Nanostructured Metals and Alloys

Nanostructured Metals and Alloys

Processing, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Applications

1st Edition - March 22, 2011

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  • Editor: S H Whang
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017388
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857091123

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Tensile strength, fatigue strength and ductility are important properties of nanostructured metallic materials, which make them suitable for use in applications where strength or strength-to-weight ratios are important. Nanostructured metals and alloys reviews the latest technologies used for production of these materials, as well as recent advances in research into their structure and mechanical properties.One of the most important issues facing nanostructured metals and alloys is how to produce them. Part one describes the different methods used to process bulk nanostructured metals and alloys, including chapters on severe plastic deformation, mechanical alloying and electrodeposition among others. Part two concentrates on the microstructure and properties of nanostructured metals, with chapters studying deformation structures such as twins, microstructure of ferrous alloys by equal channel angular processing, and characteristic structures of nanostructured metals prepared by plastic deformation. In part three, the mechanical properties of nanostructured metals and alloys are discussed, with chapters on such topics as strengthening mechanisms, nanostructured metals based on molecular dynamics computer simulations, and surface deformation. Part four focuses on existing and developing applications of nanostructured metals and alloys, covering topics such as nanostructured steel for automotives, steel sheet and nanostructured coatings by spraying.With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Nanostructured metals and alloys is a standard reference for manufacturers of metal components, as well as those with an academic research interest in metals and materials with enhanced properties.


Professionals and academics.

Table of Contents

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    Part I: Processing bulk nanostructured metals and alloys

    Chapter 1: Producing bulk nanostructured metals and alloys by severe plastic deformation (SPD)


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The principles of severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing

    1.3 New trends in SPD processing for effective grain refinement

    1.4 Enhanced properties achieved using SPD processing

    1.5 Innovation potential of bulk nanostructured materials

    1.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 2: Bulk nanostructured metals and alloys produced by accumulative roll-bonding


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The principle of accumulative roll-bonding (ARB)

    2.3 Processing details

    2.4 Change in microstructures during the process

    2.5 Mechanical properties of nanostructured metals fabricated by ARB

    2.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 3: Nanocrystalline metals and alloys prepared by mechanical attrition


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Mechanical attrition

    3.3 Nanocrystalline phase formation by mechanical attrition

    3.4 Consolidation of nanocrystalline powders

    3.5 Conclusion and future trends

    3.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 4: The processing of nanocrystalline steels by solid reaction


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 The finest grain structures in steels

    4.3 Phase transformation theory: a powerful tool for the design of advanced steels, from micro to nano

    4.4 NANOBAIN steel: a material going to extremes

    4.5 Accelerating the bainite reaction at low temperatures

    4.6 Characterizing nanocrystalline bainitic steels at the atomic scale

    4.7 The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline bainitic steels

    4.8 Conclusion and future trends

    4.10 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: The processing of bulk nanocrystalline metals and alloys by electrodeposition


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Electrodeposition methods

    5.3 Examples of nanocrystalline metals and alloys prepared by electrodeposition

    5.4 Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline electrodeposits

    5.5 Corrosion properties of nanocrystalline electrodeposits

    5.6 Other properties of nanocrystalline electrodeposits

    5.7 Applications

    5.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 6: Bulk nanocrystalline and nanocomposite alloys produced from amorphous phase


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 The formation of bulk metallic glassy alloys

    6.3 The formation of a nanostructure by crystallization of the glassy phase, by deformation or directly from the melt on casting

    6.4 The formation of nano-quasicrystals

    6.5 The mechanical properties of nanocomposite alloys

    6.6 The magnetic properties of nanocomposite alloys

    6.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Severe plastic deformation and the production of nanostructured alloys by machining


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The mechanics of severe plastic deformation (SPD) in machining

    7.3 A study of microstructure refinement

    7.4 Bulk forms with ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure

    7.5 Nanostructured particulate

    7.6 Surface nanostructuring

    7.7 Conclusions

    7.8 Acknowledgements

    Part II: Microstructure

    Chapter 8: Deformation structures including twins in nanograined pure metals


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Classical defect structures in nanograined metals

    8.3 Classical defect structures absent in nanograined metals

    8.4 Novel defect structures in nanograined metals

    8.5 The effect of initial microstructure on deformation structures

    8.6 Future trends

    8.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 9: Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured low-carbon steel prepared by equal-channel angular pressing


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The microstructural evolution of low-carbon steel (LCS)

    9.3 The mechanical response of a nanostructured LCS alloy

    9.4 Enhanced tensile properties by grain refinement and microstructural modification

    9.5 Continuous shear drawing: a new processing method

    9.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 10: Characteristic structures and properties of nanostructured metals prepared by plastic deformation


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Characteristic microstructures

    10.3 Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation

    10.4 Optimisation of microstructure and mechanical properties

    10.5 Conclusions

    10.6 Acknowledgements

    Part III: Mechanical properties

    Chapter 11: Strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 The deformation of polycrystals; the Hall–Petch model for strengthening; typical strength and hardness data

    11.3 Hall–Petch breakdown; a fine grain size limit to models

    11.4 Hall–Petch breakdown: the importance of defective materials

    11.5 Alternative deformation mechanisms at very fine grain sizes

    11.6 Strengthening caused by second-phase particles

    11.7 Strengthening caused by other factors: solute, order, twin boundaries

    11.8 Strengthening mechanisms in materials with ultrafine microstructure prepared by severe plastic deformation

    11.9 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 12: Elastic and plastic deformation in nanocrystalline metals


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Elastic strains in nanocrystalline metals

    12.3 Plastic deformation in nanocrystalline metals

    12.4 Conclusions and future trends

    12.5 Sources of further information and advice

    12.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 13: The mechanical properties of multi-scale metallic materials


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Mechanical properties of multi-scale metallic materials

    13.3 Deformation and fracture mechanisms of multi-scale metallic materials

    13.4 Future trends

    13.5 Conclusions

    13.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 14: Enhanced ductility and its mechanisms in nanocrystalline metallic materials


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 General aspects concerning the tensile ductility of materials

    14.3 Plastic flow mechanisms in coarse-grained metallic polycrystals, ultrafine-grained metals and nanocrystalline metals with intermediate grains

    14.4 Plastic flow mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals with the finest grains

    14.5 Specific features of crack nucleation and growth processes in nanocrystalline metallic materials

    14.6 Enhanced ductility of artifact-free nanocrystalline metals with narrow grain size distributions

    14.7 Enhanced ductility of nanocrystalline metals due to twin deformation and growth twins

    14.8 Enhanced ductility of nanocrystalline metals due to strain rate hardening

    14.9 Enhanced ductility of single-phase nanocrystalline metals with bimodal structures

    14.10 Enhanced ductility of nanocrystalline metallic composites with second-phase nanoparticles, dendrite-like inclusions and carbon nanotubes

    14.11 Conclusions and future trends

    14.12 Sources of further information and advice

    14.13 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 15: The mechanical behavior of nanostructured metals based on molecular dynamics computer simulations


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 The structure and properties of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline (NC) metals by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation

    15.3 Deformation mechanisms in nanoscale grains

    15.4 Grain growth and microstructure evolution in NC metals

    15.5 Conclusions

    15.6 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 16: The surface deformation and mechanical behavior of nanostructured alloys


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Mechanics aspects during surface severe plastic deformation

    16.3 Changes in the microstructure and stress states induced by surface severe plastic deformation

    16.4 Tensile properties of metals with a nanocrystalline surface and hardened layer

    16.5 Fatigue resistance of metals with a nanocrystalline surface and hardened layer

    16.6 Wear resistance of metals with a nanocrystalline surface and hardened layer

    16.7 Conclusions

    16.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 17: Fatigue behaviour in nanostructured metals


    17.1 Introduction and motivation

    17.2 General findings on the fatigue behaviour and the fatigue lives of nanostructured model materials

    17.3 Light metal alloys

    17.4 Fatigue behaviour and life of nanostructured steels

    17.5 Consequences and strategies for optimizing fatigue lives and cyclic deformation behaviour

    Chapter 18: Superplastic deformation in nanocrystalline metals and alloys


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Theoretical predictions

    18.3 Superplasticity in nanocrystalline metals and alloys

    18.4 Specific features of superplasticity in nanocrystalline materials

    18.5 Deformation mechanisms

    18.6 Conclusions

    18.7 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 19: Creep and high-temperature deformation in nanostructured metals and alloys


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Temperature-dependent deformation in fine-grained pure metals

    19.3 Creep and high-temperature deformation in nanostructured alloys

    19.4 Deformation mechanisms and modeling

    19.5 Conclusions

    Part IV: Applications

    Chapter 20: Processing nanostructured metal and metal-matrix coatings by thermal and cold spraying


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Nanostructured metal-base feedstock

    20.3 Thermal spray processing

    20.4 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) coatings

    20.5 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: alumina-titania (n-AT) coatings

    20.6 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: titanium oxide coatings

    20.7 Thermal spray processing of nanostructured coatings: MCrAlY and NiCrAlY coatings

    20.8 The cold spray process

    20.9 Characteristics of cold spray material

    20.10 Cold-sprayed processing of WC-Co

    20.11 Cold-sprayed processing of non-cryogenically milled n-WERKZ AA5083

    20.12 Future trends

    20.13 Sources of further information and advice

    20.14 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 21: Nanocoatings for commercial and industrial applications


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Overview of nanostructured metals and alloys

    21.3 Commercialization of nanostructured materials

    21.4 Current and emerging applications

    21.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 22: Applying nanostructured steel sheets to automotive body structures

    Chapter 23: Production processes for nanostructured wires, bars and strips

    Chapter 24: Nanostructured plain carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steel sheets prepared by ultra-fast cooling and short interval multi-pass hot rolling


    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 The concept of ultra-fast direct cooling and short interval multi-pass hot rolling (UDCSMR) and an experimental hot rolling mill

    24.3 Nanostructured carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steel sheets produced by UDCSMR

    24.4 Grain refinement mechanisms

    24.5 Deformation characteristics

    24.6 Welding and application to some prototype parts

    24.7 Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 840
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: March 22, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017388
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857091123

About the Editor

S H Whang

Sung H. Whang is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Polytechnic Institute of NYU, USA

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