COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Nanolithography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857095008, 9780857098757


1st Edition

The Art of Fabricating Nanoelectronic and Nanophotonic Devices and Systems

Editor: M Feldman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095008
eBook ISBN: 9780857098757
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 13th November 2013
Page Count: 592
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Table of Contents

    <li>Contributor contact details</li> <li>Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials</li> <li>Preface</li> <li>1: Optical projection lithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>1.1 Introduction</li><li>1.2 Lithography technology and trends</li><li>1.3 Fundamentals of optical lithography</li><li>1.4 Image evaluation</li><li>1.5 Projection lithography systems</li><li>1.6 Wavelengths for optical lithography</li><li>1.7 Lithography in the deep ultraviolet (UV)</li><li>1.8 Resolution enhancement technology</li><li>1.9 Immersion lithography</li><li>1.10 Multiple patterning optical lithography</li><li>1.11 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>2: Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>2.1 Introduction</li><li>2.2 EUV sources</li><li>2.3 EUV optics</li><li>2.4 EUV masks</li><li>2.5 EUV resists</li><li>2.6 EUV integration and implementation challenges</li><li>2.7 Conclusion and future trends</li><li>2.8 Acknowledgments</li></ul></li> <li>3: Electron beam lithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>3.1 Introduction</li><li>3.2 Using pixel parallelism to address the throughput bottleneck</li><li>3.3 The tradeoff between resolution and throughput</li><li>3.4 Distributed systems</li><li>3.5 Ultimate lithographic resolution</li><li>3.6 Electron-beam patterning of photomasks for optical lithography</li><li>3.7 Conclusion</li><li>3.8 Acknowledgements</li></ul></li> <li>4: Focused ion beams for nano-machining and imaging<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>4.1 Introduction</li><li>4.2 An adumbrated history of focused ion beams (FIBs)</li><li>4.3 Sources of ions: a quartet of types</li><li>4.4 Charged particle optics</li><li>4.5 Ion-matter interactions</li><li>4.6 Milling</li><li>4.7 Deposition</li><li>4.8 Imaging</li><li>4.9 Spectroscopy</li><li>4.10 Conclusion and future trends</li></ul></li> <li>5: Masks for micro- and nanolithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>5.1 Introduction</li><li>5.2 Mask materials</li><li>5.3 Mask process</li><li>5.4 Mask metrology</li><li>5.5 Defects and masks</li><li>5.6 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>6: Maskless photolithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>6.1 Introduction</li><li>6.2 The use of photons as opposed to charged particles</li><li>6.3 Forms of maskless photolithography</li><li>6.4 Zone-plate-array lithography (ZPAL)</li><li>6.5 Proximity-effect correction</li><li>6.6 Extending the resolution of ZPAL</li><li>6.7 Commercialization of ZPAL by LumArray, Inc.</li><li>6.8 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>7: Chemistry and processing of resists for nanolithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>7.1 Introduction</li><li>7.2 Resists for optical lithography: synthesis and radiation induced chemistry of resists as a function of exposure technology</li><li>7.3 Chemically amplified resist process considerations</li><li>7.4 Chemically amplified resists for 193&#xA0;nm lithography</li><li>7.5 Resists for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)</li><li>7.6 Resists for electron beam lithography</li><li>7.7 Resists for selected forward looking lithographic technologies</li><li>7.8 Resist resolution limitations</li><li>7.9 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>8: Directed assembly nanolithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>8.1 Introduction</li><li>8.2 Block copolymers in lithography</li><li>8.3 Directed self-assembly of block copolymers</li><li>8.4 Programmable three-dimensional lithography</li><li>8.5 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>9: Nanoimprint lithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>9.1 Introduction</li><li>9.2 An overview of imprint lithography</li><li>9.3 Soft lithography</li><li>9.4 Thermal imprint lithography</li><li>9.5 Alternative thermal imprint processes</li><li>9.6 Ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography overview</li><li>9.7 Jet and flash imprint lithography</li><li>9.8 Roll to roll imprint lithography</li><li>9.9 Defectivity</li><li>9.10 Conclusions</li><li>9.11 Acknowledgments</li></ul></li> <li>10: Nanostructures: fabrication and applications<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>10.1 Introduction</li><li>10.2 Characterization of nanostructures</li><li>10.3 Methods to create nanostructures: top-down fabrication of nanostructures</li><li>10.4 Methods to create nanostructures: bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures</li><li>10.5 Properties of nanostructures</li><li>10.6 Applications of nanostructures</li></ul></li> <li>11: Nanophotonics: devices for manipulating light at the nanoscale<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>11.1 Introduction</li><li>11.2 Photonic crystals</li><li>11.3 Ring resonators</li><li>11.4 Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength apertures</li><li>11.5 Optical nanoantennas</li><li>11.6 Plasmonic focusing</li><li>11.7 Near-field optical microscopy</li><li>11.8 Plasmonic waveguides</li><li>11.9 Enhancement of nonlinear processes</li><li>11.10 Application in photovoltaics</li><li>11.11 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>12: Nanodevices: fabrication, prospects for low dimensional devices and applications<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>12.1 Introduction</li><li>12.2 Motivation for nanodevices</li><li>12.3 Nanofabrication: creating the building blocks for devices</li><li>12.4 Prospects for low dimensional devices</li><li>12.5 Beyond the bottom-up: hybrid nanoelectronics</li><li>12.6 Conclusion and future trends</li></ul></li> <li>13: Microfluidics: technologies and applications<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>13.1 Introduction</li><li>13.2 Current trends in microfluidics</li><li>13.3 Present state of technology</li><li>13.4 Applications</li><li>13.5 Future trends</li><li>13.6 Conclusion</li><li>13.7 Sources of further information and advice</li></ul></li> <li>14: Modeling of nanolithography processes<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>14.1 Introduction</li><li>14.2 Optical lithography modeling</li><li>14.3 The optical system in optical lithography modeling</li><li>14.4 Photoresist model</li><li>14.5 Model critical dimension (CD) extraction</li><li>14.6 Difficulties in modeling</li><li>14.7 Extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/electron beam lithography modeling</li><li>14.8 Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>15: Mask-substrate alignment via interferometric moir&#xE9; fringes<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>15.1 Introduction</li><li>15.2 Background to alignment methods</li><li>15.3 Fundamentals of interferometric-spatial-phase imaging (ISPI)</li><li>15.4 Implementation of moir&#xE9;</li><li>15.5 Characteristics of moir&#xE9; fringe formation</li><li>15.6 Performance of ISPI</li><li>15.7 Backside ISPI</li><li>15.8 Conclusion and future trends</li></ul></li> <li>16: Sidewall roughness in nanolithography: origins, metrology and device effects<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>16.1 Introduction</li><li>16.2 Metrology and characterization</li><li>16.3 Process and material effects: modeling and simulation</li><li>16.4 Process and material effects: experimental results</li><li>16.5 Impact on device performance</li><li>16.6 Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>17: New applications and emerging technologies in nanolithography<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>17.1 Introduction</li><li>17.2 Applications of high-resolution patterning to new device structures: advances in tunneling structures</li><li>17.3 Geometry control of the tunnel junctions</li><li>17.4 The quantum dot placement problem</li><li>17.5 Conclusion</li><li>17.6 Acknowledgments</li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


Integrated circuits, and devices fabricated using the techniques developed for integrated circuits, have steadily gotten smaller, more complex, and more powerful. The rate of shrinking is astonishing – some components are now just a few dozen atoms wide. This book attempts to answer the questions, “What comes next?” and “How do we get there?”

Nanolithography outlines the present state of the art in lithographic techniques, including optical projection in both deep and extreme ultraviolet, electron and ion beams, and imprinting. Special attention is paid to related issues, such as the resists used in lithography, the masks (or lack thereof), the metrology needed for nano-features, modeling, and the limitations caused by feature edge roughness. In addition emerging technologies are described, including the directed assembly of wafer features, nanostructures and devices, nano-photonics, and nano-fluidics.

This book is intended as a guide to the researcher new to this field, reading related journals or facing the complexities of a technical conference. Its goal is to give enough background information to enable such a researcher to understand, and appreciate, new developments in nanolithography, and to go on to make advances of his/her own.

Key Features

  • Outlines the current state of the art in alternative nanolithography technologies in order to cope with the future reduction in size of semiconductor chips to nanoscale dimensions
  • Covers lithographic techniques, including optical projection, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), nanoimprint, electron beam and ion beam lithography
  • Describes the emerging applications of nanolithography in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and microfluidics


Physicists, materials scientists and engineers working in semiconductor, photonics and microelectronics industries; Researchers, professors and students in the fields of nanotechnology and materials engineering


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2014
13th November 2013
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

M Feldman

Martin Feldman is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Louisiana State University, USA.