Natural Gas Hydrates

3rd Edition

A Guide for Engineers

Authors: John Carroll
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000748
eBook ISBN: 9780128005750
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 24th June 2014
Page Count: 340
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Rarely covered in formal engineering courses, natural gas hydrates are a common problem and real-life danger for engineers worldwide. Updated and more practical than ever, Natural Gas Hydrates, Third Edition helps managers and engineers get up to speed on all the most common hydrate types, how to forecast when they will appear, and safely mitigate their removal. Known for being highly flammable, gas hydrates are a preventable threat that can costs millions of dollars in damage, as well as take the lives of workers and engineers on the rig. The third edition of Natural Gas Hydrates is enhanced with today’s more complex yet practical utilization needs including:

  • New hydrate types and formers, including mercaptans and other sulfur compounds
  • Vital information on how to handle hydrate formation in the wellbore, useful information in light of the Macondo explosion and resulting oil spill
  • More detailed phase diagrams, such as ternary systems, as well as more relevant multicomponent mixtures

Key Features

  • Quantifiably measure the conditions that make hydrates possible and mitigate the right equipment correctly
  • Predict and examine the conditions at which hydrates form with simple and complex calculation exercises
  • Gain knowledge and review lessons learned from new real-world case studies and examples, covering capital costs, dehydration, and new computer methods


Chemical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Drilling Engineers, Completion Engineers, and Production Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgment
  • Preface to the Third Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Natural Gas
    • 1.2. The Water Molecule
    • 1.3. Hydrates
    • 1.4. Water and Natural Gas
    • 1.5. Heavy Water
    • 1.6. Additional Reading
    • 1.7. Units
    • 1.8. Quantifying Error
  • Chapter 2. Hydrate Types and Formers
    • 2.1. Type I Hydrates
    • 2.2. Type II Hydrates
    • 2.3. Type H Hydrates
    • 2.4. The Size of the Guest Molecule
    • 2.5. n-Butane
    • 2.6. Other Hydrocarbons
    • 2.7. Cyclopropane
    • 2.8. 2-Butene
    • 2.9. Hydrogen and Helium
    • 2.10. Chemical Properties of Potential Guests
    • 2.11. Liquid Hydrate Formers
    • 2.12. Hydrate Forming Conditions
    • 2.13. V + LA + H Correlations
    • 2.14. LA + LN + H Correlations
    • 2.15. Quadruple Points
    • 2.16. Other Hydrate Formers
    • 2.17. Hydrate Formation at 0 °C
    • 2.18. Mixtures
    • Appendix 2A Water Content of the Fluid in Equilibrium with Hydrate for Pure Components
  • Chapter 3. Hand Calculation Methods
    • 3.1. The Gas Gravity Method
    • 3.2. The K-Factor Method
    • 3.3. Baillie–Wichert Method
    • 3.4. Other Correlations
    • 3.5. Comments on All of These Methods
    • 3.6. Local Models
    • Appendix 3A Katz K-Factor Charts
  • Chapter 4. Computer Methods
    • 4.1. Phase Equilibrium
    • 4.2. van der Waals and Platteeuw
    • 4.3. Parrish and Prausnitz
    • 4.4. Ng and Robinson
    • 4.5. Calculations
    • 4.6. Commercial Software Packages
    • 4.7. The Accuracy of These Programs
    • 4.8. Dehydration
    • 4.9. Margin of Error
  • Chapter 5. Inhibiting Hydrate Formation with Chemicals
    • 5.1. Freezing Point Depression
    • 5.2. The Hammerschmidt Equation


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About the Author

John Carroll

John Carroll is currently Director, Geostorage Processing Engineering for Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd. in Calgary. With more than 20 years of experience, he supports other engineers with software problems and provides information involving fluid properties, hydrates and phase equilibria. Prior to that, he has worked for Honeywell, University of Alberta as a seasonal lecturer, and Amoco Canada as a Petroleum Engineer. John has published a couple of books, sits on three editorial advisory boards, and he has authored/co-authored more than 60 papers. He has trained many engineers on natural gas throughout the world, and is a member of several associations including SPE, AIChE, and GPAC. John earned a Bachelor of Science (with Distinction) and a Doctorate of Philosophy, both in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta. He is a registered professional engineer in the province of Alberta and New Brunswick, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd.