Natural and Engineered Clay Barriers

Natural and Engineered Clay Barriers

1st Edition - May 14, 2015

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  • Editors: Christophe Tournassat, Carl Steefel, Ian Bourg, Faïza Bergaya
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081000274
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081000502

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Clays are used as barriers for the isolation of landfills and contaminated sites. They are envisioned as long-term storage media for hazardous materials and radioactive wastes, and as seals in the case of geological CO2 sequestration or energy storage. Clay properties greatly influence the integrity, efficiency, and safety of these applications.  Natural and Engineered Clay Barriers provides a clear view of the fundamental properties of clay materials and how these properties affect their engineering applications. This volume focuses on how the mass transfer properties (hydraulic permeability, gas fluxes, molecular diffusion, semi-permeable membrane properties), geochemical reactivity (adsorption, dissolution) and mechanical properties of clay barriers at the macroscale are influenced by phenomena that occur at clay mineral - water interfaces.

Key Features

  • Examines clay properties from the molecular to the macroscopic scale
  • Addresses experimental and modeling issues
  • Authored by experts in the properties of clay barriers


Scientists, researchers, and graduate students in the areas of clay science, hazardous waste management, high-level radioactive waste management, and geologic carbon sequestration

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Acknowledgments
    • Introduction
    • Chapter 1. Surface Properties of Clay Minerals
      • 1.1. From Sheets to Clay Mineral Layers
      • 1.2. From Layers to Particles and Aggregates
      • 1.3. Surface Properties of Basal Surfaces
      • 1.4. Surface Properties of Edges
      • 1.5. Summary
    • Chapter 2. Adsorption of Inorganic and Organic Solutes by Clay Minerals
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Clay Minerals and Surface Functional Groups
      • 2.3. Inorganic Solute Adsorption–Desorption Mechanisms
      • 2.4. Organic Solute Adsorption Mechanisms
      • 2.5. Interactions of Clay Mineral Surfaces in Soils and Sediments with NOM and Natural Nanoparticles of Other Minerals
      • 2.6. Adsorption Processes on Clays in Natural and Engineered Environments
      • 2.7. Summary
    • Chapter 3. Chemical Conditions in Clay-Rocks
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Clay-Rock Mineralogy, Water Content and Porosity
      • 3.3. Investigation Methods for Pore-Water Chemical Composition Characterization
      • 3.4. Modeling Pore-Water Composition
      • 3.5. Conclusion: Achievements and Future Challenges
    • Chapter 4. Dissolution Kinetics of Clay Minerals
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Theoretical Background: Clay Mineral Dissolution Kinetics
      • 4.3. Experimental Methodology
      • 4.4. Kaolinite
      • 4.5. Smectite
      • 4.6. Micas
      • 4.7. Vermiculite
      • 4.8. Chlorite
      • 4.9. Summary and Conclusions
      • Appendix
    • Chapter 5. Stability of Clay Barriers Under Chemical Perturbations
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Perturbing the Physicochemical Conditions in the Subsurface: Desaturation and Oxidation
      • 5.3. Introducing Allochthonous Solid Materials in the Geological Environment
      • 5.4. Chemical Perturbations due to Allochthonous Gas
      • 5.5. Conclusion: What Is Known and What Needs to Be Improved
    • Chapter 6. Self-Diffusion of Water and Ions in Clay Barriers
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Macroscopic Scale Diffusion Coefficients: Definition and Measurement
      • 6.3. Conceptual Models of Da and De
      • 6.4. Summary of Measured Da and De Values
      • 6.5. Future Research Opportunities
    • Chapter 7. Gas Transfer Through Clay Barriers
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Diffusive Transport of Gas in Solution
      • 7.3. Advective Flow
      • 7.4. Experiments
      • 7.5. Final Remarks and Conclusions
      • Symbols and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 8. Semipermeable Membrane Properties and Chemomechanical Coupling in Clay Barriers
      • Table of Notation
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Transport Processes in Clay-Rock Formations
      • 8.3. Predictive Models for Hydrodynamical Coupling Terms Using Continuous and/or Granular Media Physics
      • 8.4. Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Mechanical Behavior in Clay-Rocks
      • 8.5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 9. Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of Natural and Engineered Clay Barriers
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. THM Behavior of Buffer and Backfill Material
      • 9.3. THM Behavior of Clay Host Rocks
      • 9.4. Coupled THM Evolution of Engineered and Natural Clay Barriers in a Nuclear Waste Repository
      • 9.5. Links of THM to Geochemistry
      • 9.6. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 10. Transport Properties through Partially Saturated Charged Membranes and Geophysical Approaches
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Notations
      • 10.3. Electrokinetic Phenomena without Filtration
      • 10.4. Filtration Efficiency
      • 10.5. Use of Geophysical Methods
      • 10.6. Conclusions
      • Glossary
      • Appendix A: Cation-Dependent CEC
      • Appendix B: Osmotic Pressure with the Donnan and Revil Models
      • Appendix C: Osmotic Coefficient, Reverse Osmosis, and Salt Diffusivity
    • Chapter 11. Upscaling Strategies for Modeling Clay-Rock Properties
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. From the Atomic Scale to the Mesoscale
      • 11.3. From the Mesoscopic to the Macroscopic Scale
      • 11.4. Conclusion
    • Summary and Perspective
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 446
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2015
  • Published: May 14, 2015
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081000274
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081000502

About the Series Volume Editors

Christophe Tournassat

Affiliations and Expertise

Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans, France

Carl Steefel

Affiliations and Expertise

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA

Ian Bourg

Ian Bourg received his bachelor’s degree in Industrial Process Engineering from the National Institute of Applied Sciences in Toulouse (France) in 1999. He received his doctorate in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley in 2004. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Chicago and a career-track Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In 2015, he joined the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Princeton University as an Assistant Professor. Since 2011, he has been on the executive committee of the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2, a DOE-supported Energy Frontiers Research Center.

The goal of Dr. Bourg’s research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the properties of water at interfaces. At the present time, his group is using atomistic and continuum modeling techniques to probe the nanoscience of geologic carbon sequestration, the aquatic geochemistry of nanoporous media (clay interlayers, nanoporous silica), and the molecular scale origins of kinetic isotope effects.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA

Faïza Bergaya

Dr Faiza Annabi-Bergaya obtained a Licence-ès-Science in Physical-Chemistry from the University of Tunis in 1966, a first PhD in Inorganic Chemistry in 1971 from University La Sorbonne-Paris VI and a second PhD in Physics in 1978 from the University of Orleans (France). She started her career in 1971 at the CNRS from which she is presently Emeritus Research Director. Her research interest is focused on the Physics and Chemistry of clays and clay minerals. She is member of the AIPEA Nomenclature Committee. She was Secretary of the ECGA in 1999-2003. As President of the GFA (French Clay Group) in 2003-2007, she created the annual meetings of the GFA, organizing the first two meetings in Orleans. She launched the Series Developments in Clay Science with the publication in 2006 of Volume 1 (Handbook of Clay Science) and she is Series Editor since 2013. She is Editor-in-Chief of Applied Clay Science since 2012.

Affiliations and Expertise

CNRS, Interfaces, Confinement, Matériaux et Nanostructures (ICMN) Orléans, France

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