Natural Gas Hydrates - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780128000748, 9780128005750

Natural Gas Hydrates

3rd Edition

A Guide for Engineers

Authors: John Carroll
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000748
eBook ISBN: 9780128005750
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 24th June 2014
Page Count: 340
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Description

  • Acknowledgment
  • Preface to the Third Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Natural Gas
    • 1.2. The Water Molecule
    • 1.3. Hydrates
    • 1.4. Water and Natural Gas
    • 1.5. Heavy Water
    • 1.6. Additional Reading
    • 1.7. Units
    • 1.8. Quantifying Error
  • Chapter 2. Hydrate Types and Formers
    • 2.1. Type I Hydrates
    • 2.2. Type II Hydrates
    • 2.3. Type H Hydrates
    • 2.4. The Size of the Guest Molecule
    • 2.5. n-Butane
    • 2.6. Other Hydrocarbons
    • 2.7. Cyclopropane
    • 2.8. 2-Butene
    • 2.9. Hydrogen and Helium
    • 2.10. Chemical Properties of Potential Guests
    • 2.11. Liquid Hydrate Formers
    • 2.12. Hydrate Forming Conditions
    • 2.13. V + LA + H Correlations
    • 2.14. LA + LN + H Correlations
    • 2.15. Quadruple Points
    • 2.16. Other Hydrate Formers
    • 2.17. Hydrate Formation at 0 °C
    • 2.18. Mixtures
    • Appendix 2A Water Content of the Fluid in Equilibrium with Hydrate for Pure Components
  • Chapter 3. Hand Calculation Methods
    • 3.1. The Gas Gravity Method
    • 3.2. The K-Factor Method
    • 3.3. Baillie–Wichert Method
    • 3.4. Other Correlations
    • 3.5. Comments on All of These Methods
    • 3.6. Local Models
    • Appendix 3A Katz K-Factor Charts
  • Chapter 4. Computer Methods
    • 4.1. Phase Equilibrium
    • 4.2. van der Waals and Platteeuw
    • 4.3. Parrish and Prausnitz
    • 4.4. Ng and Robinson
    • 4.5. Calculations
    • 4.6. Commercial Software Packages
    • 4.7. The Accuracy of These Programs
    • 4.8. Dehydration
    • 4.9. Margin of Error
  • Chapter 5. Inhibiting Hydrate Formation with Chemicals
    • 5.1. Freezing Point Depression
    • 5.2. The Hammerschmidt Equation
    • 5.3. The Nielsen–Bucklin Equation
    • 5.4. A New Method
    • 5.5. Brine Solutions
    • 5.6. Østergaard et al
    • 5.7. Comment on the Simple Methods
    • 5.8. Advanced Calculation Methods
    • 5.9. A Word of Caution
    • 5.10. Ammonia
    • 5.11. Acetone
    • 5.12. Inhibitor Vaporization
    • 5.13. A Comment on Injection Rates
    • 5.14. Safety Considerations
    • 5.15. Price for Inhibitor Chemicals
    • 5.16. Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors
  • Chapter 6. Dehydration of Natural Gas
    • 6.1. Water Content Specification
    • 6.2. Glycol Dehydration
    • 6.3. Mole Sieves
    • 6.4. Refrigeration
  • Chapter 7. Combating Hydrates Using Heat and Pressure
    • 7.1. Plugs
    • 7.2. The Use of Heat
    • 7.3. Depressurization
    • 7.4. Melting a Plug with Heat
    • 7.5. Hydrate Plug Location
    • 7.6. Buildings
    • 7.7. Capital Costs
    • 7.8. Case Studies
    • Appendix 7A Output from Pipe Heat Loss Program for the Examples in the Text
  • Chapter 8. Physical Properties of Hydrates
    • 8.1. Molar Mass
    • 8.2. Density
    • 8.3. Enthalpy of Fusion
    • 8.4. Heat Capacity
    • 8.5. Thermal Conductivity
    • 8.6. Mechanical Properties
    • 8.7. Volume of Gas in Hydrate
    • 8.8. Ice versus Hydrate
  • Chapter 9. Phase Diagrams
    • 9.1. Phase Rule
    • 9.2. Comments about Phases
    • 9.3. Single Component Systems
    • 9.4. Binary Systems
    • 9.5. Phase Behavior below 0 °C
    • 9.6. Multicomponent Systems
  • Chapter 10. Water Content of Natural Gas
    • 10.1. Dew Point
    • 10.2. Equilibrium with Liquid Water
    • 10.3. Equilibrium with Solids
    • 10.4. Local Water Content Model
    • Appendix 10A Output from AQUAlibrium
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 100 psi
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 250 psi
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 500 psi
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 1000 psi
  • Chapter 11. Additional Topics
    • 11.1. Joule-Thomson Expansion
    • 11.2. Theoretical Treatment
    • 11.3. Ideal Gas
    • 11.4. Real Fluids
    • 11.5. Slurry Flow
    • 11.6. Hydrate Formation in the Reservoir during Production
    • 11.7. Flow in the Well
    • 11.8. Carbon Storage
    • 11.9. Transportation
    • 11.10. Natural Occurrence of Hydrates
    • 11.11. Seabed
    • 11.12. Natural Gas Formations
    • 11.13. Outer Space
  • Index

Key Features

  • Quantifiably measure the conditions that make hydrates possible and mitigate the right equipment correctly
  • Predict and examine the conditions at which hydrates form with simple and complex calculation exercises
  • Gain knowledge and review lessons learned from new real-world case studies and examples, covering capital costs, dehydration, and new computer methods

Readership

Chemical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Drilling Engineers, Completion Engineers, and Production Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgment
  • Preface to the Third Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Natural Gas
    • 1.2. The Water Molecule
    • 1.3. Hydrates
    • 1.4. Water and Natural Gas
    • 1.5. Heavy Water
    • 1.6. Additional Reading
    • 1.7. Units
    • 1.8. Quantifying Error
  • Chapter 2. Hydrate Types and Formers
    • 2.1. Type I Hydrates
    • 2.2. Type II Hydrates
    • 2.3. Type H Hydrates
    • 2.4. The Size of the Guest Molecule
    • 2.5. n-Butane
    • 2.6. Other Hydrocarbons
    • 2.7. Cyclopropane
    • 2.8. 2-Butene
    • 2.9. Hydrogen and Helium
    • 2.10. Chemical Properties of Potential Guests
    • 2.11. Liquid Hydrate Formers
    • 2.12. Hydrate Forming Conditions
    • 2.13. V + LA + H Correlations
    • 2.14. LA + LN + H Correlations
    • 2.15. Quadruple Points
    • 2.16. Other Hydrate Formers
    • 2.17. Hydrate Formation at 0 °C
    • 2.18. Mixtures
    • Appendix 2A Water Content of the Fluid in Equilibrium with Hydrate for Pure Components
  • Chapter 3. Hand Calculation Methods
    • 3.1. The Gas Gravity Method
    • 3.2. The K-Factor Method
    • 3.3. Baillie–Wichert Method
    • 3.4. Other Correlations
    • 3.5. Comments on All of These Methods
    • 3.6. Local Models
    • Appendix 3A Katz K-Factor Charts
  • Chapter 4. Computer Methods
    • 4.1. Phase Equilibrium
    • 4.2. van der Waals and Platteeuw
    • 4.3. Parrish and Prausnitz
    • 4.4. Ng and Robinson
    • 4.5. Calculations
    • 4.6. Commercial Software Packages
    • 4.7. The Accuracy of These Programs
    • 4.8. Dehydration
    • 4.9. Margin of Error
  • Chapter 5. Inhibiting Hydrate Formation with Chemicals
    • 5.1. Freezing Point Depression
    • 5.2. The Hammerschmidt Equation
    • 5.3. The Nielsen–Bucklin Equation
    • 5.4. A New Method
    • 5.5. Brine Solutions
    • 5.6. Østergaard et al
    • 5.7. Comment on the Simple Methods
    • 5.8. Advanced Calculation Methods
    • 5.9. A Word of Caution
    • 5.10. Ammonia
    • 5.11. Acetone
    • 5.12. Inhibitor Vaporization
    • 5.13. A Comment on Injection Rates
    • 5.14. Safety Considerations
    • 5.15. Price for Inhibitor Chemicals
    • 5.16. Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors
  • Chapter 6. Dehydration of Natural Gas
    • 6.1. Water Content Specification
    • 6.2. Glycol Dehydration
    • 6.3. Mole Sieves
    • 6.4. Refrigeration
  • Chapter 7. Combating Hydrates Using Heat and Pressure
    • 7.1. Plugs
    • 7.2. The Use of Heat
    • 7.3. Depressurization
    • 7.4. Melting a Plug with Heat
    • 7.5. Hydrate Plug Location
    • 7.6. Buildings
    • 7.7. Capital Costs
    • 7.8. Case Studies
    • Appendix 7A Output from Pipe Heat Loss Program for the Examples in the Text
  • Chapter 8. Physical Properties of Hydrates
    • 8.1. Molar Mass
    • 8.2. Density
    • 8.3. Enthalpy of Fusion
    • 8.4. Heat Capacity
    • 8.5. Thermal Conductivity
    • 8.6. Mechanical Properties
    • 8.7. Volume of Gas in Hydrate
    • 8.8. Ice versus Hydrate
  • Chapter 9. Phase Diagrams
    • 9.1. Phase Rule
    • 9.2. Comments about Phases
    • 9.3. Single Component Systems
    • 9.4. Binary Systems
    • 9.5. Phase Behavior below 0 °C
    • 9.6. Multicomponent Systems
  • Chapter 10. Water Content of Natural Gas
    • 10.1. Dew Point
    • 10.2. Equilibrium with Liquid Water
    • 10.3. Equilibrium with Solids
    • 10.4. Local Water Content Model
    • Appendix 10A Output from AQUAlibrium
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 100 psi
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 250 psi
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 500 psi
    • Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 1000 psi
  • Chapter 11. Additional Topics
    • 11.1. Joule-Thomson Expansion
    • 11.2. Theoretical Treatment
    • 11.3. Ideal Gas
    • 11.4. Real Fluids
    • 11.5. Slurry Flow
    • 11.6. Hydrate Formation in the Reservoir during Production
    • 11.7. Flow in the Well
    • 11.8. Carbon Storage
    • 11.9. Transportation
    • 11.10. Natural Occurrence of Hydrates
    • 11.11. Seabed
    • 11.12. Natural Gas Formations
    • 11.13. Outer Space
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
340
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128000748
eBook ISBN:
9780128005750

About the Author

John Carroll

John Carroll is currently Director, Geostorage Processing Engineering for Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd. in Calgary. With more than 20 years of experience, he supports other engineers with software problems and provides information involving fluid properties, hydrates and phase equilibria. Prior to that, he has worked for Honeywell, University of Alberta as a seasonal lecturer, and Amoco Canada as a Petroleum Engineer. John has published a couple of books, sits on three editorial advisory boards, and he has authored/co-authored more than 60 papers. He has trained many engineers on natural gas throughout the world, and is a member of several associations including SPE, AIChE, and GPAC. John earned a Bachelor of Science (with Distinction) and a Doctorate of Philosophy, both in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta. He is a registered professional engineer in the province of Alberta and New Brunswick, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd.