Nanotube Superfiber Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781455778638, 9781455778645

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

1st Edition

Changing Engineering Design

Editors: Mark Schulz Vesselin Shanov Zhangzhang Yin
eBook ISBN: 9781455778645
Hardcover ISBN: 9781455778638
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 25th September 2013
Page Count: 848
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Table of Contents


Introduction to Nanotube Materials

Goals of Superfiber Research

Future Prospects

Major Areas of Nanotube Research

Background Needed for Studying Nanotube Materials


Editor Biographies

Chapter 1. Introduction to Fiber Materials


1.1 Fibers and Nanofibers

1.2 The Challenge of CNT Yarn Fiber Fabrication

1.3 Conclusion


Chapter 2. New Applications and Techniques for Nanotube Superfiber Development



2.1 New Applications for Nanotube Superfiber Development

2.2 New Techniques for Nanotube Superfiber Development

2.3 Conclusions


Chapter 3. Tailoring the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Fibers



3.1 Introduction

3.2 Irradiation Cross-Linking: Strong and Stiff CNTs and CNT Bundles

3.3 Reformable Bonding: Strong and Tough CNT Bundles and Fibers

3.4 Materials Design: Optimized Geometry and Structure

3.5 Summary


Chapter 4. Synthesis and Properties of Ultralong Carbon Nanotubes


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Synthesis of Ultralong CNTs by CVD

4.3 Tuning the Structure of Ultralong CNTs

4.4 Conclusions


Chapter 5. Alloy Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn for Multifunctionality


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Electrical Conductivity of CNT Yarns

5.3 Metal Deposition on CNT Macrostructures

5.4 Gas Sensing Applications

5.5 Summary


Chapter 6. Wet Spinning of CNT-based Fibers


6.1 Introduction to Wet Spinning

6.2 Fibers Obtained from the Coagulation of Carbon Nanotubes

6.3 Fibers Obtained from the Coagulation of CNT–Polymer Mixtures

6.4 Conclusions


Chapter 7. Dry Spinning Carbon Nanotubes into Continuous Yarn: Progress, Processing and Applications



7.1 Introduction

7.2 Basis of CNT Assembly in Macroscopic Structures

7.3 From Textile Spinning Technology to Dry CNT Spinning

7.4 Multistep Spinning Process Using a Drafting System

7.5 Several Treatments for CNT Yarn Improvement

7.6 CNT-Based Composite Yarns

7.7 Applications of CNT Yarns

7.8 Conclusion


Chapter 8. Synthesis and Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes



8.1 Introduction

8.2 Nanotubes: Basic Structure

8.3 Synthesis of BNNTs

8.4 Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

8.5 Comparison of BNNTs and CNTs

8.6 Summary


Chapter 9. Boron Nitride Nanotubes, Silicon Carbide Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanotubes—A Comparison of Properties and Applications


9.1 Introduction

9.2 BNNT and SiCNT Structure and Synthesis

9.3 Composites Reinforced with High-Temperature Nanotubes

9.4 Applications of High-Temperature Nanotubes

9.5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 10. Carbon Nanotube Fiber Doping



10.1 Introduction

10.2 Doping

10.3 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Doping

10.4 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Doping

10.5 Characterization of Doped CNTs

10.6 Experimental Challenges in Characterization

10.7 Summary


Chapter 11. Carbon Nanofiber Multifunctional Mat



11.1 Introduction

11.2 Development of Carbon Nanofiber Mat

11.3 Conclusion


Chapter 12. Direct Synthesis of Long Nanotube Yarns for Commercial Fiber Products



12.1 Introduction

12.2 Direct Synthesis of Long CNT Yarns

12.3 Growth of High-Quality CNTs

12.4 Applications of CNT Yarns/Fibers

12.5 Conclusions


Chapter 13. Carbon Nanotube Sheet: Processing, Characterization and Applications



13.1 Introduction

13.2 Two-Dimensional Films, “Buckypapers” and Sheets of Carbon Nanotubes

13.3 Functionalization and Characterization of CNT Sheets

13.4 CNT Sheet Products Manufacturing

13.5 Conclusions and Future Work


Chapter 14. Direct Dry Spinning of Millimeter-long Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Aligned Sheet and Yarn



14.1 Introduction

14.2 Highly Spinnable MWCNT Arrays

14.3 Unidirectionally Aligned CNT Sheet

14.4 Mechanical Properties of CNT Yarn

14.5 Conclusions


Chapter 15. Transport Mechanisms in Metallic and Semiconducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes: Cross-over from Weak Localization to Hopping Conduction


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Relationship between MS Ratio and Conductivity of SWCNT Networks

15.3 Summary


Chapter 16. Thermal Conductivity of Nanotube Assemblies and Superfiber Materials



16.1 Introduction

16.2 Thermal Conductivity and Measurement Issues for CNT Materials

16.3 Individual Carbon Nanotubes

16.4 Carbon Nanotube Bundles

16.5 Carbon Nanotube Composites

16.6 CNT Buckypaper and Thin Films

16.7 CNT Superfiber Materials

16.8 Boron Nitride Nanotubes

16.9 Challenges and Opportunities


Chapter 17. Three-dimensional Nanotube Networks and a New Horizon of Applications



17.1 Introduction

17.2 Nanotube Network Types

17.3 Theoretical Studies

17.4 Synthesis of CNT Networks

17.5 Applications

17.6 Perspectives


Chapter 18. A Review on the Design of Superstrong Carbon Nanotube or Graphene Fibers and Composites


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Hierarchical Simulations and Size Effects

18.3 Brittle Fracture

18.4 Elastic-Plasticity, Fractal Cracks and Finite Domains

18.5 Fatigue

18.6 Elasticity

18.7 Atomistic Simulations

18.8 Nanotensile Tests

18.9 Thermodynamic Limit

18.10 Sliding Failure

18.11 Conclusions


Chapter 19. Transition from Tubes to Sheets—A Comparison of the Properties and Applications of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene


19.1 Overview

19.2 Electronic Band Structures of Monolayer Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes

19.3 Comparison of Physical Properties and Device Applications between Graphenes and Carbon Nanotubes

19.4 Summary


Chapter 20. Multiscale Modeling of CNT Composites using Molecular Dynamics and the Boundary Element Method



20.1 Introduction

20.2 Nanoscale Simulations Using Molecular Dynamics

20.3 Microscale Simulations Using the Boundary Element Method

20.4 Numerical Examples

20.5 Discussions


Chapter 21. Development of Lightweight Sustainable Electric Motors


21.1 Electromagnetic Devices with Nanoscale Materials

21.2 Electric Motor Development

21.3 Conclusions


Chapter 22. Multiscale Laminated Composite Materials


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Fabrication and Characterization of MWCNT Array-Reinforced Laminated Composites

22.3 Results and Discussion

22.4 Conclusions


Chapter 23. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Composite Prepregs


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Recent Advances in the Fabrication of Aligned Composite Prepregs

23.3 Mechanical and Physical Properties of CNT Composite Prepregs

23.4 Opportunities and Challenges

23.5 Conclusions and Outlook


Chapter 24. Embedded Carbon Nanotube Sensor Thread for Structural Health Monitoring and Strain Sensing of Composite Materials



24.1 Introduction

24.2 Embedded Sensing Proof of Concept

24.3 CNT Sensor Thread Performance

24.4 Carbon Nanotube Thread SHM Architectures

24.5 Areas of Strong Multifunctional Potential

24.6 Future Work


Chapter 25. Tiny Medicine



25.1 The History of Tiny Machines

25.2 Nanoscale Materials

25.3 A Pilot Microfactory for Nanomedicine Devices

25.4 Tiny Machines Concepts and Prototype Fabrication

25.5 Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 26. Carbon Nanotube Yarn and Sheet Antennas


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Carbon Nanotube Thread Antennas

26.3 Carbon Nanotube Sheet Antennas

26.4 Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Antenna/Gas Sensor

26.5 Summary


Chapter 27. Energy Storage from Dispersion Forces in Nanotubes



27.1 Introduction

27.2 Idealized Parallel-Plate System

27.3 Orders of Magnitude

27.4 Performance Simulations

27.5 Conclusions




Nanotube Superfiber Materials refers to different forms of macroscale materials with unique properties constructed from carbon nanotubes. These materials include nanotube arrays, ribbons, scrolls, yarn, braid, and sheets. Nanotube materials are in the early stage of development and this is the first dedicated book on the subject. Transitioning from molecules to materials is a breakthrough that will positively impact almost all industries and areas of society.

Key properties of superfiber materials are high flexibility and fatigue resistance, high energy absorption, high strength, good electrical conductivity, high maximum current density, reduced skin and proximity effects, high thermal conductivity, lightweight, good field emission, piezoresistive, magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, and other properties. These properties will open up the door to dozens of applications including replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others.

The scope of the book covers three main areas: Part I: Processing; Part II: Properties; and Part III: Applications. Processing involves nanotube synthesis and macro scale material formation methods. Properties covers the mechanical, electrical, chemical and other properties of nanotubes and macroscale materials. Different approaches to growing high quality long nanotubes and spinning the nanotubes into yarn are explained in detail. The best ideas are collected from all around the world including commercial approaches. Applications of nanotube superfiber cover a huge field and provides a broad survey of uses. The book gives a broad overview starting from bioelectronics to carbon industrial machines.

Key Features

  • First book to explore the production and applications of macro-scale materials made from nano-scale particles.
  • Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes, and describes the unique properties of these materials
  • Potential applications for CNT fiber/yarn include replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others.


Nanomaterials scientists and nanoengineers (i.e. mechanical , chemical and electrical) researchers and developers, particular in aerospace, defence and medical device industries engineers and technologists .

Professors in academia, grad students, researchers, and materials engineering programs


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© William Andrew 2013
William Andrew
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Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Mark Schulz Editor

Mark Schulz is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Cincinnati., USA He develops highly collaborative interdisciplinary research programs encompassing: (a) Nanoscale smart materials, sensors, and actuators for structural and biomedical applications, (b) Artificially intelligent structures using biomimetics, and (c) Applied/basic research developing Structural & Human Health Monitoring systems. Dr. Schulz led a Phase I SBIR project with the Air Force to spin carbon nanotubes into thread for electrical power conduction applications. He has also been awarded grants from the National Science Foundation, US Navy and several industries. He has co-authored over one hundred and fifty total conference, journal, and book chapters, and edited three books.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cincinnati, USA

Vesselin Shanov Editor

Vesselin Shanov is Associate Professor of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Cincinnati, USA. He has received several prestigious awards, including the Fulbright Award for Research and Teaching in USA, German Academic Foundation (DAAD) Grants, and the Bulgarian Patent Office Award for Distinguished Patent. He is a member of the Materials Research Society and former President of the Bulgarian Fulbright Alumni Association. He has published 145 papers, 14 patents, 3 books, and has been part of 40 funded proposals.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cincinnati, USA

Zhangzhang Yin Editor

John Yin is Program Manager for the National Science Foundation’s Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials. His research focuses on biodegradable materials and devices, smart implants and corrosion.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Science Foundation’s Engineering Research Center