275 Mumps
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 276 Polioviruses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 277 Nonpolio Enteroviruses
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 278 Parvoviruses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 279 Herpes Simplex Virus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 280 Varicella-Zoster Virus*
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Complications
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 281 Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Oncogenesis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 282 Cytomegalovirus
  • The Virus and Its Interaction With the Host
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 283 Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 284 Human Herpesvirus 8
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 285 Influenza Viruses*
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Complications
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 286 Parainfluenza Viruses*
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 287 Respiratory Syncytial Virus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 288 Human Metapneumovirus
  • Etiology
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 289 Adenoviruses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 290 Rhinoviruses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 291 Coronaviruses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis of SARS and MERS
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 292 Rotaviruses, Caliciviruses, and Astroviruses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 293 Human Papillomaviruses
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 294 Arboviral Infections
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Management
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 295 Dengue Fever, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, and Severe Dengue
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 296 Yellow Fever
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 297 Ebola and Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 298 Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 299 Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 300 Rabies
  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 301 Polyomaviruses
  • Bibliography
  • 302 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 303 Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology and Modes of Transmission
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
  • Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-1–Associated Myelopathy
  • Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-2
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 304 Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Prognosis
  • Family Support
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Section 14 Antiparasitic Therapy
  • 305 Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy
  • Selected Antiparasitic Drugs for Protozoans
  • Selected Antiparasitic Drugs for Helminths and Ectoparasites
  • Section 15 Protozoan Diseases
  • 306 Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 307 Amebiasis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 308 Giardiasis and Balantidiasis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 309 Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Diagnosis
  • Cystoisospora
  • Cyclospora
  • Microsporidia
  • Bibliography
  • 310 Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 311 Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 312 African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei Complex)
  • Etiology
  • Life Cycle
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 313 American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)
  • Etiology
  • Life Cycle
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 314 Malaria (Plasmodium)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications of Plasmodium Falciparum MALARIA
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 315 Babesiosis (Babesia)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 316 Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Systemic Signs
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • Section 16 Helminthic Diseases
  • 317 Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 318 Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 319 Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichiura)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 320 Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 321 Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 322 Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 323 Other Tissue Nematodes
  • Onchocerciasis (Onchocerca Volvulus)
  • Loiasis (Loa Loa)
  • Infection With Animal Filariae
  • Angiostrongylus Cantonensis
  • Angiostrongylus Costaricensis
  • Dracunculiasis (Dracunculus Medinensis)
  • Gnathostoma Spinigerum
  • Bibliography
  • 324 Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 325 Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 326 Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 327 Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)
  • Liver Flukes
  • Lung Flukes
  • Intestinal Flukes
  • Bibliography
  • 328 Adult Tapeworm Infections
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Diphyllobothriasis (Diphyllobothrium Spp.)
  • Hymenolepiasis (Hymenolepis)
  • Dipylidiasis (Dipylidium Caninum)
  • Bibliography
  • 329 Cysticercosis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 330 Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Volume 2
  • Part XVII The Digestive System
  • Section 1 Clinical Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disease
  • 331 Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena
  • Bibliography
  • 332 Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders
  • Dysphagia
  • Regurgitation
  • Anorexia
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
  • Abdominal Distention and Abdominal Masses
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 The Oral Cavity
  • 333 Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth
  • Development of Teeth
  • Bibliography
  • 334 Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated With Other Conditions
  • 335 Malocclusion
  • Variations in Growth Patterns
  • Crossbite
  • Open and Closed Bites
  • Dental Crowding
  • Digit Sucking
  • 336 Cleft Lip and Palate
  • Incidence and Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Postoperative Management
  • Sequelae
  • Velopharyngeal Dysfunction
  • Bibliography
  • 337 Syndromes With Oral Manifestations
  • Bibliography
  • 338 Dental Caries
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 339 Periodontal Diseases
  • Gingivitis
  • Aggressive Periodontitis in Children (Prepubertal Periodontitis)
  • Aggressive Periodontitis in Adolescents
  • Cyclosporine- or Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth
  • Acute Pericoronitis
  • Necrotizing Periodontal Disease (Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis)
  • Bibliography
  • 340 Dental Trauma
  • Injuries to Teeth
  • Injuries to Periodontal Structures
  • Prevention
  • Additional Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • 341 Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues
  • Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
  • Aphthous Ulcers
  • Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
  • Recurrent Herpes Labialis
  • Parulis
  • Cheilitis
  • Ankyloglossia
  • Geographic Tongue
  • Fissured Tongue
  • Developmental (Normal) Variations
  • Bibliography
  • 342 Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws
  • Parotitis
  • Ranula
  • Mucocele
  • Congenital Lip Pits
  • Eruption Cyst
  • Xerostomia
  • Salivary Gland Tumors
  • Histiocytic Disorders
  • Tumors of the Jaw
  • Bibliography
  • 343 Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 The Esophagus
  • 344 Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus
  • Embryology
  • Anatomy
  • Function
  • Keywords
  • Diagnostic Aids
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 345 Congenital Anomalies
  • Keywords
  • Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Outcome
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 346 Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus
  • Extrinsic
  • Intrinsic
  • Bibliography
  • 347 Dysmotility
  • Upper Esophageal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Dysmotility (Striated Muscle)
  • Lower Esophageal and Lower Esophageal Sphincter Dysfunction (Smooth Muscle)
  • Bibliography
  • 348 Hiatal Hernia
  • 349 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
  • Pathophysiology
  • Epidemiology and Natural History
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Keywords
  • Esophageal: Esophagitis and Sequelae—Stricture, Barrett Esophagus, Adenocarcinoma
  • Nutritional
  • Extraesophageal: Respiratory (“Atypical”) Presentations
  • Apnea and Stridor
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 350 Eosinophilic Esophagitis, Pill Esophagitis, and Infective Esophagitis
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis
  • Infective Esophagitis
  • Pill Esophagitis
  • Bibliography
  • 351 Esophageal Perforation
  • Bibliography
  • 352 Esophageal Varices
  • Bibliography
  • 353 Ingestions
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 Stomach and Intestines
  • 354 Normal Development, Structure, and Function of the Stomach and Intestines
  • Development
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • 355 Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • 356 Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • 357 Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • 358 Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • 359 Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions
  • Bibliography
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 360 Foreign Bodies and Bezoars
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 361 Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Primary Ulcers
  • Secondary Ulcers
  • “Stress” Ulceration
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 362 Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 363 Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis
  • Bibliography
  • 364 Disorders of Malabsorption
  • Clinical Approach
  • Keywords
  • Investigations for Carbohydrate Malabsorption
  • Investigations for Fat Malabsorption
  • Investigations for Protein-Losing Enteropathy
  • Investigations for Exocrine Pancreatic Function
  • Investigations for Intestinal Mucosal Disorders
  • Imaging Procedures
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Genetics and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Presentation and Associated Disorders
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • The Spectrum of Gluten-Related Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Defects of Enterocyte Differentiation and Polarization
  • Microvillus Inclusion Disease (Congenital Microvillus Atrophy)
  • Tufting Enteropathy (Congenital Tufting Enteropathy)
  • Tricho-Hepato-Enteric Syndrome (Syndromic Diarrhea)
  • Defects in Enteroendocrine Cells Differentiation
  • Enteric Anendocrinosis
  • Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency
  • Mitchell-Riley Syndrome
  • Aristaless-Related Homeobox Gene Mutations
  • Autoimmune Enteropathy
  • Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1
  • Abetalipoproteinemia
  • Homozygous Hypobetalipoproteinemia
  • Chylomicron Retention Disease (Anderson Disease)
  • DGAT1 Mutation
  • Wolman Disease
  • Tangier Disease
  • Sitosterolemia
  • Bile Acid Malabsorption
  • Protein-Losing Enteropathy
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Postinfectious Diarrhea
  • Proximal Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth
  • Environmental Enteropathy (Tropical Sprue)
  • Whipple Disease
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Carbohydrate Malabsorption
  • Lactase Deficiency
  • Fructose Malabsorption
  • Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency
  • Glucose-Galactose Malabsorption
  • Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
  • Enterokinase (Enteropeptidase) Deficiency
  • Trehalase Deficiency
  • Trypsinogen Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Disorders of Carbohydrate Absorption
  • Disorders of Amino Acid and Peptide Absorption
  • Disorders of Fat Transport
  • Disorders of Vitamin Absorption
  • Disorders of Electrolyte and Mineral Absorption
  • Bibliography
  • 365 Intestinal Transplantation in Children With Intestinal Failure
  • Indications for Intestinal Transplant
  • Transplantation Operation
  • Postoperative Management
  • Bibliography
  • 366 Acute Gastroenteritis in Children
  • Burden of Childhood Diarrhea
  • Pathogens
  • Epidemiology in the United States and Other Middle- and High-Income Countries
  • Epidemiology in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
  • Pathogenesis of Infectious Diarrhea
  • Clinical Manifestation of Diarrhea
  • Intestinal and Extraintestinal Complications
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Keywords
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 367 Chronic Diarrhea
  • Definition of Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Etiology
  • Evaluation of Patients
  • Investigations
  • Treatment
  • KeyWords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 368 Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children and Adolescents
  • Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders
  • Functional Defecation Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • 369 Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • 370 Acute Appendicitis
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Appendicitis Risk Scoring Systems
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Imaging Studies
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Antibiotics
  • Surgical Intervention
  • Perforated Appendicitis
  • Nonoperative Management of Uncomplicated Appendicitis
  • Recurrent Appendicitis
  • Interval Appendectomy
  • Incidental Appendicoliths
  • Bibliography
  • 371 Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum
  • Keywords
  • Embryology
  • Associated Anomalies
  • Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Approach to the Patient
  • Operative Repair
  • Outcome
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 372 Tumors of the Digestive Tract
  • Hamartomatous Tumors
  • Adenomatous Tumors
  • Other Gastrointestinal Tumors
  • Bibliography
  • 373 Inguinal Hernias
  • Embryology and Pathogenesis
  • Evaluation of Acute Inguinal–Scrotal Swelling
  • Direct Inguinal Hernia
  • Femoral Hernia
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • Section 5 Exocrine Pancreas
  • 374 Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology of the Pancreas
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 375 Pancreatic Function Tests
  • Direct Test
  • Bibliography
  • 376 Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas
  • Disorders Associated With Pancreatic Insufficiency
  • Cystic Fibrosis (see Chapter 432)
  • Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (see Chapter 157)
  • Pearson Syndrome
  • Johanson-Blizzard Syndrome
  • Isolated Enzyme Deficiencies
  • Other Syndromes Associated With Pancreatic Insufficiency
  • Bibliography
  • 377 Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency
  • Bibliography
  • 378 Pancreatitis
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 379 Pancreatic Fluid Collections
  • Treatment of Fluid Collections and Necrosis
  • Bibliography
  • 380 Pancreatic Tumors
  • Bibliography
  • Section 6 The Liver and Biliary System
  • 381 Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System
  • Hepatic Ultrastructure
  • Metabolic Functions of the Liver
  • Bibliography
  • 382 Manifestations of Liver Disease
  • Pathologic Manifestations
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Keywords
  • Biochemical Tests
  • Liver Biopsy
  • Hepatic Imaging Procedures
  • Diagnostic Approach to Infants With Jaundice
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 383 Cholestasis
  • Mechanisms
  • Evaluation
  • Intrahepatic Cholestasis
  • Bile Acid-Coenzyme a Ligase Deficiency
  • Disorders of Embryogenesis
  • Biliary Atresia
  • Management of Chronic Cholestasis
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 384 Metabolic Diseases of the Liver
  • Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type I (Glucuronyl Transferase Deficiency)
  • Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type II (Partial Glucuronyl Transferase Deficiency)
  • Inherited Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
  • Citrin Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • 385 Viral Hepatitis
  • Issues Common to All Forms of Viral Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis D
  • Hepatitis E
  • Approach to Acute or Chronic Hepatitis
  • Bibliography
  • 386 Liver Abscess
  • Bibliography
  • 387 Liver Disease Associated With Systemic Disorders
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Bacterial Sepsis
  • Celiac Disease
  • Cardiac Disease
  • Cholestasis Associated With Chronic Total Parenteral Nutrition
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation
  • Hemoglobinopathies
  • Histiocytic Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 388 Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Primary Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment of Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
  • Bibliography
  • 389 Autoimmune Hepatitis
  • Autoimmune Hepatitis
  • Etiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 390 Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 391 Acute Hepatic Failure
  • Etiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 392 Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver
  • Choledochal Cysts
  • Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Liver Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 393 Diseases of the Gallbladder
  • Anomalies
  • Acute Hydrops
  • Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis
  • Biliary Dyskinesia
  • Bibliography
  • 394 Portal Hypertension and Varices
  • Etiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 395 Liver Transplantation
  • Indications
  • Technical Innovations
  • Immunosuppression
  • Complications
  • Outcomes
  • Bibliography
  • Section 7 Peritoneum
  • 396 Peritoneal Malformations
  • Acknowledgment
  • Bibliography
  • 397 Ascites
  • Bibliography
  • 398 Peritonitis
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 399 Epigastric Hernia
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Bibliography
  • Part XVIII The Respiratory System
  • Section 1 Development and Function
  • 400 Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease
  • History
  • Physical Examination
  • Blood Gas Analysis
  • Transillumination of the Chest
  • Radiographic Techniques
  • Pulmonary Function Testing
  • Microbiology: Examination of Lung Secretions
  • The Microbiome (see Chapter 196)
  • Airway Visualization and Lung Specimen–Based Diagnostic Tests
  • Bibliography
  • 401 Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms
  • Judging the Seriousness of Chronic Respiratory Complaints
  • Recurrent or Persistent Cough
  • Frequently Recurring or Persistent Stridor
  • Recurrent or Persistent Wheeze
  • Recurrent and Persistent Lung Infiltrates
  • Evaluation
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 402 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Environmental Risk Factors
  • Genetic Risk Factors
  • Gene-Environment Interactions
  • Infant Groups at Increased Risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • Clinical Strategies
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Risk Factors
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Outcome
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 403 Brief Resolved Unexplained Events and Other Acute Events in Infants
  • Background
  • Definition
  • Epidemiology
  • Initial History
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 Disorders of the Respiratory Tract
  • 404 Congenital Disorders of the Nose
  • Normal Newborn Nose
  • Physiology
  • Congenital Disorders
  • Choanal Atresia
  • Congenital Defects of the Nasal Septum
  • Pyriform Aperture Stenosis
  • Congenital Midline Nasal Masses
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 405 Acquired Disorders of the Nose
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Anatomy
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 406 Nasal Polyps
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 407 The Common Cold
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 408 Sinusitis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 409 Acute Pharyngitis
  • Infectious Etiologies
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Chronic Group a Streptococcus Carriers
  • Recurrent Pharyngitis
  • Complications and Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 410 Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess
  • Retropharyngeal and Lateral Pharyngeal Abscess
  • Peritonsillar Cellulitis and/or Abscess
  • Bibliography
  • 411 Tonsils and Adenoids
  • Anatomy
  • Normal Function
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Chronic Airway Obstruction
  • Bibliography
  • 412 Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 413 Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 414 Foreign Bodies in the Airway
  • Epidemiology and Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 415 Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 416 Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 417 Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 418 Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis
  • Keywords
  • General Pathophysiology of Wheezing in Infants
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Acute Bronchitis
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Cigarette Smoking and Air Pollution
  • Bibliography
  • 419 Plastic Bronchitis
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 420 Emphysema and Overinflation
  • Localized Obstructive Overinflation
  • Generalized Obstructive Overinflation
  • Bibliography
  • 421 α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Therapy
  • Bibliography
  • 422 Other Distal Airway Diseases
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keyword
  • Epidemiology and Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 423 Congenital Disorders of the Lung
  • Etiology and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Prognosis
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathology
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Congenital Lobar Emphysema and Pulmonary Cysts
  • Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation
  • Bronchobiliary Fistula
  • Bibliography
  • 424 Pulmonary Edema
  • Pathophysiology
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 425 Aspiration Syndromes
  • Aspiration Syndromes
  • Gastric Contents
  • Hydrocarbon Aspiration
  • Bibliography
  • 426 Chronic Recurrent Aspiration
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 427 Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Classification
  • Laboratory
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Classification and Pathogenesis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Berylliosis
  • Granulomatous Lung Disease in Primary Immune Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Löffler Syndrome
  • Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia
  • Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia
  • Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (the Churg-Strauss Syndrome)
  • Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
  • Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Classification and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease (Anti-GBM Disease)
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Background/Summary
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Natural Course and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Outcomes
  • Bibliography
  • 428 Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 429 Pleurisy, Pleural Effusions, and Empyema
  • Etiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 430 Bronchiectasis
  • Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 431 Pulmonary Abscess
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 432 Cystic Fibrosis
  • Genetics
  • Pathogenesis
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Treatment of Pulmonary Complications
  • Treatment of Intestinal Complications
  • Other Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 433 Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)
  • Normal Ciliary Ultrastructure and Function
  • Genetics of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
  • Clinical Manifestations of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
  • Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 434 Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood
  • Pathology
  • Deficiency of Surfactant Protein B (Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 1; Smdp1; Omim #265120)
  • Surfactant Protein C Gene Abnormalities (Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 2; Smdp2; Omim #610913)
  • Disease Caused by Mutations in ABCA3 (Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 3; Smdp3; Omim #610921)
  • Disease Caused by Mutations in NKX2-1 (Thyroid Transcription Factor 1, Choreoathetosis, Hypothyroidism, and Neonatal Respiratory Distress, Omim #600635)
  • Treatment of Surfactant Dysfunction Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 435 Pulmonary Hemosiderosis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 436 Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 437 Atelectasis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 438 Pulmonary Tumors
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Evaluation
  • Bibliography
  • 439 Pneumothorax
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 440 Pneumomediastinum
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • 441 Hydrothorax
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 442 Hemothorax
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 443 Chylothorax
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • 444 Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 445 Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pectus Carinatum
  • Treatment
  • Sternal Clefts
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keyword
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keyword
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 446 Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency
  • Epidemiology
  • Modalities for Respiratory Support
  • Other Management Considerations
  • Preparing for Discharge
  • Care by the General Pediatrician
  • Care by the Subspecialty Team
  • Weaning Off the Ventilator
  • Psychosocial Considerations
  • Adult Transition
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Genetics
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Myelomeningocele With Arnold-Chiari Type II Malformation
  • Management
  • Rapid-Onset Obesity, Hypothalamic Dysfunction, and Autonomic Dysregulation
  • Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
  • Management
  • Acquired Alveolar Hypoventilation
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Metabolic Disease
  • Keywords
  • Goals and Decision-Making
  • Noninvasive and Transtracheal Supports
  • Augmented Secretion Clearance
  • Aerodigestive and Communication Considerations
  • Gas-Exchange Goals and Ventilator Strategies
  • Cardiopulmonary Interactions
  • Chest Wall/Thoracic Configuration
  • Nutrition and Weight Gain
  • Developmental Considerations
  • Projected Interventions and Needs
  • Monitoring
  • Transitioning From Acute Care to Rehabilitation or Community Setting
  • Routine Health Maintenance
  • Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation Weaning and Tracheal Decannulation
  • Bibliography
  • Part XIX The Cardiovascular System
  • Section 1 Developmental Biology of the Cardiovascular System
  • 447 Cardiac Development
  • Bibliography
  • 448 The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 Evaluation of the Cardiovascular System and the Child with A Heart Murmur
  • 449 History and Physical Examination in Cardiac Evaluation
  • History
  • General Physical Examination
  • Cardiac Examination
  • Bibliography
  • 450 Laboratory Cardiac Evaluation
  • Keywords
  • Developmental Changes
  • Rate and Rhythm
  • P Waves
  • QRS Complex
  • P-R and Q-T Intervals
  • ST Segment and T-Wave Abnormalities
  • Bibliography
  • M-Mode Echocardiography
  • Two-Dimensional Echocardiography
  • Doppler Echocardiography
  • Three-Dimensional Echocardiography
  • Transesophageal Echocardiography
  • Fetal Echocardiography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization
  • Thermodilution Measurement of Cardiac Output
  • Angiocardiography
  • Interventional Cardiac Catheterization
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 Congenital Heart Disease
  • 451 Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease
  • Prevalence
  • Etiology
  • Next-Generation Genome Sequencing and Congenital Heart Disease
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Bibliography
  • 452 Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child With Congenital Heart Disease
  • Acyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions
  • Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions
  • Bibliography
  • 453 Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Complications
  • Treatment
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Low-Birthweight Infants
  • Bibliography
  • 454 Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis and Complications
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Postcoarctectomy Syndrome
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 455 Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 456 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  • Cardiac Disease Leading to Cyanosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • 457 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Associated Anomalies
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Complications
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 458 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Complications
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Complications
  • Treatment
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 459 Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations
  • Right Aortic Arch
  • Vascular Rings
  • Bibliography
  • Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery From Pulmonary Artery
  • Anomalous Origin of Right Coronary Artery From Pulmonary Artery
  • Ectopic Origin of a Coronary Artery From the Aorta With Aberrant Proximal Course
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 460 Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Pathophysiology
  • Pathology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 461 General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease
  • Postoperative Management
  • Interstage Management
  • Long-Term Management
  • Keywords
  • Long-Term Medical Considerations
  • Specific Lesions
  • Pregnancy and Congenital Heart Disease
  • Contraception
  • Adolescent Transition
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • 462 Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 463 Sudden Death
  • Mechanism of Sudden Death
  • Congenital Heart Disease
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia
  • Miscellaneous Causes
  • Evaluation and Therapy for Resuscitated Patients
  • Medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Prevention of Sudden Death
  • Bibliography
  • Section 5 Acquired Heart Disease
  • 464 Infective Endocarditis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 465 Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Patterns of Valvular Disease
  • Bibliography
  • Section 6 Diseases of the Myocardium and Pericardium
  • 466 Diseases of the Myocardium
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Prognosis and Management
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Management
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Management
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 467 Diseases of the Pericardium
  • Keywords
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 468 Tumors of the Heart
  • Bibliography
  • Section 7 Cardiac Therapeutics
  • 469 Heart Failure
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Electrophysiologic Approaches to Heart Failure Management
  • Mechanical Circulatory Support
  • Bibliography
  • 470 Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation
  • Indications
  • Recipient and Donor Selection
  • Perioperative Management
  • Diagnosis and Management of Acute Graft Rejection
  • Complications of Immunosuppression
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Section 8 Diseases of the Peripheral Vascular System
  • 471 Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Arterial Calcifications Caused by Deficiency of CD73
  • Bibliography
  • 472 Systemic Hypertension
  • Prevalence of Hypertension in Children
  • Definition of Hypertension
  • Blood Pressure Measurement in Children
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Part XX Diseases of the Blood
  • Section 1 The Hematopoietic System
  • 473 Development of the Hematopoietic System
  • Hematopoiesis in the Human Embryo and Fetus
  • Fetal Granulocytopoiesis
  • Fetal Thrombopoiesis
  • Fetal Erythropoiesis
  • Red Cell Life Span in the Fetus and Neonate
  • Bibliography
  • 474 The Anemias
  • History and Physical Examination
  • Laboratory Studies
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 Anemias of Inadequate Production
  • 475 Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia)
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 476 Pearson Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • 477 Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia
  • Transient Erythroblastopenia of Childhood
  • Red Cell Aplasia Associated With Parvovirus B19 Infection
  • Other Red Cell Aplasias in Children
  • Bibliography
  • 478 Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 479 Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias
  • Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type I
  • Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type II
  • Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type III
  • Bibliography
  • 480 Physiologic Anemia of Infancy
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 481 Megaloblastic Anemias
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Metabolism
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 482 Iron-Deficiency Anemia
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 483 Other Microcytic Anemias
  • Infantile Poikilocytosis and Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis
  • Copper Deficiency
  • Defects of Iron Metabolism
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 Hemolytic Anemias
  • 484 Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias
  • Bibliography
  • 485 Hereditary Spherocytosis
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 486 Hereditary Elliptocytosis, Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis, and Related Disorders
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 487 Hereditary Stomatocytosis
  • Hereditary Xerocytosis
  • Hereditary Hydrocytosis
  • Intermediate Syndromes and Other Variants
  • Other Disorders Associated With Stomatocytosis
  • Bibliography
  • 488 Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis
  • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
  • Acanthocytosis
  • Bibliography
  • 489 Hemoglobinopathies
  • Hemoglobin Disorders
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis and Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia (HbSS)
  • Therapeutic Considerations
  • Other Sickle Cell Syndromes
  • Anticipatory Guidance
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Hemoglobin C
  • Hemoglobin E
  • Hemoglobin D
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Homozygous β-Thalassemia (Thalassemia Major, Cooley Anemia)
  • Other β-Thalassemia Syndromes
  • α-Thalassemia Syndromes
  • Bibliography
  • 490 Enzymatic Defects
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Keywords
  • Deficiencies of Enzymes of Hexose Monophosphate Pathway
  • Keywords
  • Episodic or Induced Acute Hemolytic Anemia
  • Chronic Hemolytic Anemias Associated With Deficiency of G6PD or Related Factors
  • Bibliography
  • 491 Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors—Immune Hemolytic Anemias
  • Immune Hemolytic Anemias
  • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias Associated With “Warm” Antibodies
  • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias Associated With “Cold” Antibodies
  • Bibliography
  • 492 Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors
  • Fragmentation Hemolysis
  • Thermal Injury
  • Renal Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Toxins and Venoms
  • Wilson Disease
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 Polycythemia (Erythrocytosis)
  • 493 Polycythemia
  • Clonal (Primary) Polycythemia (Polycythemia Vera)
  • Bibliography
  • 494 Nonclonal Polycythemia
  • Pathogenesis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Section 5 The Pancytopenias
  • 495 Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes With Pancytopenia
  • Fanconi Anemia
  • Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome
  • Dyskeratosis Congenita
  • Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia
  • Other Inherited Aplastic Anemias
  • Other Inherited Syndromes With Occasional Significant Bone Marrow Failure
  • Unclassified Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes
  • Bibliography
  • 496 The Acquired Pancytopenias
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations, Laboratory Findings, and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Pancytopenia Caused by Marrow Replacement
  • Bibliography
  • Section 6 Blood Component Transfusions
  • 497 Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy
  • RBC Transfusion in Children and Adolescents
  • RBC Transfusion in Preterm Infants and Neonates
  • RBC Product and Dose
  • Storage Age of RBC Units
  • Bibliography
  • 498 Platelet Transfusions
  • Children and Adolescents
  • Infants and Neonates
  • Platelet Products and Dosing
  • Bibliography
  • 499 Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions
  • Granulocyte Transfusions for Children
  • Granulocyte Transfusion for Neonates
  • Granulocyte Product
  • Bibliography
  • 500 Plasma Transfusions
  • Plasma Products and Patient Testing
  • Plasma Transfusion in Children
  • Plasma Transfusion in Neonates
  • Bibliography
  • 501 Risks of Blood Transfusions
  • Infectious Risks of Transfusion
  • Noninfectious Risks of Transfusion
  • Bibliography
  • Section 7 Hemorrhagic and Thrombotic Diseases
  • 502 Hemostasis
  • The Hemostatic Process
  • Pathology
  • Keywords
  • Clinical History
  • Physical Examination
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Developmental Hemostasis
  • Bibliography
  • 503 Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)
  • Keywords
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Genetics and Classification
  • Treatment
  • Prophylaxis
  • Supportive Care
  • Chronic Complications
  • Comprehensive Care
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 504 Von Willebrand Disease
  • Pathophysiology
  • Classification
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 505 Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis
  • Bibliography
  • 506 Thrombotic Disorders in Children
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Testing
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Keywords
  • Unfractionated Heparin
  • Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin
  • Warfarin
  • Direct Oral Anticoagulants
  • Thrombolytic Therapy
  • Thromboprophylaxis
  • Antiplatelet Therapy
  • Bibliography
  • 507 Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • 508 Liver Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 509 Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 510 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 511 Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders
  • Megakaryopoiesis
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Outcome
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Chronic Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Other Hereditary Disorders of Platelet Function
  • Treatment of Patients With Platelet Dysfunction
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura
  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • Other Acquired Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • Section 8 The Spleen
  • 512 Anatomy and Function of the Spleen
  • Anatomy
  • Function
  • Bibliography
  • 513 Splenomegaly
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • 514 Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy
  • Hyposplenism
  • Splenic Trauma
  • Splenectomy
  • Bibliography
  • Section 9 The Lymphatic System
  • 515 Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System
  • Bibliography
  • 516 Abnormalities of Lymphatic Vessels
  • Lymphatic Malformations
  • Lymphangiectasia
  • Lymphedema
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • Lymphangitis
  • Bibliography
  • 517 Lymphadenopathy
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXI Cancer and Benign Tumors
  • 518 Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer
  • Influencing the Incidence of Cancer
  • Bibliography
  • 519 Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer
  • Genes Involved in Oncogenesis
  • Syndromes Predisposing to Cancer
  • Other Factors Associated With Oncogenesis
  • Bibliography
  • 520 Principles of Cancer Diagnosis
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Physical Examination
  • Age-Related Manifestations
  • Early Detection
  • Ensuring the Diagnosis
  • Staging
  • Bibliography
  • 521 Principles of Cancer Treatment
  • Diagnosis and Staging
  • A Multimodal, Multidisciplinary Approach
  • Discussing the Treatment Plan With the Patient and Family
  • Treatments
  • Acute Toxic Effects and Supportive Care
  • Late Adverse Effects
  • Palliative Care
  • Bibliography
  • 522 The Leukemias
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Cellular Classification
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive Care
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Cellular Classification
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 523 Lymphoma
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Relapse
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • 524 Brain Tumors in Childhood
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Specific Tumors
  • Complications and Long-Term Management
  • Bibliography
  • 525 Neuroblastoma
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 526 Neoplasms of the Kidney
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology: Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Recurrent Disease
  • Prognosis
  • Late Effects
  • Keywords
  • Mesoblastic Nephroma
  • Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney
  • Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Bibliography
  • 527 Soft Tissue Sarcomas
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Other Soft Tissue Sarcomas
  • Bibliography
  • 528 Neoplasms of Bone
  • Keywords
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Ewing Sarcoma
  • Keywords
  • Characteristic Lesions of the Tibia
  • Histiocytosis
  • Diagnostic Considerations
  • Vascular Tumors of Bone
  • Bibliography
  • 529 Retinoblastoma
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Screening
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 530 Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 531 Neoplasms of the Liver
  • Hepatoblastoma
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Bibliography
  • 532 Benign Vascular Tumors
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 533 Rare Tumors
  • Keywords
  • Benign Thyroid Tumors
  • Malignant Thyroid Tumors
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 534 Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood
  • Classification and Pathology
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXII Nephrology
  • Section 1 Glomerular Disease
  • 535 Introduction to Glomerular Diseases
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Pathogenesis
  • Pathology
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 Conditions Particularly Associated with Hematuria
  • 536 Clinical Evaluation of the Child With Hematuria
  • Bibliography
  • 537 Isolated Glomerular Diseases Associated With Recurrent Gross Hematuria
  • Pathology and Pathologic Diagnosis
  • Clinical and Laboratory Manifestations
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Genetics
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Classification
  • Pathology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 538 Multisystem Disease Associated With Hematuria
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Clinical and Laboratory Manifestations
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Background
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory and Radiologic Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 539 Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated With Hematuria
  • Keywords
  • Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
  • Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis (see also Chapter 550.1)
  • Bibliography
  • 540 Vascular Diseases Associated with Hematuria
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 541 Anatomic Abnormalities Associated With Hematuria
  • Keywords
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 542 Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 Conditions Particularly Associated with Proteinuria
  • 543 Clinical Evaluation of the Child With Proteinuria
  • Normal Physiology
  • Pathophysiology of Proteinuria
  • Measurement of Urine Protein
  • Clinical Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • 544 Conditions Associated With Proteinuria
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Glomerular Proteinuria
  • Tubular Proteinuria
  • Bibliography
  • 545 Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Consequences of Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Keywords
  • Pathology
  • Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 Tubular Disorders
  • 546 Tubular Function
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Calcium
  • Phosphate
  • Magnesium
  • Acidification and Concentrating Mechanisms
  • Developmental Considerations
  • Bibliography
  • 547 Renal Tubular Acidosis
  • Normal Urinary Acidification
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations of Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Fanconi Syndrome
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Approach to Renal Tubular Acidosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 548 Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 549 Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 550 Renal Failure
  • Keywords
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Dialysis
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment and Management
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 551 Renal Transplantation
  • Incidence and Etiology of End-Stage Renal Disease
  • Indications for Renal Transplantation
  • Characteristics of Kidney Donors and Recipients
  • Evaluation and Preparing for Kidney Transplantation
  • Immunosuppression
  • Fluid Management in Infants and Small Children Following Kidney Transplantation
  • Rejection of Kidney Transplant
  • Graft Survival of Kidneys
  • Complications of Immunosuppression
  • Long-Term Outcome of Kidney Transplantation
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXIII Urologic Disorders in Infants and Children
  • 552 Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Renal Agenesis
  • Renal Dysgenesis: Dysplasia, Hypoplasia, and Cystic Anomalies
  • Renal Cysts in Children
  • Anomalies in Shape and Position
  • Associated Physical Findings
  • Bibliography
  • 553 Urinary Tract Infections
  • Prevalence and Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Classification
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Diagnosis
  • Imaging Findings
  • Treatment
  • Imaging Studies in Children With a Febrile UTI
  • Prevention of Recurrences
  • Bibliography
  • 554 Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Classification
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Natural History
  • Treatment
  • Current Vesicoureteral Reflux Guidelines
  • Bibliography
  • 555 Obstruction of the Urinary Tract
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Physical Findings
  • Imaging Studies
  • Specific Types of Urinary Tract Obstruction and Their Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 556 Anomalies of the Bladder
  • Bladder Exstrophy
  • Other Exstrophy Anomalies
  • Bladder Diverticula
  • Urachal Anomalies
  • Bibliography
  • 557 Neuropathic Bladder
  • Neural Tube Defects
  • Associated Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • 558 Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction
  • Normal Voiding and Toilet Training
  • Diurnal Incontinence
  • Overactive Bladder (Diurnal Urge Syndrome)
  • Nonneurogenic Neurogenic Bladder (Hinman Syndrome)
  • Infrequent Voiding (Underactive Bladder)
  • Vaginal Voiding
  • Other Causes of Incontinence in Females
  • Voiding Disorders Without Incontinence
  • Nocturnal Enuresis
  • Bibliography
  • 559 Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra
  • Hypospadias
  • Chordee Without Hypospadias
  • Phimosis and Paraphimosis
  • Circumcision
  • Penile Torsion
  • Inconspicuous Penis
  • Micropenis
  • Priapism
  • Other Penile Anomalies
  • Meatal Stenosis
  • Other Male Urethral Anomalies
  • Urethral Prolapse (Female)
  • Other Female Urethral Lesions
  • Bibliography
  • 560 Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents
  • Undescended Testis (Cryptorchidism)
  • Scrotal Swelling
  • Testicular (Spermatic Cord) Torsion
  • Torsion of the Appendix Testis/Epididymis
  • Epididymitis
  • Varicocele
  • Spermatocele
  • Hydrocele
  • Inguinal Hernia
  • Testicular Microlithiasis
  • Testicular Tumor
  • Bibliography
  • 561 Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 562 Urinary Lithiasis
  • Stone Formation
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Metabolic Evaluation
  • Pathogenesis of Specific Renal Calculi
  • Treatment
  • Stone Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXIV Gynecologic Problems of Childhood
  • 563 Gynecologic History and Physical Examination
  • History
  • Gynecologic Examination
  • Bibliography
  • 564 Vulvovaginitis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 565 Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child
  • Bibliography
  • 566 Breast Concerns
  • Breast Development
  • Breast Evaluation
  • Breast Self-Awareness
  • Abnormal Development
  • Breast Masses
  • Cosmetic Surgery
  • Bibliography
  • 567 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Hirsutism
  • Bibliography
  • 568 Gynecologic Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus
  • Overview of Gynecologic Malignancies in Children and Adolescents
  • Impact of Cancer Therapy on Fertility
  • Ovarian Neoplasms
  • Uterine Malignancies
  • Vaginal Malignancies
  • Vulvar Malignancies
  • Cervical Malignancies and Their Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 569 Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies
  • Embryology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Uterine Anomalies
  • Vaginal Anomalies
  • Cervical Anomalies
  • Vulvar and Other Anomalies
  • Bibliography
  • 570 Gynecologic Care for Girls With Special Needs
  • Sexuality and Sexual Education
  • Abuse
  • Pelvic Examination
  • Menstruation
  • Contraception
  • Bibliography
  • 571 Female Genital Mutilation
  • Background
  • Complications
  • Clinical Management of FGM
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXV The Endocrine System
  • Section 1 Disorders of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
  • 572 Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary
  • Anatomy
  • Embryology
  • Vascular Supply
  • Anterior Pituitary Cell Types
  • Posterior Pituitary Cell Types
  • Bibliography
  • 573 Hypopituitarism
  • Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
  • Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency and Insensitivity
  • Growth Hormone Insensitivity
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Radiologic Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications and Adverse Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 574 Diabetes Insipidus
  • Physiology of Water Balance
  • Approach to the Patient With Polyuria, Polydipsia, and Hypernatremia
  • Causes of Hypernatremia
  • Treatment of Central Diabetes Insipidus
  • Treatment of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
  • Bibliography
  • 575 Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action
  • Causes of Hyponatremia
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 576 Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes
  • Hyperpituitarism
  • Tall Stature
  • Sotos Syndrome (Cerebral Gigantism)
  • Treatment of Normal Variant Tall Stature
  • Excess Growth Hormone Secretion and Pituitary Gigantism
  • Hypersecretion of Other Pituitary Hormones
  • Bibliography
  • 577 Physiology of Puberty
  • Bibliography
  • 578 Disorders of Pubertal Development
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Hepatic Tumors
  • Intracranial Tumors
  • Tumors in Other Locations
  • Peripheral Precocious Puberty
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Extragonadal Manifestations
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Premature Thelarche
  • Premature Pubarche (Adrenarche)
  • Premature Menarche
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic Approach to Delayed Puberty
  • Treatment of Delayed Puberty
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 Disorders of the Thyroid Gland
  • 579 Thyroid Development and Physiology
  • Fetal Development
  • Thyroid Physiology
  • Thyroid Regulation
  • Serum Thyroid Hormones
  • Fetal and Newborn Thyroid
  • Serum Thyroxine-Binding Globulin
  • Radionuclide Studies
  • Thyroid Ultrasonography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 580 Disorders of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin
  • Bibliography
  • 581 Hypothyroidism
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Acquired Hypothyroidism
  • Bibliography
  • 582 Thyroiditis
  • Thyroiditis With Pain
  • Thyroiditis Without Pain
  • Other Causes of Thyroiditis
  • Bibliography
  • 583 Goiter
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathogenesis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Iodide Goiter
  • Simple Goiter (Colloid Goiter)
  • Multinodular Goiter
  • Toxic Goiter (Hyperthyroidism)
  • Bibliography
  • 584 Thyrotoxicosis
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 585 Carcinoma of the Thyroid
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 586 Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes
  • Monogenic Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes
  • Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1
  • Immune Dysregulation-Polyendocrinopathy-Enteropathy X-Linked
  • Other Monogenic Immune Dysregulation Disorders
  • Polygenic Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS-2)
  • Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome
  • Nongenetic Autoimmune Causes of Multiple Endocrinopathy
  • Bibliography
  • 587 Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B
  • Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Management of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 Disorders of the Parathyroid Gland
  • 588 Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Parathyroid Hormone–Related Peptide
  • Vitamin D
  • Calcitonin
  • Bibliography
  • 589 Hypoparathyroidism
  • Etiology
  • Aplasia or Hypoplasia of the Parathyroid Glands
  • X-Linked Recessive Hypoparathyroidism
  • Autosomal Recessive Hypoparathyroidism With Dysmorphic Features
  • Hypoparathyroidism, Sensorineural Deafness, and Renal Anomaly Syndrome
  • Suppression of Neonatal Parathyroid Hormone Secretion Because of Maternal Hyperparathyroidism
  • Autosomal Dominant Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hypoparathyroidism Associated With Mitochondrial Disorders
  • Surgical Hypoparathyroidism
  • Autoimmune Hypoparathyroidism
  • Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism
  • Bibliography
  • 590 Pseudohypoparathyroidism
  • Type Ia
  • Type Ib
  • Acrodysostosis With Hormone Resistance
  • Bibliography
  • 591 Hyperparathyroidism
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (Familial Benign Hypercalcemia)
  • Granulomatous Diseases
  • Hypercalcemia of Malignancy
  • Miscellaneous Causes of Hypercalcemia
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 Disorders of the Adrenal Gland
  • 592 Physiology of the Adrenal Gland
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Zona Glomerulosa
  • Zona Fasciculata
  • Zona Reticularis
  • Fetoplacental Unit
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Regulation of Cortisol Secretion
  • Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion
  • Regulation of Adrenal Androgen Secretion
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Actions of Glucocorticoids
  • Metabolic Effects
  • Actions of Mineralocorticoids
  • Actions of the Adrenal Androgens
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 593 Adrenocortical Insufficiency
  • Keywords
  • Inherited Etiologies
  • Acquired Etiologies
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance
  • Cortisone Reductase Deficiency
  • Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Mineralocorticoids
  • Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess
  • Liddle Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • 594 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Newborn Screening
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Clinical Manifestations
  • Epidemiology
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Bibliography
  • 595 Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses
  • Epidemiology
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathologic Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 596 Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • 597 Cushing Syndrome
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 598 Primary Aldosteronism
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 599 Pheochromocytoma
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Section 5 Disorders of the Gonads
  • 600 Development and Function of the Gonads
  • Genetic Control of Embryonic Gonadal Differentiation
  • Function of the Testes
  • Function of the Ovaries
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Therapeutic Use of Sex Steroids
  • Bibliography
  • 601 Hypofunction of the Testes
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Noonan Syndrome
  • Klinefelter Syndrome
  • XX Males
  • 45,X Males
  • 47,XXX Males
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • 602 Pseudoprecocity Resulting From Tumors of the Testes
  • Bibliography
  • 603 Gynecomastia
  • Physiologic Forms of Gynecomastia
  • Evaluation of Gynecomastia
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 604 Hypofunction of the Ovaries
  • Keywords
  • Turner Syndrome
  • XX Gonadal Dysgenesis
  • 45,X/46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis
  • XXX, XXXX, and XXXXX Females
  • Noonan Syndrome
  • Other Ovarian Defects
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • 605 Pseudoprecocity Resulting From Lesions of the Ovary
  • Estrogenic Lesions of the Ovary
  • Androgenic Lesions of the Ovary
  • Bibliography
  • 606 Disorders of Sex Development
  • Sex Differentiation
  • Diagnostic Approach to the Patient With Atypical or Ambiguous Genitalia
  • Keywords
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Aromatase Deficiency
  • Cortisol Resistance Due to Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Mutation
  • Virilizing Maternal Tumors
  • Exposure to Androgenic Drugs by Women During Pregnancy
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Defects in Testicular Differentiation
  • Defiency of Testicular Hormone Production
  • Defects in Androgen Action
  • Undetermined Causes
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Diagnosis and Management of Disorders of Sex Development
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Section 6 Diabetes Mellitus in Children
  • 607 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Keywords
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Other Specific Types of Diabetes
  • Other Etiologies of Diabetes
  • Prediabetes
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Environmental Factors
  • Pathogenesis and Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Prediction and Prevention
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Initiation of Subcutaneous Insulin Therapy
  • Cognitive Function
  • Coping Styles
  • Nonadherence
  • Anxiety and Depression
  • Fear of Self-Injecting and Self-Testing
  • Eating Disorders
  • Long-Term Complications: Relation to Glycemic Control
  • Diabetic Neuropathy
  • Prognosis
  • Pancreas and Islet Transplantation and Regeneration
  • Natural History
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Epigenetics and Fetal Programming
  • Environmental and Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors
  • Clinical Features
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prevention
  • Keywords
  • Genetic Defects of β-Cell Function
  • Genetic Defects of Insulin Action
  • Cystic Fibrosis–Related Diabetes
  • Endocrinopathies
  • Drugs
  • Genetic Syndromes Associated With Diabetes Mellitus
  • Autoimmune Diseases Associated With T1DM
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXVI The Nervous System
  • 608 Neurologic Evaluation
  • History
  • Neurologic Examination
  • General Examination
  • Special Diagnostic Procedures
  • Bibliography
  • 609 Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Etiology
  • Prevention
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Lissencephaly
  • Schizencephaly
  • Neuronal Heterotopias
  • Polymicrogyrias
  • Focal Cortical Dysplasias
  • Porencephaly
  • Bibliography
  • Holoprosencephaly
  • Bibliography
  • Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders
  • Brainstem and Cerebellar Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Physiology
  • Pathophysiology and Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Megalencephaly
  • Hydranencephaly
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Development and Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 610 Deformational Plagiocephaly
  • Epidemiology and Etiology
  • Examination and Differentiating Between Deformational Plagiocephaly and Craniosynostosis
  • Treatment
  • Outcomes
  • Bibliography
  • 611 Seizures in Childhood
  • Evaluation of the First Seizure
  • Keywords
  • Genetic and Other Factors Leading to Febrile Seizures
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • History and Examination
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Long-Term Approach to the Patient and Additional Testing
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Focal Seizures With Preserved Awareness
  • Focal Seizures With Impaired Awareness
  • Focal to Bilateral Tonic-Clonic Seizures
  • Benign Epilepsy Syndromes With Focal Seizures
  • Severe Epilepsy Syndromes With Focal Seizures
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Absence Seizures
  • Generalized Motor Seizures
  • Benign Generalized Epilepsies
  • Severe Generalized Epilepsies
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Deciding on Long-Term Therapy
  • Counseling
  • Mechanisms of Action of Antiepileptic Drugs
  • Choice of Drug According to Seizure Type and Epilepsy Syndrome
  • Choice of Drug: Other Considerations
  • Initiating and Monitoring Therapy
  • Side Effects
  • Additional Treatments
  • Approach to Epilepsy Surgery
  • Discontinuation of Therapy
  • Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pathophysiology
  • Types of Neonatal Seizures
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Mechanisms
  • Therapy
  • Bibliography
  • Keyword
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 612 Conditions That Mimic Seizures
  • Syncope and Other Generalized Paroxysms
  • Movement Disorders and Other Paroxysmal Movements and Postures
  • Oculomotor and Visual Abnormalities
  • Sleep-Related Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • 613 Headaches
  • Epidemiology
  • Classification and Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 614 Neurocutaneous Syndromes
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • 615 Movement Disorders
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Inherited Primary Dystonias
  • Drug-Induced Dystonias
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • Other Disorders
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 616 Encephalopathies
  • Epidemiology and Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes
  • Myoclonic Epilepsy and Ragged Red Fibers
  • Neuropathy, Ataxia, and Retinitis Pigmentosa (NARP) Syndrome
  • Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON)
  • Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS)
  • Reversible Infantile Cytochrome C Oxidase Deficiency Myopathy
  • Leigh Disease (Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyopathy)
  • Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome
  • Reye Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Encephalopathy
  • Lead Encephalopathy
  • Burn Encephalopathy
  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy
  • Radiation Encephalopathy
  • Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy
  • Cystic Leukoencephalopathy
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis
  • Other Types of Encephalitis Associated With Antibodies Against Neuronal Cell Surface Antigens
  • Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes With Encephalopathy
  • Hashimoto Encephalopathy
  • Opsoclonus–Myoclonus and Other Types of Brainstem–Cerebellar Encephalitis
  • Bickerstaff Encephalitis
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation With Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids
  • Autoimmune Encephalopathies Associated With Epilepsy and Status Epilepticus
  • Other Suspected Types of Autoimmune Encephalitis
  • Bibliography
  • 617 Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood
  • Keywords
  • Gangliosidoses
  • Krabbe Disease (Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy)
  • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
  • Alexander Disease
  • Canavan Spongy Degeneration
  • Other Leukodystrophies
  • Menkes Disease
  • Rett Syndrome
  • Neurodegeneration With Brain Iron Accumulation
  • Bibliography
  • 618 Demyelinating Disorders of the Central Nervous System
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Neuroimaging
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology and Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology and Risk Factors
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Imaging and Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Imaging and Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Imaging and Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 619 Pediatric Stroke
  • Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Vasculitic Processes: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Spinal Cord Embolism
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Migraine
  • Seizure
  • Infection
  • Demyelination
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Global Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy
  • Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Vestibulopathy and Ataxia
  • Channelopathies
  • Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood
  • 620 Central Nervous System Vasculitis
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 621 Central Nervous System Infections
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology and Pathophysiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis and Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 622 Brain Abscess
  • Pathology
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 623 Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 624 Spinal Cord Disorders
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Outcome
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Outcome
  • Bibliography
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXVII Neuromuscular Disorders
  • 625 Evaluation and Investigation of Neuromuscular Disorders
  • Genetic Testing
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Imaging of Muscles and the Central Nervous System
  • Muscle Biopsy
  • Nerve Biopsy
  • Cardiac Assessment
  • Bibliography
  • 626 Developmental Disorders of Muscle
  • Myogenic Regulatory Genes and Genetic Loci of Inherited Diseases of Muscle
  • Treatment of Congenital Myopathies
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Genetics
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Genetics
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Genetics
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Genetics
  • Treatment and Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and MFM Subtypes According to Genetic Background
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Fetal Movement and the Link to Arthrogryposis
  • Basic Categories, Etiologies, and Classifications
  • Diagnostic Approach and Laboratory Evaluation
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 627 Muscular Dystrophies
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Genetic Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Genetics
  • Diagnostics
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Genetics
  • Treatment
  • Other Myotonic Syndromes
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 628 Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies
  • Thyroid Myopathies
  • Steroid-Hormone Induced Myopathy
  • Statin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis With Myoglobinuria
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Toxic Myopathies
  • Critical Illness Myopathy
  • Bibliography
  • 629 Metabolic Myopathies and Channelopathies
  • Treatment
  • Other Muscle Channelopathies
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Investigations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 630 Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons
  • Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes
  • Rare Other Causes of Myasthenia
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Other Causes of Neuromuscular Blockade
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations and Course
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Genetics
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 631 Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 632 Toxic Neuropathies
  • Bibliography
  • 633 Autonomic Neuropathies
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis
  • Allgrove Syndrome (Triple a Syndrome)
  • Bibliography
  • 634 Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 635 Bell Palsy
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Facial Palsy at Birth
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXVIII Disorders of the Eye
  • 636 Growth and Development of the Eye
  • Bibliography
  • 637 Examination of the Eye
  • Visual Acuity
  • Visual Field Assessment
  • Color Vision Testing
  • Pupillary Examination
  • Ocular Motility
  • Binocular Vision
  • External Examination
  • Biomicroscopy (Slit-Lamp Examination)
  • Fundus Examination (Ophthalmoscopy)
  • Refraction
  • Tonometry
  • Bibliography
  • 638 Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation
  • Hyperopia
  • Myopia
  • Astigmatism
  • Anisometropia
  • Accommodation
  • Bibliography
  • 639 Disorders of Vision
  • Amblyopia
  • Diplopia
  • Suppression
  • Amaurosis
  • Nyctalopia
  • Psychogenic Disturbances
  • Dyslexia
  • Bibliography
  • 640 Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris
  • Aniridia
  • Coloboma of the Iris
  • Microcoria
  • Congenital Mydriasis
  • Dyscoria and Corectopia
  • Anisocoria
  • Dilated Fixed Pupil
  • Tonic Pupil
  • Marcus Gunn Pupil
  • Horner Syndrome
  • Paradoxical Pupil Reaction
  • Persistent Pupillary Membrane
  • Heterochromia
  • Other Iris Lesions
  • Leukocoria
  • Bibliography
  • 641 Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment
  • Strabismus
  • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia
  • Nystagmus
  • Other Abnormal Eye Movements
  • Bibliography
  • 642 Abnormalities of the Lids
  • Ptosis
  • Epicanthal Folds
  • Lagophthalmos
  • Lid Retraction
  • Ectropion, Entropion, and Epiblepharon
  • Blepharospasm
  • Blepharitis
  • Hordeolum (Stye)
  • Chalazion
  • Coloboma of the Eyelid
  • Tumors of the Lid
  • Bibliography
  • 643 Disorders of the Lacrimal System
  • The Tear Film
  • Dacryostenosis
  • Alacrima and “Dry Eye”
  • Bibliography
  • 644 Disorders of the Conjunctiva
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Bibliography
  • 645 Abnormalities of the Cornea
  • Megalocornea
  • Microcornea
  • Keratoconus
  • Neonatal Corneal Opacities
  • Sclerocornea
  • Peters Anomaly
  • Corneal Dystrophies
  • Dermoids
  • Dendritic Keratitis
  • Corneal Ulcers
  • Phlyctenules
  • Interstitial Keratitis
  • Corneal Manifestations of Systemic Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 646 Abnormalities of the Lens
  • Cataracts
  • Ectopia Lentis
  • Other Disorders of the Lens
  • Bibliography
  • 647 Disorders of the Uveal Tract
  • Uveitis (Iritis, Cyclitis, Chorioretinitis)
  • Bibliography
  • 648 Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity
  • Persistent Fetal Vasculature
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
  • Stargardt Disease (Fundus Flavimaculatus)
  • Best Vitelliform Degeneration
  • Cherry-Red Spot
  • Phakomas
  • Retinoschisis
  • Retinal Detachment
  • Coats Disease
  • Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy
  • Hypertensive Retinopathy
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
  • Blood Disorders
  • Trauma-Related Retinopathy
  • Myelinated Nerve Fibers
  • Coloboma of the Fundus
  • Bibliography
  • 649 Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve
  • Optic Nerve Aplasia
  • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
  • Optic Nerve Coloboma
  • Morning Glory Disc Anomaly
  • Tilted Disc
  • Drusen of the Optic Nerve
  • Papilledema
  • Optic Neuritis
  • Leber Optic Neuropathy
  • Optic Atrophy
  • Optic Nerve Glioma
  • Traumatic Optic Neuropathies
  • Bibliography
  • 650 Childhood Glaucoma
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 651 Orbital Abnormalities
  • Hypertelorism and Hypotelorism
  • Exophthalmos and Enophthalmos
  • Orbital Inflammation
  • Tumors of the Orbit
  • Bibliography
  • 652 Orbital Infections
  • Dacryoadenitis
  • Dacryocystitis
  • Preseptal Cellulitis
  • Orbital Cellulitis
  • Bibliography
  • 653 Injuries to the Eye
  • Ecchymosis and Swelling of the Eyelids
  • Lacerations of the Eyelids
  • Superficial Abrasions of the Cornea
  • Foreign Body Involving the Ocular Surface
  • Hyphema
  • Open Globe
  • Optic Nerve Trauma
  • Chemical Injuries
  • Orbital Fractures
  • Penetrating Wounds of the Orbit
  • Child Abuse
  • Fireworks-Related Injuries
  • Sports-Related Ocular Injuries and Their Prevention
  • Handheld Laser Retinal Injury
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXIX The Ear
  • 654 General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Facial Paralysis
  • Physical Examination
  • Bibliography
  • 655 Hearing Loss
  • Incidence and Prevalence
  • Types of Hearing Loss
  • Etiology
  • Effects of Hearing Impairment
  • Hearing Screening
  • Identification of Hearing Impairment
  • Clinical Audiologic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Bibliography
  • 656 Congenital Malformations of the Ear
  • Pinna Malformations
  • Congenital Stenosis or Atresia of the External Auditory Canal
  • Congenital Middle-Ear Malformations
  • Congenital Inner Ear Malformations
  • Congenital Cholesteatoma
  • Bibliography
  • 657 External Otitis (Otitis Externa)
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Other Diseases of the External Ear
  • Bibliography
  • 658 Otitis Media
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Examination of the Tympanic Membrane
  • Prevention
  • Immunoprophylaxis and Vaccination Status
  • Treatment
  • Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
  • Management of Otitis Media With Effusion
  • Intracranial Complications
  • Possible Developmental Sequelae
  • Bibliography
  • 659 Acute Mastoiditis
  • Anatomy
  • Epidemiology
  • Microbiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Imaging
  • Management
  • Special Situations
  • Bibliography
  • 660 The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth
  • Other Diseases of the Inner Ear
  • Bibliography
  • 661 Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone
  • Auricle and External Auditory Canal
  • Tympanic Membrane and Middle Ear
  • Temporal Bone Fractures
  • Acoustic Trauma
  • Bibliography
  • 662 Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXX The Skin
  • 663 Morphology of the Skin
  • Epidermis
  • Dermis
  • Subcutaneous Tissue
  • Appendageal Structures
  • Bibliography
  • 664 Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient
  • History and Physical Examination
  • Biopsy of Skin
  • Wood Lamp
  • Potassium Hydroxide Preparation
  • Tzanck Smear
  • Immunofluorescence Studies
  • Connective Tissue Diseases
  • Vasculitides
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases
  • Cutaneous Manifestations of Malignancy
  • Cutaneous Reactions in the Setting of Immunosuppression
  • Drug Rash With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS Syndrome)
  • Serum Sickness–Like Reaction
  • Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis
  • Bibliography
  • 665 Principles of Dermatologic Therapy
  • Wet Dressings
  • Bath Oils, Colloids, Soaps
  • Lubricants
  • Shampoos
  • Shake Lotions
  • Powders
  • Pastes
  • Keratolytic Agents
  • Tar Compounds
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Topical Antibiotics
  • Topical Corticosteroids
  • Topical Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents
  • Sunscreens
  • Laser Therapy
  • Bibliography
  • 666 Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate
  • Sebaceous Hyperplasia
  • Milia
  • Sucking Blisters
  • Cutis Marmorata
  • Harlequin Color Change
  • Nevus Simplex (Salmon Patch)
  • Dermal Melanocytosis (Mongolian Spots)
  • Erythema Toxicum
  • Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis
  • Infantile Acropustulosis
  • Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis
  • Bibliography
  • 667 Cutaneous Defects
  • Skin Dimples
  • Redundant Skin
  • Amniotic Constriction Bands
  • Preauricular Sinuses and Pits
  • Accessory Tragi
  • Branchial Cleft and Thyroglossal Cysts and Sinuses
  • Supernumerary Nipples
  • Aplasia Cutis Congenita (Congenital Absence of Skin)
  • Focal Facial Dermal Dysplasias
  • Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin Syndrome)
  • Dyskeratosis Congenita (Zinsser-Engman-Cole Syndrome)
  • Cutis Verticis Gyrata
  • Bibliography
  • 668 Ectodermal Dysplasias
  • Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia
  • Hidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (Clouston Syndrome)
  • Bibliography
  • 669 Vascular Disorders
  • Vascular Malformations
  • Lymphatic Malformations
  • Arteriovenous Malformation
  • Klippel-Trenaunay and Parkes-Weber Syndromes
  • Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis
  • Nevus Anemicus
  • Vascular Tumors
  • Bibliography
  • 670 Cutaneous Nevi
  • Acquired Melanocytic Nevus
  • Atypical Melanocytic Nevus
  • Congenital Melanocytic Nevus
  • Melanoma
  • Halo Nevus
  • Spitz Nevus (Spindle and Epithelioid Cell Nevus)
  • Zosteriform Lentiginous Nevus (Agminated Lentigines)
  • Nevus Spilus (Speckled Lentiginous Nevus)
  • Nevus of Ota and Nevus of Ito
  • Blue Nevi
  • Nevus Depigmentosus (Achromic Nevus)
  • Epidermal Nevi
  • Nevus Comedonicus
  • Connective Tissue Nevus
  • Smooth Muscle Hamartoma
  • Bibliography
  • 671 Hyperpigmented Lesions
  • Disorders of Pigment
  • Ephelides (Freckles)
  • Lentigines
  • Café-Au-Lait Spots
  • Incontinentia Pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger Disease)
  • PostInflammatory Pigmentary Changes
  • Bibliography
  • 672 Hypopigmented Lesions
  • Albinism
  • Melanoblast Migration Abnormalities
  • Bibliography
  • 673 Vesiculobullous Disorders
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidemiology and Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Epidermolysis Bullosa
  • Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex
  • Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa
  • Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa
  • Kindler Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Pemphigus Vulgaris
  • Pemphigus Foliaceus
  • Bullous Pemphigoid
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 674 Eczematous Disorders
  • Irritant Contact Dermatitis
  • Diaper Dermatitis
  • Allergic Contact Dermatitis
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 675 Photosensitivity
  • Acute Sunburn Reaction
  • Photosensitive Reactions
  • Porphyrias
  • Colloid Milium
  • Hydroa Vacciniforme
  • Solar Urticaria
  • Polymorphous Light Eruption
  • Actinic Prurigo
  • Cockayne Syndrome
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome
  • Bloom Syndrome
  • Hartnup Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 676 Diseases of the Epidermis
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Pathology
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Pathology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Histology
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Histology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Histology
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Histology
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Histology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Histology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Histology
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 677 Disorders of Keratinization
  • Disorders of Cornification
  • Collodion Baby
  • Nonsyndromic Ichthyoses
  • Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyoses
  • Keratinopathic Ichthyoses
  • Other Nonsyndromic Ichthyoses
  • Syndromic Ichthyoses
  • Other Syndromes With Ichthyosis
  • Bibliography
  • 678 Diseases of the Dermis
  • Keloid
  • Striae Cutis Distensae (Stretch Marks)
  • Corticosteroid-Induced Atrophy
  • Granuloma Annulare
  • Necrobiosis Lipoidica
  • Lichen Sclerosus
  • Morphea
  • Scleredema (Scleredema Adultorum, Scleredema of Buschke)
  • Lipoid Proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe Disease, Hyalinosis Cutis Et Mucosae)
  • Macular Atrophy (Anetoderma)
  • Cutis Laxa (Dermatomegaly, Generalized Elastolysis)
  • Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum
  • Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa
  • Reactive Perforating Collagenosis
  • Xanthomas
  • Fabry Disease
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses
  • Mastocytosis
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 679 Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • Classification of the 6 Most Common Subtypes of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • General Approach to Management
  • Bibliography
  • 680 Diseases of Subcutaneous Tissue
  • Corticosteroid-Induced Atrophy
  • Erythema Nodosum
  • Post-Steroid Panniculitis
  • Lupus Erythematosus Profundus (Lupus Erythematosus Panniculitis)
  • Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
  • Pancreatic Panniculitis
  • Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis
  • Sclerema Neonatorum
  • Cold Panniculitis
  • Chilblains (Pernio)
  • Factitial Panniculitis
  • Bibliography
  • Partial Lipodystrophy
  • Generalized Lipodystrophy
  • Bibliography
  • 681 Disorders of the Sweat Glands
  • Anhidrosis
  • Hyperhidrosis
  • Miliaria
  • Bromhidrosis
  • Hidradenitis Suppurativa
  • Fox-Fordyce Disease
  • Bibliography
  • 682 Disorders of Hair
  • Hypertrichosis
  • Hypotrichosis and Alopecia
  • Traumatic Alopecia (Traction Alopecia, Hair Pulling, Trichotillomania)
  • Alopecia Areata
  • Acquired Diffuse Hair Loss
  • Congenital Diffuse Hair Loss
  • Bibliography
  • 683 Disorders of the Nails
  • Abnormalities in Nail Shape or Size
  • Changes in Nail Color
  • Nail Separation
  • Nail Changes Associated With Skin Disease
  • Trachyonychia (20-Nail Dystrophy)
  • Nail Infection
  • Paronychial Inflammation
  • Paronychial Tumors
  • Bibliography
  • 684 Disorders of the Mucous Membranes
  • Angular Cheilitis
  • Aphthous Stomatitis (Canker Sores)
  • Fordyce Spots
  • Epstein Pearls (Gingival Cysts of the Newborn)
  • Mucocele
  • Fissured Tongue
  • Geographic Tongue (Benign Migratory Glossitis)
  • Black Hairy Tongue
  • Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
  • Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (Vincent Stomatitis, Fusospirochetal Gingivitis, Trench Mouth)
  • Noma
  • Cowden Syndrome (Multiple Hamartoma Syndrome)
  • Bibliography
  • 685 Cutaneous Bacterial Infections
  • Etiology/Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Cellulitis
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Histology
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Blastomycosis-Like Pyoderma (Pyoderma Vegetans)
  • Blistering Distal Dactylitis
  • Perianal Infectious Dermatitis
  • Erysipelas
  • Folliculitis
  • Abscesses and Furuncles
  • Pitted Keratolysis
  • Erythrasma
  • Erysipeloid
  • Tuberculosis of the Skin
  • Bibliography
  • 686 Cutaneous Fungal Infections
  • Tinea Versicolor
  • Dermatophytoses
  • Candidal Infections (Candidosis, Candidiasis, and Moniliasis)
  • Bibliography
  • 687 Cutaneous Viral Infections
  • Wart (Verruca)
  • Molluscum Contagiosum
  • Bibliography
  • 688 Arthropod Bites and Infestations
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Norwegian (Crusted) Scabies
  • Canine Scabies
  • Other Types of Scabies
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 689 Acne
  • Acne Vulgaris
  • Drug-Induced Acne
  • Halogen Acne
  • Chloracne
  • Neonatal Acne
  • Infantile Acne
  • Mid-Childhood Acne
  • Tropical Acne
  • Acne Conglobata
  • Acne Fulminans (Acute Febrile Ulcerative Acne)
  • Bibliography
  • 690 Tumors of the Skin
  • Epidermal Inclusion Cyst (Epidermoid Cyst)
  • Milium
  • Fibrofolliculomas
  • Pilar Cyst (Trichilemmal Cyst)
  • Pilomatricoma (Pilomatrixoma)
  • Trichoepithelioma
  • Eruptive Vellus Hair Cysts
  • Steatocystoma Multiplex
  • Syringoma
  • Infantile Digital Fibroma
  • Dermatofibroma (Histiocytoma)
  • Juvenile Xanthogranuloma
  • Lipoma
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma
  • Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome, Gorlin Syndrome)
  • Melanoma
  • Mucosal Neuroma Syndrome (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type Iib)
  • Bibliography
  • 691 Nutritional Dermatoses
  • Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
  • Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency
  • Kwashiorkor
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Pellagra
  • Scurvy (Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid Deficiency)
  • Vitamin a Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXXI Bone and Joint Disorders
  • Section 1 Orthopedic Problems
  • 692 Growth and Development
  • In Utero Positioning
  • Growth and Development
  • Centers of Ossification
  • Gait/Functional Maturation
  • Bibliography
  • 693 Orthopedic Evaluation of the Child
  • History
  • Physical Examination
  • Limping
  • Back Pain
  • Neurologic Evaluation
  • Radiographic Assessment
  • Laboratory Studies
  • Bibliography
  • 694 The Foot and Toes
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Juvenile Hallux Valgus (Bunion)
  • Curly Toes
  • Overlapping 5Th Toe
  • Polydactyly
  • Syndactyly
  • Hammer Toe
  • Mallet Toe
  • Claw Toe
  • Annular Bands
  • Macrodactyly
  • Subungual Exostosis
  • Ingrown Toenail
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 695 Torsional and Angular Deformities of the Limb
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Foot Progression Angle
  • Femoral Anteversion
  • Tibial Rotation
  • Foot Shape and Position
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Femoral Anteversion
  • Medial Tibial Torsion
  • External Femoral Torsion
  • Lateral Tibial Torsion
  • Metatarsus Adductus
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Genu Varum
  • Tibia Vara
  • Genu Valgum (Knock-Knees)
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Posteromedial Tibial Bowing
  • Anteromedial Tibial Bowing (Postaxial Hemimelia)
  • Anterolateral Tibial Bowing
  • Tibial Longitudinal Deficiency
  • Bibliography
  • 696 Leg-Length Discrepancy
  • Diagnosis and Clinical Findings
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 697 The Knee
  • Normal Development of the Knee
  • Anatomy and Range of Motion
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 698 The Hip
  • Growth and Development
  • Vascular Supply
  • Keywords
  • Classification
  • Etiology and Risk Factors
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathoanatomy
  • Clinical Findings
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Classification
  • Natural History and Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Classification
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnostic Studies
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Bibliography
  • 699 The Spine
  • Normal Spinal Curvatures
  • Keywords
  • Definition
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Classification of Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • Clinical Presentation of Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • Physical Examination of Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • Radiographic Evaluation of Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • Natural History of Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Definition
  • Etiology
  • Associated Conditions
  • Classification of Congenital Scoliosis
  • Natural History of Congenital Scoliosis
  • Treatment of Congenital Scoliosis
  • Special Circumstance: Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Neuromuscular Scoliosis
  • Syndromes and Genetic Disorders
  • Compensatory Scoliosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Flexible Kyphosis (Postural Kyphosis)
  • Structural Kyphosis
  • Congenital Kyphosis
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Evaluation
  • Medical Decision Making
  • Radiographic and Laboratory Evaluation
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Physical Exam
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Apophysis
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 700 The Neck
  • Keywords
  • Congenital Muscular Torticollis
  • Other Causes of Torticollis
  • Atlantoaxial Rotatory Displacement
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Etiology and Classification
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Physical Examination
  • Radiologic Investigation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • OS Odontoideum
  • Bibliography
  • 701 The Upper Limb
  • Shoulder
  • Elbow
  • Wrist
  • Hand
  • Bibliography
  • 702 Arthrogryposis
  • Etiology
  • Classification
  • Management of Orthopedic Problems of Arthrogryposis
  • Foot Problems
  • Knee Problems
  • Hip Problems
  • Upper-Extremity Problems
  • Bibliography
  • 703 Common Fractures
  • Keywords
  • Fracture Remodeling
  • Overgrowth
  • Progressive Deformity
  • Rapid Healing
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Plastic Deformation
  • Buckle or Torus Fracture
  • Greenstick Fracture
  • Complete Fractures
  • Epiphyseal Fractures
  • Child Abuse
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Phalangeal Fractures
  • Forearm Fractures
  • Distal Humeral Fractures
  • Proximal Humerus Fractures
  • Clavicular Fractures
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Hip Fracture
  • Femoral Shaft Fractures
  • Proximal Tibia Fractures
  • Tibia and Fibula Shaft Fractures
  • Toddler Fracture
  • Triplane and Tillaux Fractures
  • Metatarsal Fractures
  • Toe Phalangeal Fractures
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Surgical Techniques
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Complications Resulting From Injury
  • Complications of Treatment
  • Late Complications of Trauma
  • 704 Osteomyelitis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Radiographic Evaluation
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 705 Septic Arthritis
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • Section 2 Sports Medicine
  • 706 Epidemiology and Prevention of Injuries
  • Preparticipation Sports Examination
  • Bibliography
  • 707 Management of Musculoskeletal Injury
  • Mechanism of Injury
  • Initial Evaluation of the Injured Extremity
  • Transition From Immediate Management to Return to Play
  • Imaging
  • Differential Diagnoses of Musculoskeletal Pain
  • Bibliography
  • Clavicle Fractures
  • Acromioclavicular Joint Separation
  • Anterior Glenohumeral Dislocation
  • Rotator Cuff Injury
  • Bibliography
  • Acute Injuries
  • Bibliography
  • Spondylolysis, Spondylolisthesis, and Facet Syndrome
  • Lumbar Disk Herniation, Strain, and Contusion
  • Other Causes
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Initial Treatment of Acute Knee Injuries
  • Chronic Injuries
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Examination and Injury Grading Scale
  • Radiographs
  • Initial Treatment of Ankle Sprains
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 708 Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion)
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Assessment of the Injured Player
  • Management and Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 709 Cervical Spine Injuries
  • Soft Tissue Injury
  • Spear Tackler's Spine
  • Cervical Fractures
  • Stingers (Burners)
  • Transient Quadriparesis
  • Congenital Spinal Stenosis
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Bibliography
  • 710 Heat Injuries
  • Bibliography
  • 711 Female Athletes
  • Bibliography
  • 712 Performance-Enhancing Aids
  • Bibliography
  • 713 Specific Sports and Associated Injuries
  • Sports Participation, Early Specialization, Injury Risk and Burnout
  • Football
  • Baseball/Softball
  • Basketball/Volleyball
  • Tennis
  • Lacrosse
  • Swimming/Diving
  • Soccer
  • Ice Hockey
  • Field Hockey
  • Skiing and Snowboarding
  • Skateboarding
  • Cycling and Motocross
  • Wrestling
  • Running
  • Cheerleading
  • Gymnastics
  • Dance
  • Adaptive Sports
  • Bibliography
  • Section 3 The Skeletal Dysplasias
  • 714 General Considerations in Skeletal Dysplasias
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Molecular Genetics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 715 Disorders Involving Cartilage Matrix Proteins
  • Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasias/Type 2 Collagenopathies
  • Kniest Dysplasia
  • Late-Onset Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia
  • Aggrecan-Related Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasias
  • Stickler Syndrome/Dysplasia (Hereditary Osteoarthroophthalmopathy)
  • Schmid Metaphyseal Dysplasia
  • Pseudoachondroplasia and Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
  • Bibliography
  • 716 Disorders Involving Transmembrane Receptors
  • Achondroplasia Group
  • Jansen Metaphyseal Dysplasia
  • Bibliography
  • 717 Disorders Involving Ion Transporters
  • Autosomal Recessive Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
  • Bibliography
  • 718 Disorders Involving Transcription Factors
  • Campomelic Dysplasia
  • Cleidocranial Dysplasia
  • Nail-Patella Syndrome
  • Bibliography
  • 719 Disorders Involving Defective Bone Resorption
  • Osteopetrosis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Pyknodysostosis
  • Bibliography
  • 720 Other Inherited Disorders of Skeletal Development
  • Ellis–Van Creveld Syndrome
  • Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (See Also Chapter 445.3)
  • Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndromes
  • Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia–Anauxetic Spectrum Disorders
  • Metatropic Dysplasia
  • Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia, Kozlowski Type
  • Disorders Involving Filamins
  • Juvenile Osteochondroses
  • Caffey Disease (Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis)
  • Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
  • Bibliography
  • 721 Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Other Genes for Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Bibliography
  • 722 Marfan Syndrome
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Management
  • Current Therapies
  • Emerging Therapeutic Strategies
  • Prognosis
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Bibliography
  • Section 4 Metabolic Bone Disease
  • 723 Bone Structure, Growth, and Hormonal Regulation
  • Bibliography
  • 724 Hypophosphatasia
  • Bibliography
  • 725 Hyperphosphatasia
  • Bibliography
  • 726 Osteoporosis
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXXII Rehabilitation Medicine
  • 727 Evaluation of the Child for Rehabilitative Services
  • Child Characteristics
  • Family Characteristics
  • The Physical Environment
  • The Previously Healthy Child
  • 728 Rehabilitation for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Pathophysiology
  • Severity
  • Medical Complications
  • Spasticity
  • Bibliography
  • 729 Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic Dysreflexia Management
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Prognosis
  • Bibliography
  • 730 Spasticity
  • Oral Medications
  • Surgical Management
  • Bibliography
  • 731 Birth Brachial Plexus Palsy
  • Physical Examination
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 732 Meningomyelocele (Spina Bifida)
  • Etiology
  • Prevention
  • Prenatal Screening
  • Clinical Implications
  • Adolescence and Transition to Adulthood
  • Bibliography
  • 733 Ambulation Assistance
  • Orthoses
  • Prostheses
  • Assistive Mobility Devices
  • Wheelchair
  • Bibliography
  • 734 Health and Wellness for Children With Disabilities
  • Health Promotion Definitions and Background for Disability
  • Anticipatory Guidance, Counseling, and Preventive Care
  • Physical Activity and Exercise
  • Nutrition and Obesity
  • Emotional Health and Leisure Activities
  • Dental Care
  • Role of Healthcare Providers
  • Keywords
  • Preparation
  • Community Resources
  • Subacute Care
  • Emergency and Acute Care
  • Quality of Life
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXXIII Environmental Health
  • 735 Overview of Environmental Health and Children
  • Global Climate Change
  • Localized Environmental Hazards
  • Toxins Versus Toxicants
  • Mycotoxins
  • Food-Borne Diseases Caused by Environmental Exposures
  • Bibliography
  • 736 Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Children
  • Basic Principles
  • Biologic Effects of Radiation
  • Radiation Exposure in Diagnostic Imaging of Children
  • Decreasing Unnecessary Diagnostic Radiation in Children While Still Obtaining Diagnostic Images
  • Radiation Therapy—Acute and Late Effects
  • Whole-Body Irradiation
  • Internal Contamination
  • External Contamination
  • Bibliography
  • 737 Chemical Pollutants
  • Synthetic Chemicals and Human Health
  • Children's Unique Susceptibility to Synthetic Chemicals
  • Safety Testing of Synthetic Chemicals
  • Synthetic Chemicals and Disease in Children
  • Chemical Pollutants of Major Concern
  • Health Hazards of Unconventional Natural Gas Development (Fracking)
  • The Physician's Role
  • Keywords
  • Composition of Second-Hand Smoke and Toxicities
  • Tobacco Use and Exposure Is A Health Risk Disparity
  • Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Tobacco Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy
  • Postnatal Second-Hand Smoke Exposure—Effects on the Child
  • Treatment for Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure
  • Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • 738 Heavy Metal Intoxication
  • Arsenic
  • Mercury
  • Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Intoxication
  • Bibliography
  • 739 Lead Poisoning
  • Public Health History
  • Sources of Exposure
  • Metabolism
  • Clinical Effects
  • Clinical Symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 740 Nonbacterial Food Poisoning
  • Keywords
  • Gastrointestinal: Delayed Onset
  • Renal: Delayed Onset
  • Autonomic Nervous System: Rapid Onset
  • Central Nervous System: Rapid Onset
  • Gastrointestinal: Rapid Onset
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
  • Scombroid (Pseudoallergic) Fish Poisoning
  • Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
  • Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning
  • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning
  • Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning
  • Pufferfish Poisoning
  • Azaspiracid Poisoning
  • Bibliography
  • Keywords
  • Bibliography
  • 741 Biologic and Chemical Terrorism*
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology and Pediatric-Specific Concerns
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 742 Mass Psychogenic Illness
  • Clinical Features and Diagnosis
  • Treatment Strategies
  • Bibliography
  • 743 Animal and Human Bites
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Complications
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Bibliography
  • 744 Rat Bite Fever
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Course
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 745 Monkeypox
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Course
  • Treatment
  • Bibliography
  • 746 Envenomations
  • General Approach to the Envenomated Child
  • Snake Bites
  • Spider Bites
  • Scorpion Stings
  • Hymenoptera Stings
  • Marine Envenomation
  • Bibliography
  • Part XXXIV Laboratory Medicine
  • 747 Laboratory Testing in Infants and Children
  • Accuracy and Precision of Laboratory Tests
  • Sensitivity, Accuracy, and Analytic Testing
  • Predictive Value of Laboratory Tests
  • Neonatal Screening Tests
  • Testing in Refining a Differential Diagnosis
  • Bibliography
  • 748 Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests and Procedures
  • Bibliography (for Table 748.5)
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 4264
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: April 1, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323568906
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323568883
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323529501

About the Authors

Robert Kliegman

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor & Chair Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics - Medical College of Wisconsin Nelson Undiagnosed & Rare Disease Program

Joseph St. Geme

Affiliations and Expertise

Chair, Department of Pediatrics, Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; Physician-in-Chief, Leonard and Madlyn Abramson Endowed Chair in Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set"