Natural Gas Measurement Handbook

Natural Gas Measurement Handbook

1st Edition - December 1, 2006

Write a review

  • Author: James E. Gallagher
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781933762005
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128000007

Purchase options

Purchase options
Available
DRM-free (Mobi, EPub, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Measurement is the basis of commerce between producers, royalty owners, transporters, process plants, marketers, state and federal government authorities, and the general public. In fact, accurate measurement of hydrocarbon fluids and materials has a significant impact on the Gross National Product of exporting and importing countries, the financial performance and asset base of global companies, and the perceived efficiency of operating facilities. The need for accurate fiscal measurement is obvious. This information-packed volume covers all aspects of natural gas measurement and provides a clear presentation of the measurement principles, state-of-the-art technology, and its applications in the real world.

Table of Contents


  • List of Tables

    List of Figures

    Preface

    Symbols

    Unit Conversions

    1 Introduction

    1.1 Transportation System

    1.2 Measurement

    1.3 Fluid Classification, Commercial

    1.4 Material Quality

    1.5 Risk Management

    2 Composition and Quality

    2.1 Assay

    2.2 Quality Parameters and Tolerances

    2.3 Potential Impacts of Gas Quality

    2.4 Typical Streams

    3 Physical Properties and Process Conditions

    3.1 Natural Gas

    3.2 Fluid Classification: Technical

    3.3 Phase Envelope

    3.4 Fluid Properties

    3.5 Process (or Operating) Conditions

    3.6 Typical Natural Gas Physical Properties

    4 Measurement Concepts

    4.1 Applicable Fluids

    4.2 Base Conditions

    4.3 Flowmeters (or Primary Devices)

    4.4 Flowmeter Calibration Concepts

    4.5 Law of Similarity

    4.6 Single-Phase Fluid Flow in Pipes

    4.7 Multiphase Fluid Flow in Pipes

    4.8 Secondary Devices

    4.9 Tertiary Device

    4.10 Uncertainty

    4.11 Total Cost of Measurement

    5 Orifice Flowmeter

    5.1 General Principles

    5.2 Mass Flow Equation

    5.3 Artifact Calibration

    5.4 Uncertainty Roadmap

    5.5 Sources of Error

    5.6 Risk Management

    6 Ultrasonic Flowmeter

    6.1 General Principles

    6.2 Mass Flow Equation

    6.3 Central Facility Calibration

    6.4 In Situ Calibration

    6.5 Uncertainty Roadmap

    6.6 Sources of Error

    6.7 Risk Management

    7 Turbine Flowmeter

    7.1 General Principles

    7.2 Mass Flow Equation

    7.3 Central Facility Calibration

    7.4 In Situ Calibration

    7.5 Uncertainty Roadmap

    7.6 Sources of Error

    7.7 Risk Management

    8 Rotary Displacement Flowmeter

    8.1 General Principles

    8.2 Mass Flow Equation

    8.3 Central Facility Calibration

    8.4 In Situ Calibration

    8.5 Uncertainty Roadmap

    8.6 Sources of Error

    8.7 Risk Management

    9 Calculations

    9.1 Base Conditions

    9.2 Physical Properties

    9.3 Natural Gas Density

    9.4 GPA 2172 versus A.G.A.8

    9.5 Mass Flow Rate in Pipes

    9.6 Mass Flow Rate for Orifice Flowmeter

    9.7 Mass Flow Rate for Ultrasonic Flowmeter

    9.8 Mass Flow Rate for Turbine Flowmeter

    9.9 Mass Flow Rate for Rotary Displacement Flowmeter

    9.10 Volumetric Flow Rate at Base Conditions

    9.11 Energy Flow Rate at Base Conditions

    9.12 Quantities

    10 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

    10.1 General

    10.2 Differential Pressure (dP)

    10.3 Static Pressure

    10.4 Temperature

    10.5 Multivariable Transmitter

    10.6 Online Densitometer

    10.7 Moisture Analyzer

    10.8 Online Gas Chromatograph

    10.9 Other Analyzers

    10.10 Flow Computers

    10.11 Gas Sampling Systems

    11 Electronic Gas Measurement

    11.1 Description of an Electronic Gas Measurement System

    11.2 System Accuracy

    11.3 Definitions

    11.4 Sampling Flow Variables

    11.5 Low Flow Detection

    11.6 Averaging Techniques

    11.7 Compressibility, Density, and Heating Values

    11.8 Hourly and Daily Quantity Calculations

    11.9 Data Availability

    11.10 Audit and Reporting Requirements

    11.11 Equipment Verification, Calibration, and Certification

    11.12 Security

    12 Uncertainty

    12.1 Uncertainty Terms

    12.2 Measurement Uncertainty

    12.3 Examples of Flowmeter Uncertainties

    12.4 Statistical Weighting

    13 Measurement System Design

    13.1 Targeted Uncertainty

    13.2 Fluid Physical Properties

    13.3 Operating Design Data

    13.4 Other Process Conditions

    13.5 General Equipment Redundancy

    13.6 Site Requirements

    13.7 Structures

    13.8 Piping Requirements

    13.9 Pressure Regulation and Control

    13.10 Flare and Vent Facilities

    13.11 Overpressure Protection

    13.12 Thermal Relief Valves

    13.13 Headers

    13.14 Strainers

    13.15 DB&B Valves

    13.16 Check Valves

    13.17 Pulsation Control

    13.18 Primary Device

    13.19 Secondary Devices

    13.20 Tertiary Device (Flow Computer)

    13.21 Control Valves

    13.22 Wiring and Grounding

    13.23 Measurement Control Panel

    13.24 Power Supplies

    13.25 Satellite Panels

    13.26 Supervisory Control and Leak Detection

    13.27 Security

    13.28 Factory Acceptance Testing

    13.29 Dewatering, Cleaning, and Drying

    13.30 Commissioning

    14 Orifice Flowmeter Design

    14.1 General

    14.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

    14.3 Strainers

    14.4 Flowmeter Assembly

    14.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

    14.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

    14.7 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

    15 Ultrasonic Flowmeter Design

    15.1 General

    15.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

    15.3 Acoustic Filter

    15.4 Flowmeter Assembly

    15.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

    15.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

    15.7 Flowmeter: SPU, Electrical, and Software

    15.8 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

    16 Turbine Flowmeter Design

    16.1 General

    16.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

    16.3 Strainer and Lubrication

    16.4 Flowmeter Assembly

    16.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

    16.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

    16.7 Flowmeter: SPU, Electrical, and Software

    16.8 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

    17 Rotary Displacement Flowmeter Design

    17.1 General

    17.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

    17.3 Filtration and Lubrication

    17.4 Flowmeter Assembly

    17.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

    17.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

    17.7 Flowmeter: SPU, Electrical, and Software

    17.8 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

    18 Inspection, Testing, Verification, Calibration, and Certification

    18.1 Inspection

    18.2 Testing

    18.3 Verification

    18.4 Calibration

    18.5 Certification

    18.6 Equipment

    18.7 Equipment Information

    18.8 Records

    Appendix: Standards, Publications, and Regulations

    A.1 Mechanical Standards and Publications

    A.2 Electrical Standards and Publications

    A.3 Measurement Standards and Publications

    A.4 U.S. Government Regulations

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 425
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Publishing Company 2006
  • Published: December 1, 2006
  • Imprint: Gulf Publishing Company
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781933762005
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128000007

About the Author

James E. Gallagher

Affiliations and Expertise

Houston, TX, USA

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Natural Gas Measurement Handbook"