Nanofiber Composites for Biomedical Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081001738, 9780081002087

Nanofiber Composites for Biomedical Applications

1st Edition

Authors: Murugan Ramalingam Seeram Ramakrishna
eBook ISBN: 9780081002087
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081001738
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 25th January 2017
Page Count: 564
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Nanofiber Composite Materials for Biomedical Applications presents new developments and recent advances in nanofiber-reinforced composite materials and their use in biomedical applications, including biomaterial developments, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

Unlike more conventional titles on composite materials, this book covers the most innovative new developments in nanofiber-based composites, including polymers, ceramics, and metals, with particular emphasis on their preparation and characterization methodology.

Selected case studies illustrate new developments in clinical and preclinical use, making the information critical for the development of new medical materials and systems for use in human health care, and for the exploration of new design spaces based on these nanofibers. This book is essential reading for those working in biomedical science and engineering, materials science, nanoscience, biomedical nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

Key Features

  • Covers innovative new developments in nanofiber composites, including polymers, ceramics, and metals with particular emphasis on their preparation and characterization methodology
  • Deals with biomedical applications, including biomaterials developments, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine
  • Presents selected case studies on nanofiber composite materials in both clinical and preclinical use


Biomedical scientists and engineers, materials scientists, nanoscience, biomedical nanotechnology and biotechnology

Table of Contents

  • List of contributors
  • Biographies
  • Preface
  • Part I: Introduction to nanofiber composites
    • 1. Introduction to nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Classification of nanofiber composites
      • 1.3 Properties of nanofiber composites
      • 1.4 Fabrication methods of nanofiber composites
      • 1.5 Characterization techniques of nanofiber composites
      • 1.6 Biomedical applications of nanofiber composites
      • 1.7 Clinical translational aspects of nanofiber composites
      • 1.8 Commercial aspects of nanofiber composites
      • 1.9 Concluding remarks
      • References
  • Part II: Classification of nanofiber composites
    • 2. Ceramic nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Types of ceramic nanofiber composite
      • 2.3 Properties of ceramic nanofiber composite
      • 2.4 Fabrication methods
      • 2.5 Biomedical applications of ceramic nanofiber composite
      • 2.6 Concluding remarks
      • References
    • 3. Polymer nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Nanofiber composites using electrospinning
      • 3.3 Modified electrospinning setup for scaffold design
      • 3.4 Biofunctionalization of fibrous scaffolds
      • 3.5 Application of nanofiber composites
      • 3.6 Future perspectives of polymer nanofiber
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • 4. Metallic nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Technological aspect
      • 4.3 Metallic nanofiber composite applications in bio-medical and health care
      • 4.4 Conclusions and future perspectives
      • References
  • Part III: Properties of nanofiber composites
    • 5. Physicochemical characterization of nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Physicochemical characterization at molecular level
      • 5.3 Physicochemical characterization at surface level
      • 5.4 Physicochemical characterization at materials level
      • 5.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • 6. Mechanical characterization of nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Nanotechnology and biomedicine
      • 6.3 Tissue engineering
      • 6.4 Scaffolds for tissue engineering
      • 6.5 Electrospinning
      • 6.6 Mechanical properties of nanofibers: case studies
      • 6.7 Conclusion and future direction
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • 7. Biological characterization of nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Morphological characterization of nano fibers
      • 7.3 Biomedical applications implicated characterization
      • 7.4 Cell nanofiber scaffold interactive characterization
      • 7.5 Concluding remarks
      • References
  • Part IV: Biomedical applications of nanofiber composites
    • 8. Nanofiber composites in drug delivery
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Implications of nanofiber-based DDS in health care
      • 8.3 Composite nanofibers for drug delivery
      • 8.4 Applications of composite nanofibers as DDS
      • 8.5 Future prospects
      • 8.6 Concluding remarks
      • References
    • 9. Nanofiber composites in biomolecular delivery
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Importance of biomolecules in biomedical applications
      • 9.3 Composite nanofibers for biomolecular delivery
      • 9.4 Release strategy of biomolecules from composite nanofiber scaffolds
      • 9.5 Applications of composite nanofibers for biomolecular delivery
      • 9.6 Preclinical status
      • 9.7 Concluding remarks
      • References
    • 10. Nanofiber composites in gene delivery
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Nanofiber composites-mediated gene delivery
      • 10.3 Fabrication methods
      • 10.4 Characterization techniques
      • 10.5 Classification
      • 10.6 Pharmacology and kinetics: gene delivery
      • 10.7 Current status
      • 10.8 Conclusion
      • References
    • 11. Nanofiber composites in skin tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Skin morphology
      • 11.3 Skin disorders
      • 11.4 Wound healing process
      • 11.5 Types of skin grafts and skin substitutes
      • 11.6 Tissue engineering
      • 11.7 Composite Nanofibrous Mats
      • 11.8 Impact of nanofibers in skin regeneration process
      • 11.9 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • 12. Nanofiber composites in bone tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Topic overview
      • 12.3 Rationale for the selection of the inorganic phase for bone tissue engineering applications
      • 12.4 Electrospinning and its integration with other scaffold fabrication techniques for bone tissue engineering
      • 12.5 Three dimensional nanofibrous structures for bone tissue engineering
      • 12.6 Functionalized nanofiber composites
      • 12.7 In vivo applications of nanofiber composites for bone tissue regeneration
      • 12.8 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgements
      • References
    • 13. Nanofiber composites in cartilage tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Microstructure of cartilage tissue
      • 13.3 Composite nanofiber for cartilage regeneration
      • 13.4 Biological relevance of composite nanofiber in cartilage regeneration
      • 13.5 Future directions and perspectives
      • References
    • 14. Nanofiber composites in tendon tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Different topological structure of nanofiber for tendon tissue regeneration
      • 14.3 Development of three-dimensional scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering
      • 14.4 Mechanical simulation of scaffold constructs for tendon tissue remodeling
      • 14.5 Growth factors and stem cells strategies incorporated with nanofibers in tendon tissue engineering
      • 14.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • 15. Nanofiber composites in skeletal muscle tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Skeletal muscle anatomy
      • 15.3 Tissue engineering of skeletal muscle
      • 15.4 Three-dimensional matrices for skeletal muscle tissue engineering
      • 15.5 Polymeric Materials for electrospun nanofibers
      • 15.6 Mechanical and electrical stimulation of engineered skeletal muscle
      • 15.7 Vascularization and in vivo generation of 3D muscle constructs
      • 15.8 Future aspects
      • 15.9 Conclusion
      • References
    • 16. Nanofiber composites in neural tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Composite nanofiber NGC
      • 16.3 Nanofiber NGC with regular structure
      • 16.4 Growth factor incorporated into nanofiber NTE scaffold
      • 16.5 Conductive nanofiber NGC and electrical simulation for NTE
      • 16.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • 17. Nanofiber composites in cardiac tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Cardiac structure
      • 17.3 Cardiac tissue remodeling
      • 17.4 Cardiac tissue engineering
      • 17.5 Fibrous scaffolds for building of cardiac tissue
      • 17.6 Challenges and future trends in cardiac tissue engineering
      • 17.7 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgements
      • References
    • 18. Nanofiber composites in vascular tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Arterial TEVG
      • 18.3 Electrospun nanofibers for arterial TEVG
      • 18.4 Prevention of thrombosis, stenosis and calcification in arterial TEVG
      • 18.5 Current clinical status of TEVG
      • 18.6 Summary and perspectives for the future
      • 18.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • 19. Nanofiber composites in blood vessel tissue engineering
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Natural/synthetic nanofiber composites
      • 19.3 Synthetic/synthetic nanofiber composites
      • 19.4 Conclusion and future perspectives
      • References
    • 20. Clinical/preclinical aspects of nanofiber composites
      • Abstract
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Status of clinically relevant biomaterials
      • 20.3 Clinical and preclinical applications of nanofiber composite materials
      • 20.4 Conclusions and future remarks
      • Acknowledgements
      • References
  • Index


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About the Author

Murugan Ramalingam

Murugan Ramalingam, PhD, FNS, FIoN, FRSC is Professor at the Centre for Stem Cell Research (a unit of the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine-Bengaluru), Christian Medical College Campus, India. Concurrently he is Adjunct Professor at the Tohoku University, Japan. Prior to joining the CSCR, he worked as Associate Professor of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering at the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg (France) and at the WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research (Japan) as Assistant Professor. He has also worked at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), under the U.S. National Academies Associateship program. He received his Ph.D. in Biomaterials from the University of Madras. He has also undergone training in Ethical and Policy issues on Stem Cells from Harvard University (USA), and in Operations Management from the University of Illinois-Chicago (USA). His current research interests are focused on the development of multiphase biomedical materials, through conventional to nanotechnology to biomimetic approaches, microfabrication, cell patterning, stem cell differentiation, tissue engineering and drug delivery. He is the author of over 275 publications, including peer-reviewed journal papers, conference proceedings, book chapters, authored books, edited books, and patents relevant to biomaterials, stem cells, and tissue engineering. His current h-index is 30 with ~6500 citations. He also serves as a board member of several international scientific and research committees in various public and private bodies and grant reviewer of various international funding agencies. He serves on the editorial boards of multiple biomaterials, stem cells and tissue engineering-related journals, including as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, the Journal of Bionanoscience and the Stem Cell Research and Therapy. He is a recipient of several prestigious fellowships and awards, including CSIR Fellowship (India), SMF Fellowship (Singapore), NRC National Academies Fellowship (USA), Nationale Professeur des Universités (France), Fellow of Institute of Nanotechnology (UK) and Fellow of Royal Society of Chemistry (UK).

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Centre for Stem Cell Research, Christian Medical College and Hospital Campus, India, and Adjunct Associate Professor, Tohoku University, Japan

Seeram Ramakrishna

Professor Seeram Ramakrishna, FREng, FBSE is the Director of Center for Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, and a leader of Future of Manufacturing at the National University of Singapore (NUS). He is a Highly Cited Researcher in Materials Science ( He is among the World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds (Thomson Reuters). He authored 1,000 articles which attracted ~ 57,000 citations and ~110 H-index. His innovations have been translated into products. He is an editor of Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering. He delivered over 200 plenary and keynote lectures around the world including a special lecture at the Kavli Symposium on Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, Norway. He is a Fellow of UK Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng); Biomaterials Science and Engineering (FBSE); American Association of the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and American Institute for Medical & Biological Engineering (AIMBE) He is a recipient of IFEES President award- Global Visionary; Chandra P Sharma Biomaterials Award; Nehru Fellowship; LKY Fellowship; NUS Outstanding Researcher Award; IES and ASEAN Outstanding Engineer Award. He received PhD from the University of Cambridge, UK, and the General Management Training from Harvard University, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore, Singapore