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Nanotechnology Cookbook - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080971728, 9780080971735

Nanotechnology Cookbook

1st Edition

Practical, Reliable and Jargon-free Experimental Procedures

Author: Andrew Collins
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080971728
eBook ISBN: 9780080971735
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 15th June 2012
Page Count: 324
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The peculiarities of materials at the nanoscale demand an interdisciplinary approach which can be difficult for students and researchers who are trained predominantly in a single field. A chemist might not have experience at working with cell cultures or a physicist may have no idea how to make the gold colloid they need for calibrating an atomic force microscope. The interdisciplinary approach of the book will help you to quickly synthesize information from multiple perspectives.

Nanoscience research is also characterized by rapid movement within disciplines. The amount of time it takes wading through papers and chasing down academics is frustrating and wasteful and our reviewers seem to suggest this work would give an excellent starting point for their work. The current source of published data is either in journal articles, which requires highly advanced knowledge of background information, or books on the subject, which can skim over the essential details of preparations. Having a cookbook to hand to flick through and from which you may select a preparation acts as a good source of contact both to researchers and those who supervise them alike.

This book therefore supports fundamental nanoscience experimentation. It is by intention much more user-friendly than traditional published works, which too-frequently assumes state of the art knowledge. Moreover you can pick up this book and find a synthesis to suit your needs without digging through specialist papers or tracking someone down who eventually may or may not be able to help. Once you have used the recipe the book would then act as a reference guide for how to analyze these materials and what to look out for.

Key Features

  • 100+ detailed recipes for synthesis of basic nanostructured materials, enables readers to pick up the book and get started on a preparation immediately.
  • High fidelity images show how preparations should look rather than vague schematics or verbal descriptions.
  • Sequential and user-friendly by design, so the reader won't get lost in overly detailed theory or miss out a step from ignorance.
  • A cookbook, by design and structure the work is easy to use, familiar and compact.


Nanoscientists working on a range of interdisciplinary experiments in academic research settings, from graduate through PhD and post-doctoral researcher. Interdisciplinary nanotechnology professionals and small to mid-size start-up companies interested in nanotech experimentation would also be highly interested.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Safety

General Laboratory Procedure

Personal Safety Equipment


Chapter 3. Common Analytical Techniques for Nanoscale Materials

Principles of Electron Microscopy

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Sample Preparation for TEM

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Sample Preparation in SEM

Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

Atomic Force Microscopy

Powder X-ray Diffraction

UV-visible Spectroscopy

Dynamic Light Scattering and Zeta Potential Measurement

BET Surface Area Measurement


Chapter 4. Chemical Techniques

The Sol–Gel Process


Sodium Silicate

Silica Nanoparticles

Titania Nanoparticles

Making Titania Nanoparticles using Titanium Tetrachloride as a Precursor

Preparing Sub 4 nm Nanoparticles Using an Alkoxide Titanium Precursor

Making Larger Titania Spheres from Titania Glycolates

Making Black Titania Nanoparticles

Coating Nanomaterials Using the Sol Gel Method

Silica Coating a Gold Colloid

Glass Coating an Organic Crystal Template

How to Coat a Virus Template with Silica

How to Coat Carbon Nanotubes in Silica and Other Oxides using the Sol Gel Process

Coating MultiWalled Carbon Nanotubes in Zirconia

Using Sol Gel Dip Coating to Form Thin Films, Thin Porous Films and Replicas

Dip Coating

Dip Coating a Glass Film

Making a Dip Coating Chamber

Making a Cubic Phase in a Dip coated Silica Film Using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide

Dip Coating to Form a Doped Tin Oxide Film

Dip Coating to Form an Anatase Phase Titania Film

Replication of Oddly Shaped Morphologies Using Sol Gel Techniques

Replicating Pollen with Titania Using a Sol Gel Approach

Making a Cuttlefish Bone Replica

Making a Superconducting Cuttlebone

Mesoporous Inorganic Powders

Making a Porous Aluminosilicate Zeolite MCM-41

An Alkoxide Approach to MCM-41 Preparation

An Alkoxide Approach to MCM-48 Preparation

Making a Monolithic Silica Structure from Non-ionic Surfactants using a Diol Based Silica Precursor

Aerogels and Supercritical Drying

Applications of Aerogels

Making Silica Aerogel Monoliths



Spherical or Coin-Shaped Bubbles


Wavy Surfaces

Adjustable Parameters and Alternative Methods

Recipe for Making Hydrophobic Silica Aerogel Monoliths

Monoliths and Glasses Containing Functional Biological Materials

Making a Glass Containing Yeast

Making a Microtiter Plate Diagnostic for Glucose, Galactose, Lactose and Lactate

Making an Optical Thick Film Sensor Bioglass for the Detection of D-glucose-6-Phosphate

Growing Zinc Oxide Nanorods

Making Seed Layers for the Hydrothermal Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanorods

Thermal Decomposition of Zinc Acetate

To Seed a Substrate Layer Using a Colloid

Hydrothermal Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanorods

Cadmium Sulfide, Selenide and Telluride Quantum Dots

A Quick Water Based Method for the Preparation of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles

Coating the TMV Virus with Cadmium Sulfide

Preparing Cadmium Selenide or Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots with Well Defined Size Control

Making Zinc Sulfide Coated Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles Stable in Water

Suface Modification of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles for use as Fluorescent Labels and Probes

Functionalising the Quantum Dots with Transferrin

Tagging the Mercaptoacetic Acid Stabilised Zns Coated CdSe Nanoparticles with Streptavidin so they can be Used for Target Specific Labelling

Cadmium Selenide Nanorods

Making Gold and Silver Colloids

Making an Aqueous Gold Colloid Using the Frens Method

Making an Oil Stable Alkanethiol Coated Gold Colloid Using the Brust Method

How to Make Gold Nanorods

How to Make Triangular Gold Nanoparticles

Using Plasmon Resonance in Gold Colloids as a Colorimetric Test for Various Molecules

A Quick Demonstration of Changing Colour and Colloid Stability with Varying Salt Concentration and PH

DNA Based Gold Assemblies and Aptamer Colorimetric Tests

Silver Nanoparticles and Structures

Making a Basic Silver Colloid by Reduction with Citric Acid

Preparation of Fluorescent Silver Nanoclusters

Making Silver Nanocubes and Rods Using the Polyol Process

A Hydrothermal Water Based Method for Preparing Silver Nanocubes


Magnetite Colloid Stabilised by Tetramethyl- or Tertabutylammonium Hydroxides

Magnetite Colloids Stabilised by a Biopolymer

Making a Polyol Stabilised Magnetite Colloid

Making Stable Ferrofluids in Non Polar Solvents

Making a Glass Coated Maghemite Colloid

Allotropes of Carbon

The Buckminsterfullerene

Carbon Nanotubes

Graphene and Graphene Oxide

Metal Organic Frameworks

Cobalt Bipyridyl Polymer

Prussian Blue Analogues, a Molecular Magnet Framework

Microemulsion Production of Cubic Prussian Blue Particles

Making a MOF With Large Pores


Chapter 5. Physical Techniques

Chemical Vapour Deposition

CVD Using Silica or Titania Precursors

Atomic Layer Deposition

Photolithography Patterning

Clean Room Practices for Microfabrication

Cleaning the Substrate

Resolution and Pattern Transfer onto a Photoresist layer

Reactive Ion Etching (RIE)

Chemical Etching with KOH Solution

Soft Lithography, Pattern Replication and Contact Printing

Casting a Negative Mould Using PDMS

Patterning a Self-Assembled Monolayer onto a Gold Substrate Using a PDMS Stamp

Making a Microfluidic Device Using Soft Lithographic Templating

Making Wire Tips for Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

Making a Platinum/Iridium STM Tip

Making a Tungsten STM Tip by Wet Electrochemical Etching

Etching a tungsten tip using alternating current in a beaker

Etching Tungsten Tips Using Direct Current

Direct Current Etching of Tungsten Tips Using the ‘Loop’ Method

Sticking a Particle Onto a Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

Electrospinning Fibres from Polymeric Solutions

Making a Solar Cell Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Conductive Glass Electrodes

Making a Conductive Glass Electrode


Chapter 6. Biological Nanotechnology

Cloning and Gene Expression to Produce Proteins in Escherichia Coli

Inserting a Gene into a Plasmid Vector

Plasmid Modification – Using Restriction Enzymes

Plasmid Modification for Gene Excision – Primers and PCR

Cutting the GFP Gene from the Subcloned Plasmid and Transferring it to the pET-45b Plasmid Vector Using Restriction Enzymes

Transformation and Cloning

Growing up a Colony and Triggering Expression of the GFP Protein

Purification of His6 Tagged Protein

Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate – Poly(acrylamide) Gel Electrophoeresis (SDS-PAGE) for Separating Proteins

Transformation of Yeast

DNA Origami

Designing a DNA Origami Shape Using a Program

Making a DNA Scaffold from M13 Bacteriophage

Running the Self-Assembly Using the Single-Stranded DNA and the Staples

Purification and Analysis of DNA Products

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis for Checking the DNA Product from a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Keeping Bacteria Long Term in a Glycerol Stock

Testing the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of an Antibiotic




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© Elsevier Science 2012
15th June 2012
Elsevier Science
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Andrew Collins

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, England

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