Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry

Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry

1st Edition - December 14, 2012

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  • Editors: Karthikeyan Subramani, Waqar Ahmed
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455731275
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455731299

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New nanomaterials are leading to a range of emerging dental treatments that utilize more biomimetic materials that more closely duplicate natural tooth structure (or bone, in the case of implants). This book brings together an international team of experts from the fields of materials science, nanotechnology and dentistry, to explain these new materials and their applications for the restoration, fixation, replacement, or regeneration of hard and soft tissues in and about the oral cavity and craniofacial region. The main topics covered include applications in dental specialties (Orthodontics, Endodontics, Pediatric dentistry, Periodontics, Prosthodontics and Implant dentistry), salivary diagnostics using bioMEMS/NEMS systems, nanochips for oral cancer diagnosis, biomimetic nanomaterials, and nanotechnology for tooth repair and regeneration. The editors' previous book, Emerging Nanotechnologies in Dentistry focused on the fabrication/manufacturing processes of materials and dentistry applications. This second book complements the first covers with coverage of the range of nanomaterials available today in clinical dentistry, explaining the innovative techniques and applications in all of the main clinical dental specialties. Nanobiomaterial engineers, biomedical researchers, biomedical engineers and dental/oral pre-clinical and clinical researchers will find the comprehensive coverage essential for working with nanotechnologies and materials in both clinical and research settings.

Key Features

  • Book prepared by an interdisciplinary and international group of scientists and practitioners in the fields of nanomaterials, dental implants, medical devices and clinical practice
  • Comprehensive professional reference for the subject covering materials fabrication and use of materials for all major diagnostic and therapeutic dental applications – repair, restoration, regeneration, implants and prevention
  • Complements the editors' previous book on nanotechnology applications for dentistry


Post-docs / researchers / R&D in the fields of nanomaterials / biomedical nanotechnology, biochemistry, oral biology. Dental nanomaterials R&D / manufacturers. Dental researchers and clinical practitioners, primarily in the areas of dental materials, restorative dentistry, implantology, oral surgery and periodontics

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Foreword by Professor C.N.R. Rao

    Foreword by Professor Peixuan Guo


    Section 1: Introduction

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Nanotechnology

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Approaches to nanotechnology

    1.3 Nanotechnology on a large scale and volume

    1.4 Applications

    1.5 Future considerations

    1.6 Nanobiomaterials in clinical dentistry


    Chapter 2. Nanotechnology and Nanobiomaterials in Dentistry

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Nanoscale materials

    2.3 Nanodentistry

    2.4 Nanobiomaterials in dentistry

    2.5 Nanobiomaterials in preventive dentistry

    2.6 Nanobiomaterials in restorative dentistry

    2.7 Nanocomposites in bone regeneration

    2.8 Conclusions


    Section 2: Nanoscale Materials and Their Applications in Dental Biomaterials

    Chapter 3. Carbon Nanotube-Based Materials—Preparation, Biocompatibility, and Applications in Dentistry

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Preparation of CNT composites

    3.3 Conductivity

    3.4 CNT cytotoxicity

    3.5 CNT applications in dentistry

    3.6 Summary and conclusions


    Chapter 4. Dental and Skeletal Applications of Silica-Based Nanomaterials

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Silica nanoparticles

    4.3 Synthesis of silica-based nanomaterials

    4.4 Physicochemical properties of silica-based nanomaterials

    4.5 Dental applications of silica-based nanomaterials

    4.6 Skeletal applications of silica-based nanomaterials

    4.7 Conclusions



    Chapter 5. Nanoparticles, Properties, and Applications in Glass Ionomer Cements

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Smart dental materials

    5.3 Nanotechnology and dentistry

    5.4 Glass ionomer cement

    5.5 Modified GIC

    5.6 Resin-modified nano-glass ionomer composites

    5.7 Nanoparticles-based GIC

    5.8 Conclusions


    Chapter 6. Nanostructured Dental Composites and Adhesives with Antibacterial and Remineralizing Capabilities for Caries Inhibition

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Development of antibacterial nanocomposite with CaP nanoparticles

    6.3 Durability of antibacterial nanocomposite in water-aging

    6.4 Antibacterial dentin primer

    6.5 Antibacterial adhesive

    6.6 Antibacterial and remineralizing adhesive containing NACP

    6.7 Summary and conclusions




    Chapter 7. Nanotechnology and Nanoparticles in Contemporary Dental Adhesives

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Brief history of dental adhesives

    7.3 Contemporary adhesive systems

    7.4 Chemical compositions of contemporary adhesives

    7.5 Ketac nanoprimer

    7.6 Nanoleakage

    7.7 Atomic force microscopy in the field of dental adhesion

    7.8 How can nanoscience and nanotechnology improve the outcome of clinical adhesive dentistry?

    7.9 Future prospective of nanotechnology in the field of adhesive dentistry

    7.10 Conclusions and future directions


    Section 3: Nanobiomaterials in Preventive and Restorative Dentistry

    Chapter 8. Nanobiomaterials in Preventive Dentistry

    8.1 Introduction—current challenges in preventive dentistry

    8.2 The ubiquitous phenomenon of bioadhesion on dental hard tissues

    8.3 Main strategies for implementation of nanosized materials in dental prophylaxis

    8.4 Modulation of bioadhesion and biofilm management

    8.5 Effects on de- and remineralization

    8.6 Erosion

    8.7 Nanosized calcium fluoride

    8.8 Dentin hypersensitivity

    8.9 Regeneration of dental hard substances

    8.10 Discussion and clinical recommendations

    8.11 Conclusions


    Chapter 9. Silver and Phosphate Nanoparticles: Antimicrobial Approach and Caries Prevention Application

    9.1 Welcome to nanoworld

    9.2 Nanoparticles X “BUGS”

    9.3 Phosphates micro- and nanoparticles and caries prevention

    9.4 Pros and cons of nanoparticles toward biological-dental application

    9.5 Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Nanoparticles and the Control of Oral Biofilms

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Biofilms and oral infections

    10.3 Antimicrobial nanoparticles and oral biofilm control

    10.4 Antiadhesive nanoparticles and oral biofilm control

    10.5 Photodynamic therapy and the use of nanoparticles to control oral biofilms

    10.6 Biocompatibility of nanoparticles within the oral cavity

    10.7 Conclusions



    Section 4: Nanobiomaterials in Orthodontics

    Chapter 11. Nanotechnology in Orthodontics–1: The Past, Present, and a Perspective of the Future

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy studies on orthodontic brackets and archwires

    11.3 Friction reducing nanocoatings on orthodontic archwires

    11.4 Nanoparticles in orthodontic adhesives

    11.5 Nanoparticle delivery from orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

    11.6 Developing and future applications of nanotechnology in dentistry and orthodontics

    11.7 Temporary anchorage devices

    11.8 Conclusions


    Chapter 12. Nanotechnology in Orthodontics–2: Facts and Possible Future Applications

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Nanoscale in orthodontics

    12.3 Nanotechnology and gene therapy in orthodontics

    12.4 Nanofabricated ultrasound device for orthodontics

    12.5 Nanomechanical sensors for orthodontic forces and moments measurement

    12.6 Future applications of nanotechnology in orthodontics

    12.7 Conclusions



    Chapter 13. Nanoparticle Coating of Orthodontic Appliances for Friction Reduction

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Friction in orthodontics

    13.3 Materials considerations: fullerene-like nanoparticles

    13.4 Orthodontic appliances coated with nanoparticles

    13.5 Safety: toxicity and biocompatibility

    13.6 Conclusions: from the lab to the clinic



    Section 5: Nanobiomaterials in Prosthodontics

    Chapter 14. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Incorporated Acrylic-Based Tissue Conditioner with Antimicrobial Effect and Cytocompatibility

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Preparation and identification of silver nanoparticles

    14.3 Acrylic tissue conditioner combined with silver nanoparticles

    14.4 Characterization of Ag°-tissue conditioner composites

    14.5 Conclusions


    Section 6: Nanobiomaterials in Periodontics, Implant Dentistry, and Dental Tissue Engineering

    Chapter 15. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles for Periodontal Regeneration and Applications in Dentistry

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Composition and synthesis of bioactive glass nanoparticles

    15.3 Bioactivity of glass nanoparticles

    15.4 Bioactive glass in dentistry

    15.5 Bioactive glass nanoparticles in periodontal regeneration

    15.6 Bioactive glass nanocomposites

    15.7 Bioactive glass nanocomposite applications in bone regeneration and dental implants

    15.8 The future of bioactive glass nanoparticles in dentistry

    15.9 Conclusions



    Chapter 16. Impact of Nanotechnology on Dental Implants

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Nanoscale surface modifications

    16.3 Interactions of surface dental implants with blood

    16.4 Interactions between surfaces and mesenchymal stem cells

    16.5 Tissue integration

    16.6 Conclusions



    Chapter 17. Titania Nanotube Coatings on Dental Implants with Enhanced Osteogenic Activity and Anti-Infection Properties

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Fabrication of NTs on Ti

    17.3 Factors influencing the bioactivity of the NTs

    17.4 In vitro bioactivity of the NTs and in vivo osseointegration

    17.5 Drug-loading NTs for better bioactivity and antibacterial properties

    17.6 Conclusions



    Chapter 18. Carbon Nanomaterials for Implant Dentistry and Bone Tissue Engineering

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Enhanced functions of osteoblasts on carbon nanomaterials

    18.3 CNT/CNF applications in dentistry

    18.4 Fabrication of carbon nanomaterials

    18.5 Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials

    18.6 Fabrication of carbon nanomaterials with improved osteogenic bioactivity

    18.7 Unique properties of CaP nanoparticles–embedded CNFs for bone tissue engineering

    18.8 Conclusions


    Chapter 19. Nanoceramics for Bone Regeneration in the Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Complex

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Nanoceramics and bone repair

    19.3 Hydroxyapatite

    19.4 Nano-HA–collagen composites

    19.5 Hydrogels and nano-HA

    19.6 Chitosan and nano-bioactive glass composites

    19.7 Nanocalcium sulfate

    19.8 Conclusions



    Chapter 20. Biomimetics Using Nanotechnology/Nanoparticles in Dental Tissue Regeneration

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Nanotechnology for craniofacial bone and cartilage tissue engineering

    20.3 Nanotechnology for periodontal regeneration

    20.4 Nanotechnology for tooth regeneration

    20.5 Conclusions


    Section 7: Nanobiomaterials in Endodontics

    Chapter 21. Scope of Nanotechnology in Endodontics

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Clinical applications

    21.3 Applications for repair and pulp regeneration

    21.4 Repair and regeneration

    21.5 Nanotechnology applications for repair and pulp regeneration

    21.6 Conclusion



    Section 8: Salivary Diagnostics and Nanoparticles as Dental Drug Delivery Systems and Their Biocompatibility/Toxicity

    Chapter 22. Saliva as an Emerging Biofluid for Clinical Diagnosis and Applications of MEMS/NEMS in Salivary Diagnostics

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Saliva as a biofluid for disease detection

    22.3 Applications of saliva for early detection of ischemic heart disease and in head and neck cancers

    22.4 Future outlook and conclusions



    Chapter 23. Nanoparticles as Dental Drug-Delivery Systems

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Definitions

    23.3 Dental applications of nanoparticles

    23.4 Future trends



    Chapter 24. Orally Delivered Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems for Dental Applications and Their Toxicity on Systemic Organs

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Dental applications of nano drug delivery

    24.3 Toxicity of nanoparticles

    24.4 Conclusions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2012
  • Published: December 14, 2012
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455731275
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455731299

About the Editors

Karthikeyan Subramani

Assistant Professor of Dental Medicine at Roseman University of Health Sciences, USA. He was the recipient of the prestigious 2006 Andre Schroeder Research Prize from Straumann (Switzerland) for his innovative research findings during his Biomedical Nanotechnology degree program in the United Kingdom. Dr. Subramani was involved in the International Team for Implantology (ITI) funded research projects in Switzerland, the Netherlands and in the USA. He has authored numerous peer-reviewed research papers and review manuscripts and has authored numerous book chapters. He is also the editor of the Elsevier book Nanomaterials in Clinical Dentistry together with Waqar Ahmed.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV, USA

Waqar Ahmed

Waqar Ahmed is Professor of Nanoscience in the School of Mathematics and Physics, College of Science at the University of Lincoln, UK. His major research interests are in the field of nanoscience, nanotechnology and nanomedicine. At Lincoln his research is focused on nanoscience and nanotechnology for renewable energy, energy modelling and management and sustainability. He is also interested in applications of technology in teaching and learning. He has authored or coauthored over 500 publications including peer-reviewed papers, books, book chapters, reviews and expert opinions in multidisciplinary subjects.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Head of Institute of Nanotechnology and Bioengineering, University of Central Lancashire, UK

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