Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence

Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence

1st Edition - August 17, 2016

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  • Editors: F. Scott Hall, Jared Young, Andre Der-Avakian
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128025741
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128026694

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Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence is the only book of its kind that addresses nicotine use and abuse in the context of negative reinforcement mechanisms. Written and edited by leading investigators in addiction, affective, genetic, and cognitive research, it provides researchers and advanced students with an overview of the clinical bases of these effects, allowing them to fully understand the various underlying dysfunctions that drive nicotine use in different individuals. In addition, this book examines animal models that researchers have utilized to investigate the biological bases of these dysfunctions. The combination of clinical and preclinical approaches to understanding nicotine dependence makes this book an invaluable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to develop targeted treatments aimed at ameliorating symptoms of nicotine dependence, as well as identifying premorbid differences in affective or cognitive function.

Key Features

  • Provides a unique perspective on nicotine dependence that emphasizes negative reinforcement rather than positive reinforcement
  • Examines psychiatric comorbidities and alleviation of withdrawal states as motivation for continued tobacco use
  • Includes both clinical and preclinical perspectives
  • Includes genetic and multi-neurotransmitter perspectives on nicotine use and withdrawal
  • Emphasizes heterogeneity of underlying reasons for smoking, the need for multiple animal models to understand this heterogeneity, and the expectation of heterogeneous responses to potential treatments, underscoring the need for personalized therapeutics


Researchers, clinicians, graduate students, and health professionals in cognitive neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, pharmacology, psychopathology, and addiction

Table of Contents

    • Dedication
    • List of Contributors
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1. Overview of Nicotine Withdrawal and Negative Reinforcement (Preclinical)
      • Introduction
      • Tobacco Dependence and Nicotine
      • Theoretical Framework
      • Positive Reinforcement Associated With Nicotine Use
      • Negative Reinforcement Associated With Nicotine Use
      • Neurobiological Mechanisms of Positive Reinforcement
      • Neurobiological Mechanisms of Negative Reinforcement
      • Translational Aspects of the Neurobiology of Negative Reinforcement
    • Chapter 2. Nicotine Withdrawal and Attentional Deficit Studies Across Species: Conflation With Attentional Dysfunction in Psychiatric Patients
      • Nicotine Use, Withdrawal, and Cognition
      • Attentional Deficits Resulting From Nicotine Withdrawal in Humans
      • Attentional Dysfunction in Psychiatric Patients: Overlap With Nicotinic Research
      • Mechanisms Underlying Nicotinic Effects on Attention
      • Attentional Deficits from Nicotine Withdrawal in Animals
      • Implications and Future Studies
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3. Preclinical Models of Nicotine Withdrawal: Targeting Impaired Cognition
      • Introduction
      • Nicotine Withdrawal in Laboratory Rodents
      • Nicotine Exposure to Induce Physical Dependence in Rodents
      • Pharmacological Screening
      • Measures of Cognition in Rodent Models of Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Animal Models of Nicotine Dependence: Withdrawal Effects on Attention
      • Pharmacological Treatment of Nicotine Dependence
      • Summary
    • Chapter 4. Genetic, Developmental, and Receptor-Level Influences on Nicotine Withdrawal-Associated Deficits in Learning
      • Introduction
      • Hippocampus-Dependent Learning Is More Sensitive to the Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal than Hippocampus-Independent Learning
      • Chronic Nicotine Acts Directly in the Hippocampus to Change nAChR Function and Disrupt Learning during Withdrawal
      • Genetic Background Modulates Nicotine Withdrawal Effects on Learning
      • Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal on Learning Vary With Age
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 5. Enhanced Tobacco Use Vulnerability in Adolescents, Females, and Persons With Diabetes
      • Introduction
      • Nicotine Reward and Withdrawal
      • Adolescents
      • Females
      • Persons With Diabetes
      • Other Populations to Consider
      • Conclusion and Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 6. Detrimental Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine
      • Introduction
      • Functional Role of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Developing Nervous System
      • Somatic Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine
      • Long-Term Neurobehavioral Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 7. Contribution of Translational Genetic Research to Our Understanding of Nicotine Dependence
      • Human Genetics: What Should We Seek to Model in Animal Studies?
      • Genetic Studies of Positive Reinforcement in Mice
      • Mouse Models of Negative Reinforcement
      • Genetic Predisposition to Affective Deficits
      • Genetic Predisposition to Cognitive Deficits
      • Where Do We Go Next?
    • Chapter 8. Transmitters and Receptors in Nicotine Withdrawal Syndrome
      • Influence of Differing Laboratory Models of Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Cholinergic Mechanisms
      • Dopamine
      • Serotonin and Norepinephrine
      • Glutamate
      • Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
      • Endogenous Opiate Mechanisms
      • Nonopioid Peptides
      • Signal Transduction Mechanisms
      • Concluding Thoughts
    • Chapter 9. The Cannabinoid System in Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal
      • Introduction to the Cannabinoid System
      • The Cannabinoid System and the Reward Pathway
      • The Cannabinoid System and Nicotine Dependence
      • CB1 Receptors
      • CB2 Receptors
      • Endocannabinoids and Nicotine Dependence
      • The Cannabinoid System and Nicotine Withdrawal
      • CB1 Receptors and Nicotine Withdrawal
      • CB2 Receptors and Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Endocannabinoids and Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10. Critical Role for Brain Stress Systems in the Negative Affective State Associated With Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Introduction
      • Dysphoria and Nicotine Withdrawal
      • CRF and Dysphoria Associated With Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Norepinephrine and Dysphoria Associated With Nicotine Withdrawal
    • Chapter 11. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Characterization of the Habenular Nuclei
      • The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 12. A Clinical Overview of Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal
      • A Clinical Overview of Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal
      • Summary
    • Chapter 13. Epidemiologic Research on the Relationship of Nicotine Dependence to Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Nicotine Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders
      • Nicotine Dependence and Substance Use Disorders
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 14. Nicotine and Tobacco Smoking and Withdrawal in Schizophrenia
      • Tobacco Use Disorder in Schizophrenia
      • Smoking Abstinence and Reinstatement
      • Greater Difficulty Quitting
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 15. Emergent Cognitive Impairment During Early Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Introduction
      • Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Cognitive Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Bench to Bedside Models of Cognition During Nicotine Withdrawal
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 16. Nicotine and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
      • Introduction
      • Tobacco Use and PTSD
      • Nicotine and PTSD Phenotypes
      • Summary
    • Chapter 17. Nicotine Withdrawal and Depression: Clinical Studies—A Four-Factor Model for More Accurate Characterization
      • Introduction
      • Factor 1: Differential Relapse and Dropout
      • Studies Explicitly Designed to Characterize Abstinence Effects
      • Factor 2: Downward Drift in Self-Reported Negative Affect
      • Factor 3: Quit-Date Proximal Upward Baseline Drift
      • The Ups and Downs of Affective Drift and Withdrawal Scores
      • Factor 4: Long- and Short-Term Chronodynamic Life Changes and Events
      • Other Valuable Designs
      • Summary, Conclusions, and New Directions
    • Chapter 18. Neuroimaging Insights Into the Multifaceted Nature of the Nicotine Withdrawal Syndrome
      • Introduction
      • Affective Disturbances
      • Cognitive Impairments
      • Reward Dysregulation
      • Summary and Future Considerations
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: August 17, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128025741
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128026694

About the Editors

F. Scott Hall

Dr. F. Scott Hall is an Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics in the College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Toledo. Dr. Hall’s research investigates the genetic and environmental determinants of susceptibility to addiction and related psychiatric disorders. After a B.A. from Harvard University (1987) and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1994, Dr. Hall completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Dr. Hall joined the Molecular Neurobiology Branch at the National Institute on Drug Abuse in 1999 where he led the behavioral genetics group until 2014. He has authored over a hundred scientific publications and is a fellow of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society. Dr. Hall is recognized internationally as an expert in the genetic basis of addiction and the role that early social experience plays in shaping adult behavior and behavioral pathology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, MD, USA

Jared Young

I am a Scottish Neuropsychopharmacologist in Sunny California, Dept. of Psychiatry, UCSD. My primary interest is investigating the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in order to develop targeted therapeutics. I specialize in cross-species testing and as such have developed/aided in the development of many such tests including the 5-choice continuous performance test, now in use across the globe, in patients, rats, and mice, with fMRI and EEG recording also available. With regards to clinical populations, I have investigated diseases such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, HIV, Tourette’s syndrome, as well as methamphetamine, nicotine, and cannabis abuse. Using this cross-species behavioral testing approach, any work we conduct we hope will have relevance to clinical populations and vice-versa. With this dual approach combined with networking with great collaborators, I hope that more promising therapeutics will not be far away.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA

Andre Der-Avakian

Andre Der-Avakian, Ph.D., is an Assistant Research Scientist in the Department of Psychiatry at University of California, San Diego and an Adjunct Instructor in the Department of Psychological Sciences at University of San Diego. He received his Ph.D. in Neuroscience from University of Colorado, Boulder and completed a National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored postdoctoral fellowship at University of California, San Diego. Dr. Der-Avakian has published several research articles, reviews, and book chapters on the neurobiology of stress-induced disruption of normal reward processing in rats that may contribute to symptoms like anhedonia and motivational deficits in psychiatric disorders. His research, which is funded by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is focused on designing and implementing new translational behavioral and neurophysiological assessments of reward and cognitive processes in rats with high relevance to human psychiatric disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, USA

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