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Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128207024, 9780128235553

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications

1st Edition

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Editor: Fernando Gomes
Editor in Chief: Kaushik Pal
Paperback ISBN: 9780128207024
eBook ISBN: 9780128235553
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 16th June 2020
Page Count: 472
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to nanomaterials and nanomanufacturing for nanosensors
 1.1 Nanosensors
  1.1.1 Types of nanosensors
  1.1.2 Applications of nanosensors
 1.2 Nanomaterials for nanosensors
  1.2.1 Properties of nanomaterials for nanosensors
  1.2.2 Different nanomaterials for nanosensors
 1.3 Nanomanufacturing
  1.3.1 Nanomanufacturing processes
 1.4 Nanomanufacturing processes for nanosensors
  1.4.1 Electron beam lithography
  1.4.2 Focused ion beam lithography
  1.4.3 X-ray lithography
 1.5 Conclusions and future directions

2. Features and complex model of gold nanoparticle fabrication for nanosensor applications
 2.1 Introduction
  2.1.1 Applications of nanoparticles
  2.1.2 Growth of gold nanoparticles
 2.2 Mathematical model of gold nanoparticle fabrication
  2.2.1 Governing equation of gold nanoparticle fabrication
  2.2.2 Nondimensionalized parameter for governing equations
  2.2.3 Discretization using finite difference method for gold nanoparticle fabrication problem
  2.2.4 Linear system equation formulation for gold nanoparticle fabrication
  2.2.5 Visualization of the mathematical model for gold nanoparticle fabrication
 2.3 Numerical implementation and parallelization for gold nanoparticle fabrication
  2.3.1 Numerical implementation
  2.3.2 Parallelization of iterative methods for solving one-dimensional mathematical model
  2.3.3 Parallel performance evaluation for fabricating gold nanoparticles
 2.4 Conclusion and recommendation

3. Designing of novel nanosensors for environmental aspects
 3.1 Introduction
 3.2 ABCs of the design strategy for nano-enabled sensors
  3.2.1 A note on the signal transduction mechanism
  3.2.2 A few representative nanomaterials and recognition elements
 3.3 Pertinent attributes for the design of nano-enabled sensors for environmental monitoring
 3.4 Exemplary evidence of novel nanosensor design strategies for environmental applications
  3.4.1 Pathogen detections
  3.4.2 Detection of heavy metals
  3.4.3 Unraveling the presence of pesticides
 3.5 Practical snags and future perspectives on nano-enabled sensors for environmental monitoring
 3.6 Conclusion

4. Applications and success of MIPs in optical-based nanosensors
 4.1 Introduction
 4.2 MIPs synthesis methods
  4.2.1 Synthesis from monomers in the presence of the template
  4.2.2 Production of MIPs by phase inversion using polymer precipitation
  4.2.3 Soft lithography or surface stamping
 4.3 Characterization studies of MIPs
 4.4 Application of MIPs in optical nanosensors
  4.4.1 Optical sensor
  4.4.2 Immunoassay/diagnostic applications
  4.4.3 Applications in detection of pharmaceuticals and drugs
  4.4.4 Applications in food and environmental sensing
 4.5 Challenges of MIPs for optical sensing systems
 4.6 Critiques and future outlook

5. Recent developments in nanostructured metal oxide-based electrochemical sensors
 5.1 Introduction
 5.2 Types of sensors
  5.2.1 Chemical sensors
  5.2.2 Gas sensors
  5.2.3 Biosensors
 5.3 Electrochemical sensors: Construction, working, and principles
 5.4 Conclusion

6. Nanosensors and nanobiosensors: Agricultural and food technology aspects
 6.1 Introduction
 6.2 Nanobiosensors
 6.3 General characteristics and categories of nanobiosensors
 6.4 Nanobiosensors in agriculture
 6.5 Detection by nanosensors
 6.6 Nanobiosensors in different food sectors
 6.7 Development of nanosensors in agrofood sector
 6.8 Application of nanosensors in food packaging
 6.9 Conclusions and future directions

7. Nanosensors in biomedical and environmental applications: Perspectives and prospects
 7.1 Introduction
 7.2 Biosensors
  7.2.1 Fundamental blocks
  7.2.2 Types of biosensors
 7.3 Nanosensors
 7.4 Nanobiosensors
 7.5 Types of nanobiosensors
  7.5.1 Nanoparticle-based biosensors
  7.5.2 Nanotube-based biosensors
  7.5.3 Nanowire-based biosensors
  7.5.4 Cantilever-based biosensors
  7.5.5 Graphene-based biosensors
 7.6 Performance parameters of nanobiosensors
  7.6.1 Selectivity
  7.6.2 Sensitivity
  7.6.3 Dose-response curve
  7.6.4 Dynamic range
  7.6.5 Multiplex detection
 7.7 Applications of nanobiosensors
  7.7.1 Diagnostic purpose
  7.7.2 Environmental monitoring
  7.7.3 Nanomedicine
 7.8 Conclusions and future directions

8. Nanosensors for better diagnosis of health
 8.1 Introduction
 8.2 Nanomaterials for biosensors
  8.2.1 Metal and metal oxide nanomaterials
  8.2.2 Carbon-based nanomaterials
  8.2.3 Nanocomposites
  8.2.4 Other novel nanomaterials
 8.3 Classification of biosensing nanomaterials
  8.3.1 Electrochemical biosensors
  8.3.2 Biosensors with field effect transistors
  8.3.3 Spectroscopic biosensors
  8.3.4 Latest novel biosensors
 8.4 Applications of nanomaterials in diagnosis of specific diseases
  8.4.1 Cancer
  8.4.2 Microbial infection
  8.4.3 Diabetes
  8.4.4 Other diseases
 8.5 Current challenges and future perspective
 8.6 Conclusion

9. Nanomaterial-based gas sensor for environmental science and technology
 9.1 Introduction
 9.2 Types of sensors
  9.2.1 Gas sensor
  9.2.2 Biosensors
  9.2.3 Chemical sensor
 9.3 Materials used in nanosensors
  9.3.1 Metal sulfides
  9.3.2 Metal oxides
  9.3.3 Other nanomaterials
 9.4 Techniques for designing nanosensors
  9.4.1 Physical vapor deposition technique
  9.4.2 Chemical vapor deposition
  9.4.3 Screen printing
  9.4.4 Drop coating
  9.4.5 Spray pyrolysis
 9.5 Application in environmental science and technology
  9.5.1 Carbon monoxide sensor
  9.5.2 Carbon dioxide sensor
  9.5.3 Nitrogen oxide sensor
  9.5.4 Ammonia sensor
  9.5.5 Hydrogen sulfide sensor
 9.6 Conclusion and future perspectives

10. Hybrid nanocomposites and their potential applications in the field of nanosensors/gas and biosensors
 10.1 Introduction
 10.2 Structures of nanomaterials
  10.2.1 Zero-dimensional structure (0-D)
  10.2.2 One-dimensional structure (1-D)
  10.2.3 Two-dimensional structure (2-D)
  10.2.4 Three-dimensional structure (3-D)
 10.3 Preparation of hybridized nanocomposites
  10.3.1 Solid-state synthesis
  10.3.2 Hydro-/solvothermal synthesis
  10.3.3 Sol-gel synthesis
  10.3.4 Chemical vapor deposition technique
  10.3.5 Microwave-assisted wet chemical method
 10.4 Invasion of hybridized nanocomposite materials
  10.4.1 Classification of hybrid nanocomposites
 10.5 Role of the gas sensor in various fields
 10.6 Requirements for a gas sensor
 10.7 Materials suitable for a gas sensor
 10.8 Recent developments in hybrid nanocomposite-based gas sensors
  10.8.1 Ammonia gas sensor
 10.9 Hybrid nanocomposites as biosensors
  10.9.1 Electrochemical/glucose/graphene-based biosensors
  10.9.2 Xanthine biosensors
  10.9.3 Cancer biosensor
  10.9.4 Food biosensors
  10.10 Conclusions, outlook, and future scope

11. Design and fabrication of CNT/graphene-based polymer nanocomposite applications in nanosensors
 11.1 Introduction
 11.2 Materials and methods
  11.2.1 Materials
  11.2.2 Thin film processing
  11.2.3 Characterization techniques
  11.2.4 Finite element analysis
  11.2.5 Results and discussion

12. Nanomaterials dispersed liquid crystalline self-assembly of hybrid matrix application towards thermal sensor
 12.1 Introduction
 12.2 Overview of liquid crystals
 12.3 Taxonomy of liquid crystals
  12.3.1 Thermotropic liquid crystal
  12.3.2 Lyotropic liquid crystal
  12.3.3 Functional properties and application of liquid crystal
 12.4 Important exploration of nanoscience and nanotechnology
 12.5 Drawbacks of nanomaterials
  12.5.1 Evaluation of nanomaterials from bulk materials
  12.5.2 Varieties of nanomaterials and their applications
  12.5.3 Dimensions of nanomaterials
 12.6 Nanomaterial dispersed liquid crystal
 12.7 Liquid crystal-based temperature sensor
  12.7.1 Scope of sensor
  12.7.2 Design and fabrication of nanomaterial dispersed liquid crystal (NLC) temperature sensor
  12.7.3 Experimental set-up, observation, and results
 12.8 Wireless liquid crystal temperature sensor
  12.8.1 Design of sensor
  12.8.2 Results and discussions
 12.9 Conclusions and outlook
 12.10 Benefits and future aspects

13. Carbon-based nanomaterials as novel nanosensors
 13.1 Introduction
  13.1.1 Carbon-based nanomaterials
 13.2 Sensing properties
 13.3 Nanosensors
  13.3.1 Optical nanosensors
  13.3.2 Electromagnetic nanosensors
  13.3.3 Gas nanosensors
 13.4 CNT-based nanosensors
 13.5 Graphene-based nanosensors
 13.6 Diamond-based nanosensors
 13.7 Biosensors
  13.7.1 Graphene-based electrochemical biosensors
 13.8 Potential applications of carbon-based nanosensors
  13.8.1 Pharmaceutical analysis
  13.8.2 Bioimaging and biosensing applications
 13.9 Limitations and drawbacks of carbon-based nanosensors
  13.9.1 Sample preparation
  13.9.2 Lack of self-validation and standardization with real-life samples
  13.9.3 Nanotoxicity
  13.9.4 The risk assessment of exposures
  13.9.5 Product cost
 13.10 Conclusion
14. Polymerized hybrid nanocomposite implementations of energy conversion cells device
 14.1 An overview of environmental science innovations
 14.2 Polymers
  14.2.1 Structure of polymers
  14.2.2 Properties of the polymer
  14.2.3 Thermal properties of polymers
 14.3 Composites
 14.4 Types of composite materials
  14.4.1 Fiber-reinforced composites
  14.4.2 Particulate composite
 14.5 Electrolytes
  14.5.1 Liquid electrolyte
  14.5.2 Solid electrolyte
  14.5.3 Polymer electrolyte
  14.5.4 Gel and polymer gel electrolyte
  14.5.5 Polymer nanocomposite and their classifications
  14.5.6 Investigation of polymer nanocomposites
 14.6 Transport mechanism in nanocomposite polymer electrolyte
  14.6.1 VTF equation
  14.6.2 Arrhenius equation
 14.7 Applications of nanocomposite polymer-gel electrolytes in environmentally friendly devices
  14.7.1 Hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell
  14.7.2 Solid-state rechargeable battery
  14.7.3 Sensors
  14.7.4 Supercapacitors
  14.7.5 Photoelectrochemical cells
  14.7.6 Solar cells
 14.8 Structural and ion transport studies in (100-x) PVdF+ xNH4SCN gel electrolyte
  14.8.1 Membrane fabrication
  14.8.2 Results and discussions
  14.8.3 Application of polymer nanocomposites in environmentally friendly devices
  14.8.4 Basics of fuel cells
  14.8.5 Working principle of fuel cells
  14.8.6 Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)
  14.8.7 Application of fuel cell
 14.9 Conclusions and outlook
 14.10 Remarks and future prospects
15. Smart polymer systems as concrete self-healing agents
 15.1 Introduction
 15.2 Self-healing property
 15.3 Concrete self-healing mechanisms
  15.3.1 Autogenous
  15.3.2 Mineral admixtures
  15.3.3 Bacteria
  15.3.4 Adhesive materials
 15.4 Polymers in concrete self-healing
  15.4.1 Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)
  15.4.2 Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)
  15.4.3 Polystyrene (PS)
  15.4.4 Polyurethanes (PUs)
  15.4.5 Epoxy resin
  15.4.6 Polyacrylates
  15.4.7 Alginates
  15.4.8 Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs)
 15.5 Trends in concrete self-healing
 15.6 Final considerations

16. Chemical engineering of protein cages and nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications
 16.1 Introduction to chemical modification of proteins
 16.2 Uncommon viral protein cages
  16.2.1 Adenovirus
  16.2.2 Viruses as protein cages
  16.2.3 Qβ bacteriophage
 16.3 Nonviral protein cages
  16.3.1 Heat-shock proteins (Hsps)
  16.3.2 Ferritin
  16.3.3 Vault proteins (VPs)
 16.4 Residue-specific amino acid modification strategies
  16.4.1 Lysine
  16.4.2 Carboxyl
  16.4.3 Cystine
  16.4.4 Tyrosines
  16.4.5 Arginine
  16.4.6 Tryptophan
  16.4.7 Methionine
 16.5 Nanoparticles targeted for drug delivery
  16.5.1 Passive targeting
  16.5.2 Active targeting
  16.5.3 Advantages and disadvantages
  16.5.4 Applications


Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications addresses the design, manufacture and applications of a variety of nanomaterials for sensing applications. In particular, the book explores how nanofabrication techniques are used to create more efficient nanosensors, examines their major applications in biomedicine and environmental science, discusses the fundamentals of how nanosensors work, explores different nanofabrication techniques, and comments on toxicity and safety issues relating to the creation of nanosensors using certain nanomaterial classes. This book is an important resource for materials scientists and engineers who want to make materials selection decisions for the creation of new nansensor devices.

Key Features

  • Summarizes current research and applications of a variety of nanofabrication techniques for the creation of efficient sensing devices
  • Provides readers with an understanding of surfaces and interfaces, a key challenge for those working on hybrid nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, graphene, polymers and liquid crystal electro-optical imaging
  • Discusses the variability and sight recognition of biopolymers, such as DNA molecules, which offer a wide range of opportunities for the self-organization of nanostructures into much more complex patterns


Materials Scientists and Engineers in academia and R&D


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2020
16th June 2020
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

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About the Editor

Fernando Gomes

Fernando Gomes Souza Junior is Associate Professor in Civil Engineering at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His research focuses in the areas of the use of renewable resources and nanocomposites in sensors, drug delivery and environmental recovery.

Affiliations and Expertise

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

About the Editor in Chief

Kaushik Pal

Kaushik Pal is Research Professor in the Department of Nanotechnology, Bharath University, India. His research focuses on nanofabrication, functional materials, carbon nanotubes, and nanoscale sensing technologies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Nanotechnology, Bharath University, India