Natural Gas Measurement Handbook - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781933762005, 9780128000007

Natural Gas Measurement Handbook

1st Edition

Authors: James E. Gallagher
eBook ISBN: 9780128000007
Hardcover ISBN: 9781933762005
Imprint: Gulf Publishing Company
Published Date: 1st December 2006
Page Count: 425
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Description

Measurement is the basis of commerce between producers, royalty owners, transporters, process plants, marketers, state and federal government authorities, and the general public. In fact, accurate measurement of hydrocarbon fluids and materials has a significant impact on the Gross National Product of exporting and importing countries, the financial performance and asset base of global companies, and the perceived efficiency of operating facilities. The need for accurate fiscal measurement is obvious.

This information-packed volume covers all aspects of natural gas measurement and provides a clear presentation of the measurement principles, state-of-the-art technology, and its applications in the real world.

Table of Contents


List of Tables

List of Figures

Preface

Symbols

Unit Conversions

1 Introduction

1.1 Transportation System

1.2 Measurement

1.3 Fluid Classification, Commercial

1.4 Material Quality

1.5 Risk Management

2 Composition and Quality

2.1 Assay

2.2 Quality Parameters and Tolerances

2.3 Potential Impacts of Gas Quality

2.4 Typical Streams

3 Physical Properties and Process Conditions

3.1 Natural Gas

3.2 Fluid Classification: Technical

3.3 Phase Envelope

3.4 Fluid Properties

3.5 Process (or Operating) Conditions

3.6 Typical Natural Gas Physical Properties

4 Measurement Concepts

4.1 Applicable Fluids

4.2 Base Conditions

4.3 Flowmeters (or Primary Devices)

4.4 Flowmeter Calibration Concepts

4.5 Law of Similarity

4.6 Single-Phase Fluid Flow in Pipes

4.7 Multiphase Fluid Flow in Pipes

4.8 Secondary Devices

4.9 Tertiary Device

4.10 Uncertainty

4.11 Total Cost of Measurement

5 Orifice Flowmeter

5.1 General Principles

5.2 Mass Flow Equation

5.3 Artifact Calibration

5.4 Uncertainty Roadmap

5.5 Sources of Error

5.6 Risk Management

6 Ultrasonic Flowmeter

6.1 General Principles

6.2 Mass Flow Equation

6.3 Central Facility Calibration

6.4 In Situ Calibration

6.5 Uncertainty Roadmap

6.6 Sources of Error

6.7 Risk Management

7 Turbine Flowmeter

7.1 General Principles

7.2 Mass Flow Equation

7.3 Central Facility Calibration

7.4 In Situ Calibration

7.5 Uncertainty Roadmap

7.6 Sources of Error

7.7 Risk Management

8 Rotary Displacement Flowmeter

8.1 General Principles

8.2 Mass Flow Equation

8.3 Central Facility Calibration

8.4 In Situ Calibration

8.5 Uncertainty Roadmap

8.6 Sources of Error

8.7 Risk Management

9 Calculations

9.1 Base Conditions

9.2 Physical Properties

9.3 Natural Gas Density

9.4 GPA 2172 versus A.G.A.8

9.5 Mass Flow Rate in Pipes

9.6 Mass Flow Rate for Orifice Flowmeter

9.7 Mass Flow Rate for Ultrasonic Flowmeter

9.8 Mass Flow Rate for Turbine Flowmeter

9.9 Mass Flow Rate for Rotary Displacement Flowmeter

9.10 Volumetric Flow Rate at Base Conditions

9.11 Energy Flow Rate at Base Conditions

9.12 Quantities

10 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

10.1 General

10.2 Differential Pressure (dP)

10.3 Static Pressure

10.4 Temperature

10.5 Multivariable Transmitter

10.6 Online Densitometer

10.7 Moisture Analyzer

10.8 Online Gas Chromatograph

10.9 Other Analyzers

10.10 Flow Computers

10.11 Gas Sampling Systems

11 Electronic Gas Measurement

11.1 Description of an Electronic Gas Measurement System

11.2 System Accuracy

11.3 Definitions

11.4 Sampling Flow Variables

11.5 Low Flow Detection

11.6 Averaging Techniques

11.7 Compressibility, Density, and Heating Values

11.8 Hourly and Daily Quantity Calculations

11.9 Data Availability

11.10 Audit and Reporting Requirements

11.11 Equipment Verification, Calibration, and Certification

11.12 Security

12 Uncertainty

12.1 Uncertainty Terms

12.2 Measurement Uncertainty

12.3 Examples of Flowmeter Uncertainties

12.4 Statistical Weighting

13 Measurement System Design

13.1 Targeted Uncertainty

13.2 Fluid Physical Properties

13.3 Operating Design Data

13.4 Other Process Conditions

13.5 General Equipment Redundancy

13.6 Site Requirements

13.7 Structures

13.8 Piping Requirements

13.9 Pressure Regulation and Control

13.10 Flare and Vent Facilities

13.11 Overpressure Protection

13.12 Thermal Relief Valves

13.13 Headers

13.14 Strainers

13.15 DB&B Valves

13.16 Check Valves

13.17 Pulsation Control

13.18 Primary Device

13.19 Secondary Devices

13.20 Tertiary Device (Flow Computer)

13.21 Control Valves

13.22 Wiring and Grounding

13.23 Measurement Control Panel

13.24 Power Supplies

13.25 Satellite Panels

13.26 Supervisory Control and Leak Detection

13.27 Security

13.28 Factory Acceptance Testing

13.29 Dewatering, Cleaning, and Drying

13.30 Commissioning

14 Orifice Flowmeter Design

14.1 General

14.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

14.3 Strainers

14.4 Flowmeter Assembly

14.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

14.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

14.7 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

15 Ultrasonic Flowmeter Design

15.1 General

15.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

15.3 Acoustic Filter

15.4 Flowmeter Assembly

15.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

15.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

15.7 Flowmeter: SPU, Electrical, and Software

15.8 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

16 Turbine Flowmeter Design

16.1 General

16.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

16.3 Strainer and Lubrication

16.4 Flowmeter Assembly

16.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

16.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

16.7 Flowmeter: SPU, Electrical, and Software

16.8 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

17 Rotary Displacement Flowmeter Design

17.1 General

17.2 Velocity and Piping Insulation

17.3 Filtration and Lubrication

17.4 Flowmeter Assembly

17.5 Flowmeter, Mechanical

17.6 Piping Spools, Mechanical

17.7 Flowmeter: SPU, Electrical, and Software

17.8 Secondary and Tertiary Devices

18 Inspection, Testing, Verification, Calibration, and Certification

18.1 Inspection

18.2 Testing

18.3 Verification

18.4 Calibration

18.5 Certification

18.6 Equipment

18.7 Equipment Information

18.8 Records

Appendix: Standards, Publications, and Regulations

A.1 Mechanical Standards and Publications

A.2 Electrical Standards and Publications

A.3 Measurement Standards and Publications

A.4 U.S. Government Regulations

Glossary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
425
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Publishing Company 2007
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Publishing Company
eBook ISBN:
9780128000007
Hardcover ISBN:
9781933762005

About the Author

James E. Gallagher

Affiliations and Expertise

Houston, TX, USA