Nano Optoelectronic Sensors and Devices - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781437734713, 9781437734720

Nano Optoelectronic Sensors and Devices

1st Edition

Nanophotonics from Design to Manufacturing

Authors: Ning Xi King Lai
eBook ISBN: 9781437734720
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437734713
Paperback ISBN: 9780128103494
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 29th November 2011
Page Count: 224
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Table of Contents



About the Editors

List of Contributers

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Overview

1.2 Impact of Nanomaterials

1.3 Challenges and Difficulties in Manufacturing Nanomaterials-Based Devices

1.3.1 Role of Microfluidics

1.3.2 Role of Robotic Nanoassembly

1.4 Summary


Chapter 2 Nanomaterials Processing for Device Manufacturing

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes

2.3 Classification of Carbon Nanotubes using Microfluidics

2.3.1 Dielectrophoretic Phenomenon on CNTs

2.3.2 Experimental Results: Separation of Semiconducting CNTs

2.4 Deposition of CNTs by Microrobotic Workstation

2.5 Summary


Chapter 3 Design and Generation of Dielectrophoretic Forces for Manipulating Carbon Nanotubes

3.1 Overview

3.2 Dielectrophoretic Force Modeling

3.2.1 Modeling of Electrorotation for Nanomanipulation

3.2.2 Dynamic Modeling of Rotational Motion of Carbon Nanotubes for Intelligent Manufacturing of CNT-Based Devices

3.2.3 Dynamic Effect of Fluid Medium on Nano Particles by Dielectrophoresis

3.3 Theory for Microelectrode and Electric Field Design for Carbon Nanotube Applications

3.3.1 Microelectrode Design

3.3.2 Theory for Microelectrode Design

3.4 Electric Field Design

3.5 Carbon Nanotubes Application-Simulation Results

3.5.1 Dielectrophoretic Force: Simulation Results

3.5.2 Electrorotation (Torque): Simulation Results

3.5.3 Rotational Motion of Carbon Nanotubes: Simulation Results

3.6 Summary


Chapter 4 Atomic Force Microscope-Based Nanorobotic System for Nanoassembly

4.1 Introduction to AFM and Nanomanipulation

4.1.1 AFM’s Basic Principle

4.1.2 Imaging Mode of AFM

4.1.3 AFM-Based Nanomanipulation

4.2 AFM-Based Augmented Reality System

4.2.1 Principle for 3D Nanoforce Feedback

4.2.2 Principle for Real-Time Visual Feedback Generation

4.2.3 Experimental Testing and Discussion

4.3 Augmented Reality System Enhanced by Local Scan

4.3.1 Local Scan Mechanism for Nanoparticle

4.3.2 Local Scan Mechanism for Nanorod

4.3.3 Nanomanipulation with Local Enhanced Augmented Reality System

4.4 CAD-Guided Automated Nanoassembly

4.5 Modeling of Nanoenvironments

4.6 Automated Manipulation of CNT

4.7 Summary


Chapter 5 On-Chip Band Gap Engineering of Carbon Nanotubes

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Quantum Electron Transport Model

5.2.1 Nonequilibrium Green’s Functions

5.2.2 Poisson’s Equation and Self-Consistent Algorithm

5.3 Electrical Breakdown Controller of a CNT

5.3.1 Extended Kalman Filter for Fault Detection

5.4 Effects of CNT Breakdown

5.4.1 Current-Voltage Characteristics

5.4.2 Infrared Responses

5.5 Summary


Chapter 6 Packaging Processes for Carbon Nanotube-Based Devices

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Thermal Annealing of Carbon Nanotubes

6.3 Electrical and Optical Responses of Carbon Nanotubes After Thermal Annealing

6.4 Parylene Thin Film Packaging

6.5 Electrical and Optical Stability of the CNT-Based Devices After Packaging

6.6 Summary


Chapter 7 Carbon Nanotube Schottky Photodiodes

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Review of CNT Photodiodes

7.3 Design of CNT Schottky Photodiodes

7.4 Symmetric Schottky Photodiodes

7.5 Asymmetric Schottky Photodiodes

7.6 Summary


Chapter 8 Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor-Based Photodetectors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Back-Gate Au–CNT–Au Transistors

8.3 Back-Gate Ag–CNT–Ag Transistors

8.4 Back-Gate Au–CNT–Ag Transistors

8.5 Middle-Gate Transistors

8.6 Multigate Transistors

8.7 Detector Array Using CNT-Based Transistors

8.8 Summary


Chapter 9 Nanoantennas on Nanowire-Based Optical Sensors

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Nanoantenna Design Consideration for IR Sensors

9.2.1 Optical Nanoantennas Combined with CNT-Based IR Sensors

9.3 Theoretical Analysis: Nanoantenna Near-Field Effect

9.4 Fabrication of Nano Sensor Combined with Nanoantenna

9.5 Photocurrent Measurement on Nano Sensor Combined with Nanoantenna

9.6 Summary


Chapter 10 Design of Photonic Crystal Waveguides

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Review of the Photonic Crystal

10.3 Principle for Photonic Crystal

10.4 Phototonic Band Gap of Photonic Crystal

10.4.1 Effect from Dielectric Constants

10.4.2 Effect from Different Structures

10.5 Photonic Crystal Cavity

10.5.1 Basic Design of Photonic Crystal Defect

10.5.2 Defect from Dielectric Constants

10.5.3 Defect from Dielectric Size

10.5.4 Effect from Lattice Number

10.6 Design and Experimental Results of Photonic Crystal Cavity

10.6.1 Design

10.6.2 Photoresponses of CNT-Based IR Sensors with Photonic Crystal Cavities

10.6.3 Photocurrent Mapping of the CNT-Based IR Sensors with Photonic Crystal Cavities

10.7 Summary


Chapter 11 Organic Solar Cells Enhanced by Carbon Nanotubes

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Organic Solar Cells

11.3 Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Organic Solar Cells

11.4 Performance Analysis of OSCs Enhanced by CNTs

11.4.1 J-V of SWCNTs-Enhanced OSCs Under Illumination

11.4.2 J-V of SWCNTs-Enhanced OSCs in Dark

11.5 Electrical Role of SWCNTs in OSCs

11.6 Summary


Chapter 12 Development of Optical Sensors Using Graphene

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fabrication of Graphene-Based Devices

12.3 Dielectrophoretic Effect on Different Graphene Flakes

12.4 Electrical and Optical Behaviors of Various Graphene-Based Devices

12.5 Summary


Chapter 13 Indium Antimonide (InSb) Nanowire-Based Photodetectors

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Growth of InSb Nanowires

13.3 Photodetectors Using Single InSb Nanowires

13.3.1 Symmetric InSb Nanowire Photodetectors

13.3.2 Asymmetric InSb Nanowire Photodetectors

13.4 Summary


Chapter 14 Carbon Nanotube-Based Infrared Camera Using Compressive Sensing

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Theoretical Foundation of Compressive Sensing

14.2.1 General Idea

14.2.2 Sparsity

14.2.3 Restricted Isometry Property

14.2.4 Random Matrix

14.2.5 Compressive Sensing Applications

14.3 Compressive Sensing for Single-Pixel Photodetectors

14.3.1 System Architecture

14.3.2 Measurement Matrix

14.3.3 Data Sampling and Image Reconstruction Algorithm

14.4 Experimental Setup and Results

14.4.1 Static Measurement

14.4.2 Dynamic Observation

14.4.3 Performance Analysis

14.5 Summary and Perspectives




Nanophotonics has emerged as a major technology and applications domain, exploiting the interaction of light-emitting and light-sensing nanostructured materials. These devices are lightweight, highly efficient, low on power consumption, and are cost effective to produce. The authors of this book have been involved in pioneering work in manufacturing photonic devices from carbon nanotube (CNT) nanowires and provide a series of practical guidelines for their design and manufacture, using processes such as nano-robotic manipulation and assembly methods. They also introduce the design and operational principles of opto-electrical sensing devices at the nano scale. Thermal annealing and packaging processes are also covered, as key elements in a scalable manufacturing process. Examples of applications of different nanowire based photonic devices are presented. These include applications in the fields of electronics (e.g. FET, CNT Schotty diode) and solar energy.

Key Features

  • Discusses opto-electronic nanomaterials, characterization and properties from an engineering perspective, enabling the commercialization of key emerging technologies
  • Provides scalable techniques for nanowire structure growth, manipulation and assembly (i.e. synthesis)
  • Explores key application areas such as sensing, electronics and solar energy


Primary: Industrial R&D and Academic communities including optical engineers, photonics engineers, instrumentation engineers, electronics engineers, functional optoelectronic materials engineers and others seeking practical information regarding the development of nanophotonic devices and technologies. Secondary: Graduate courses


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© William Andrew 2011
William Andrew
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About the Authors

Ning Xi Author

Dr Ning Xi is Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and received his D.Sc. degree in Systems Science and Mathematics from Washington University in St. Louis , Missouri in December, 1993. He received his M.S. degree in computer science from Northeastern University , Boston , Massachusetts , and B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Currently, he is John D. Ryder Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Michigan State University . Dr. Xi received the Best Paper Award in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems in August, 1995. He also received the Best Paper Award in the 1998 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation. Dr. Xi was awarded the first Early Academic Career Award by the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society in May, 1999. In addition, he is also a recipient of National Science Foundation CAREER Award. His research interests include robotics, manufacturing automation, micro/nano systems, and intelligent control and systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

King Lai Author

Dr King W.C. Lai is Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering at City University, Hong Kong. He has over 10 years of research experience in micro/nano manipulation and micro/nano assembly. His main research interests include development of micro/nano sensors using MEMS and nanotechnology; design and fabrication of MEMS/nano systems and devices, optical sensing system and photovoltaics, nanobiotechnology, automation and manipulation of micro/nano scale systems. He has contributed to the research and development of nanomanufacturing technology for various nanodevices. He developed a micro/nano robot and a microinjection system for microassembly and microspotting of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube, graphene etc. He has also developed apply the systems for the observation and manipulation of different biological samples such as living cells and DNA strands. He has published more than 80 peer-reviewed conference papers, book chapters and high-quality journals in the field of micromanipulation, nanorobotics and MEMS devices

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering at City University, Hong Kong.