Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126779509, 9780323160100

Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants

1st Edition

Authors: H.E. Sutton
eBook ISBN: 9780323160100
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 212
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Description

Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants investigates the mutagenic consequences of environmental contaminants, such as pesticides, industrials, food additives, drugs, and biologicals, as well as the possible relationships between mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. It describes the monitoring of chemical mutagens in the environment and the ways that genetic mutations cause disease in humans.

Organized into 14 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the current burden of human genetic disease and the biochemical mechanisms of mutation. It then discusses practical and feasible methods that use a variety of organisms to screen potential mutagenic agents, increased mutation rates in human populations, mutagens that are currently used commercially, and the interrelationships between mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The reader is also introduced to genetic toxicology, detection of chemically induced mutations in experimental animals, and chromosome and somatic mutations in humans.

This book is a valuable resource for scientists, policymakers, and administrators of environmental programs.

Table of Contents


Organizing Panel

Contributors

Preface

Introduction: Genetic Toxicology

Text

Gene Mutation as a Cause of Human Disease

Text

References

The Molecular Basis of Mutation

The Genetic Material

Replication of Genetic Material

Utilization o f Genetic Information

The Nature of Mutations

Mechanisms o f Mutagenesis

The Effects o f Mutation on the Organism

Monitoring of Chemical Mutagens in our Environment

Introduction

Problems in Testing for Mutagenic Activity

1. Comparative Mutagenesis

2. Evaluation of Results from Mutagenesis Testing

3. Weak Mutagenic Activity: A Major Problem Area

Conclusion

References

The Detection of Mutations with Non-Mammalian Systems

Prokaryote Systems

1. DNA Transformation

2. Bacteriophage

3. Bacteria

Eukaryote Systems

1. Ascomycetes

2. Drosophila

3. Habrobracon

4. Tradescantia

References

A Bacterial System for Detecting Mutagens and Carcinogens

Advantages of Using a Particular Set of Four Strains We Have Developed in Salmonella typhimurium

Frameshift Mutagens and Their Relation to Polycyclic Hydrocarbons

Agents That Have Been Shown to Be Mutagenic Using These Strains

Reasons Why a Compound That Is Mutagenic or Carcinogenic in Humans May Be Missed in a Bacterial Screen

Reasons That a Compound That Is Mutagenic for Bacteria May Not Be Mutagenic for Humans

References

The Need to Detect Chemically Induced Mutations in Experimental Animals

The Need to Use Mammalian Systems for Mutagenicity Testing

Animal (Mammalian) Test Systems

Impact of Mutagenicity Screening on Carcinogenicity Studies

Insensitivity of Animal Data

Definitive Animal Experiments — The Only Practical Means of Eliminating Mutagenic Agents

References

Chromosome Mutations in Man

Introduction

Human Chromosomal Polymorphism

Characterizing Human Chromosomal Mutations

Monitoring Human Chromosomal Mutations

Detecting an Increase in Human Chromosomal Mutations

References

The Detection of Increased Mutation Rates in Human Populations

Introductio

The Approaches to Monitoring Human Populations

1. The Use of Population Characteristics

2. The Use of Sentinel Phenotypes

3. The Use of Biochemical and/or Chromosomal Mutations

Some Problems in Monitoring for Mutations at the Chemical Level

1. Primarily Technical Questions

2. Primarily Theoretical Issues

Concluding Remarks

References

Monitoring Somatic Mutations in Human Populations

The Frequency of Point Mutations

Somatic Point Mutations

Repair of Somatic Mutations

Sentinel Phenotypes for Somatic Mutation

Conclusion

References

Pesticidal, Industrial, Food Additive, and Drug Mutagens

Introduction

I. Pesticidal Mutagens

II. Industrial Mutagens

III. Food and Feed Additive and Naturally Occurring Mutagens

IV. Drug Mutagens

References

Mutagenicity of Biologicals

Text

Conclusion

References

Possible Relationships between Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis

Text

References

Interrelations between Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, and Teratogenicity

Text

Conclusion

References




Details

No. of pages:
212
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323160100

About the Author

H.E. Sutton