1st Edition

The Art of Fabricating Nanoelectronic and Nanophotonic Devices and Systems

Editors: M Feldman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095008
eBook ISBN: 9780857098757
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 13th November 2013
Page Count: 592
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Table of Contents

    <li>Contributor contact details</li> <li>Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials</li> <li>Preface</li> <li>1: Optical projection lithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>1.1 Introduction</li><li>1.2 Lithography technology and trends</li><li>1.3 Fundamentals of optical lithography</li><li>1.4 Image evaluation</li><li>1.5 Projection lithography systems</li><li>1.6 Wavelengths for optical lithography</li><li>1.7 Lithography in the deep ultraviolet (UV)</li><li>1.8 Resolution enhancement technology</li><li>1.9 Immersion lithography</li><li>1.10 Multiple patterning optical lithography</li><li>1.11 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>2: Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>2.1 Introduction</li><li>2.2 EUV sources</li><li>2.3 EUV optics</li><li>2.4 EUV masks</li><li>2.5 EUV resists</li><li>2.6 EUV integration and implementation challenges</li><li>2.7 Conclusion and future trends</li><li>2.8 Acknowledgments</li></ul></li> <li>3: Electron beam lithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>3.1 Introduction</li><li>3.2 Using pixel parallelism to address the throughput bottleneck</li><li>3.3 The tradeoff between resolution and throughput</li><li>3.4 Distributed systems</li><li>3.5 Ultimate lithographic resolution</li><li>3.6 Electron-beam patterning of photomasks for optical lithography</li><li>3.7 Conclusion</li><li>3.8 Acknowledgements</li></ul></li> <li>4: Focused ion beams for nano-machining and imaging<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>4.1 Introduction</li><li>4.2 An adumbrated history of focused ion beams (FIBs)</li><li>4.3 Sources of ions: a quartet of types</li><li>4.4 Charged particle optics</li><li>4.5 Ion-matter interactions</li><li>4.6 Milling</li><li>4.7 Deposition</li><li>4.8 Imaging</li><li>4.9 Spectroscopy</li><li>4.10 Conclusion and future trends</li></ul></li> <li>5: Masks for micro- and nanolithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>5.1 Introduction</li><li>5.2 Mask materials</li><li>5.3 Mask proc


Integrated circuits, and devices fabricated using the techniques developed for integrated circuits, have steadily gotten smaller, more complex, and more powerful. The rate of shrinking is astonishing – some components are now just a few dozen atoms wide. This book attempts to answer the questions, “What comes next?” and “How do we get there?”

Nanolithography outlines the present state of the art in lithographic techniques, including optical projection in both deep and extreme ultraviolet, electron and ion beams, and imprinting. Special attention is paid to related issues, such as the resists used in lithography, the masks (or lack thereof), the metrology needed for nano-features, modeling, and the limitations caused by feature edge roughness. In addition emerging technologies are described, including the directed assembly of wafer features, nanostructures and devices, nano-photonics, and nano-fluidics.

This book is intended as a guide to the researcher new to this field, reading related journals or facing the complexities of a technical conference. Its goal is to give enough background information to enable such a researcher to understand, and appreciate, new developments in nanolithography, and to go on to make advances of his/her own.

Key Features

  • Outlines the current state of the art in alternative nanolithography technologies in order to cope with the future reduction in size of semiconductor chips to nanoscale dimensions
  • Covers lithographic techniques, including optical projection, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), nanoimprint, electron beam and ion beam lithography
  • Describes the emerging applications of nanolithography in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and microfluidics


Physicists, materials scientists and engineers working in semiconductor, photonics and microelectronics industries; Researchers, professors and students in the fields of nanotechnology and materials engineering


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Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editors

M Feldman Editor

Martin Feldman is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Louisiana State University, USA.