Nanostructured Metals and Alloys - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845696702, 9780857091123

Nanostructured Metals and Alloys

1st Edition

Processing, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Applications

Editors: S H Whang
eBook ISBN: 9780857091123
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696702
Paperback ISBN: 9780081017388
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 22nd March 2011
Page Count: 840
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Table of Contents

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Part I: Processing bulk nanostructured metals and alloys

Chapter 1: Producing bulk nanostructured metals and alloys by severe plastic deformation (SPD)


1.1 Introduction

1.2 The principles of severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing

1.3 New trends in SPD processing for effective grain refinement

1.4 Enhanced properties achieved using SPD processing

1.5 Innovation potential of bulk nanostructured materials

1.6 Conclusions

Chapter 2: Bulk nanostructured metals and alloys produced by accumulative roll-bonding


2.1 Introduction

2.2 The principle of accumulative roll-bonding (ARB)

2.3 Processing details

2.4 Change in microstructures during the process

2.5 Mechanical properties of nanostructured metals fabricated by ARB

2.6 Conclusions

Chapter 3: Nanocrystalline metals and alloys prepared by mechanical attrition


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Mechanical attrition

3.3 Nanocrystalline phase formation by mechanical attrition

3.4 Consolidation of nanocrystalline powders

3.5 Conclusion and future trends

3.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 4: The processing of nanocrystalline steels by solid reaction


4.1 Introduction

4.2 The finest grain structures in steels

4.3 Phase transformation theory: a powerful tool for the design of advanced steels, from micro to nano

4.4 NANOBAIN steel: a material going to extremes

4.5 Accelerating the bainite reaction at low temperatures

4.6 Characterizing nanocrystalline bainitic steels at the atomic scale

4.7 The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline bainitic steels

4.8 Conclusion and future trends

4.10 Acknowledgements

Chapter 5: The processing of bulk nanocrystalline metals and alloys by electrodeposition


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Electrodeposition methods

5.3 Examples of nanocrystalline metals and alloys prepared by electrodeposition

5.4 Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline electrodeposits

5.5 Corrosion properties of nanocrystalline electrodeposits

5.6 Other properties of nanocrystalline electrodeposits

5.7 Applications

5.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: Bulk nanocrystalline and nanocomposite alloys produced from amorphous phase


6.1 Introduction

6.2 The formation of bulk metallic glassy alloys

6.3 The formation of a nanostructure by crystallization of the glassy phase, by deformation or directly from the melt on casting

6.4 The formation of nano-quasicrystals

6.5 The mechanical properties of nanocomposite alloys

6.6 The magnetic properties of nanocomposite alloys

6.7 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Severe plastic deformation and the production of nanostructured alloys by machining


7.1 Introduction

7.2 The mechanics of severe plastic deformation (SPD) in machining

7.3 A study of microstructure refinement

7.4 Bulk forms with ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure

7.5 Nanostructured particulate

7.6 Surface nanostructuring

7.7 Conclusions

7.8 Acknowledgements

Part II: Microstructure

Chapter 8: Deformation structures including twins in nanograined pure metals


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Classical defect structures in nanograined metals

8.3 Classical defect structures absent in nanograined metals

8.4 Novel defect structures in nanograined metals

8.5 The effect of initial microstructure on deformation structures

8.6 Future trends

8.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 9: Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured low-carbon steel prepared by equal-channel angular pressing


9.1 Introduction

9.2 The microstructural evolution of low-carbon steel (LCS)

9.3 The mechanical response of a nanostructured LCS alloy

9.4 Enhanced tensile properties by grain refinement and microstructural modification

9.5 Continuous shear drawing: a new processing method

9.6 Conclusion

Chapter 10: Characteristic structures and properties of nanostructured metals prepared by plastic deformation


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Characteristic microstructures

10.3 Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation

10.4 Optimisation of microstructure and mechanical properties

10.5 Conclusions

10.6 Acknowledgements

Part III: Mechanical properties

Chapter 11: Strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals


11.1 Introduction

11.2 The deformation of polycrystals; the Hall–Petch model for strengthening; typical strength and hardness data

11.3 Hall–Petch breakdown; a fine grain size limit to models

11.4 Hall–Petch breakdown: the importance of defective materials

11.5 Alternative deformation mechanisms at very fine grain sizes

11.6 Strengthening caused by second-phase particles

11.7 Strengthening caused by other factors: solute, order, twin boundaries

11.8 Strengthening mechanisms in materials with ultrafine microstructure prepared by severe plastic deformation

11.9 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 12: Elastic and plastic deformation in nanocrystalline metals


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Elastic strains in nanocrystalline metals

12.3 Plastic deformation in nanocrystalline metals

12.4 Conclusions and future trends

12.5 Sources of further information and advice

12.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 13: The mechanical properties of multi-scale metallic materials


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Mechanical properties of multi-scale metallic materials

13.3 Deformation and fracture mechanisms of multi-scale metallic materials

13.4 Future trends

13.5 Conclusions

13.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 14: Enhanced ductility and its mechanisms in nanocrystalline metallic materials


14.1 Introduction

14.2 General aspects concerning the tensile ductility of materials

14.3 Plastic flow mechanisms in coarse-grained metallic polycrystals, ultrafine-grained metals and nanocrystalline metals with intermediate grains

14.4 Plastic flow mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals with the finest grains

14.5 Specific features of crack nucleation and growth processes in nanocrystalline metallic materials

14.6 Enhanced ductility of artifact-free nanocrystalline metals with narrow grain size distributions

14.7 Enhanced ductility of nanocrystalline metals due to twin deformation and growth twins

14.8 Enhanced ductility of nanocrystalline metals due to strain rate hardening

14.9 Enhanced ductility of single-phase nanocrystalline metals with bimodal structures

14.10 Enhanced ductility of nanocrystalline metallic composites with second-phase nanoparticles, dendrite-like inclusions and carbon nanotubes

14.11 Conclusions and future trends

14.12 Sources of further information and advice

14.13 Acknowledgements

Chapter 15: The mechanical behavior of nanostructured metals based on molecular dynamics computer simulations


15.1 Introduction

15.2 The structure and properties of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline (NC) metals by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation

15.3 Deformation mechanisms in nanoscale grains

15.4 Grain growth and microstructure evolution in NC metals

15.5 Conclusions

15.6 Acknowledgement

Chapter 16: The surface deformation and mechanical behavior of nanostructured alloys


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Mechanics aspects during surface severe plastic deformation

16.3 Changes in the microstructure and stress states induced by surface severe plastic deformation

16.4 Tensile properties of metals with a nanocrystalline surface and hardened layer

16.5 Fatigue resistance of metals with a nanocrystalline surface and hardened layer

16.6 Wear resistance of metals with a nanocrystalline surface and hardened layer

16.7 Conclusions

16.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 17: Fatigue behaviour in nanostructured metals


17.1 Introduction and motivation

17.2 General findings on the fatigue behaviour and the fatigue lives of nanostructured model materials

17.3 Light metal alloys

17.4 Fatigue behaviour and life of nanostructured steels

17.5 Consequences and strategies for optimizing fatigue lives and cyclic deformation behaviour

Chapter 18: Superplastic deformation in nanocrystalline metals and alloys


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Theoretical predictions

18.3 Superplasticity in nanocrystalline metals and alloys

18.4 Specific features of superplasticity in nanocrystalline materials

18.5 Deformation mechanisms

18.6 Conclusions

18.7 Acknowledgments

Chapter 19: Creep and high-temperature deformation in nanostructured metals and alloys


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Temperature-dependent deformation in fine-grained pure metals

19.3 Creep and high-temperature deformation in nanostructured alloys

19.4 Deformation mechanisms and modeling

19.5 Conclusions

Part IV: Applications

Chapter 20: Processing nanostructured metal and metal-matrix coatings by thermal and cold spraying


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Nanostructured metal-base feedstock

20.3 Thermal spray processing

20.4 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) coatings

20.5 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: alumina-titania (n-AT) coatings

20.6 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: titanium oxide coatings

20.7 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: MCrAlY and NiCrAlY coatings

20.8 The cold spray process

20.9 Characteristics of cold spray material

20.10 Cold-sprayed processing of WC-Co

20.11 Cold-sprayed processing of non-cryogenically milled n-WERKZ AA5083

20.12 Future trends

20.13 Sources of further information and advice

20.14 Acknowledgements

Chapter 21: Nanocoatings for commercial and industrial applications


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Overview of nanostructured metals and alloys

21.3 Commercialization of nanostructured materials

21.4 Current and emerging applications

21.5 Conclusions

Chapter 22: Applying nanostructured steel sheets to automotive body structures

Chapter 23: Production processes for nanostructured wires, bars and strips

Chapter 24: Nanostructured plain carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steel sheets prepared by ultra-fast cooling and short interval multi-pass hot rolling


24.1 Introduction

24.2 The concept of ultra-fast direct cooling and short interval multi-pass hot rolling (UDCSMR) and an experimental hot rolling mill

24.3 Nanostructured carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steel sheets produced by UDCSMR

24.4 Grain refinement mechanisms

24.5 Deformation characteristics

24.6 Welding and application to some prototype parts

24.7 Conclusions



Tensile strength, fatigue strength and ductility are important properties of nanostructured metallic materials, which make them suitable for use in applications where strength or strength-to-weight ratios are important. Nanostructured metals and alloys reviews the latest technologies used for production of these materials, as well as recent advances in research into their structure and mechanical properties.

One of the most important issues facing nanostructured metals and alloys is how to produce them. Part one describes the different methods used to process bulk nanostructured metals and alloys, including chapters on severe plastic deformation, mechanical alloying and electrodeposition among others. Part two concentrates on the microstructure and properties of nanostructured metals, with chapters studying deformation structures such as twins, microstructure of ferrous alloys by equal channel angular processing, and characteristic structures of nanostructured metals prepared by plastic deformation. In part three, the mechanical properties of nanostructured metals and alloys are discussed, with chapters on such topics as strengthening mechanisms, nanostructured metals based on molecular dynamics computer simulations, and surface deformation. Part four focuses on existing and developing applications of nanostructured metals and alloys, covering topics such as nanostructured steel for automotives, steel sheet and nanostructured coatings by spraying.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Nanostructured metals and alloys is a standard reference for manufacturers of metal components, as well as those with an academic research interest in metals and materials with enhanced properties.


Professionals and academics.


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About the Editors

S H Whang Editor

Sung H. Whang is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Polytechnic Institute of NYU, USA