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Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants investigates the mutagenic consequences of environmental contaminants, such as pesticides, industrials, food additives, drugs, and biologicals, as well as the possible relationships between mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. It describes the monitoring of chemical mutagens in the environment and the ways that genetic mutations cause disease in humans.
Organized into 14 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the current burden of human genetic disease and the biochemical mechanisms of mutation. It then discusses practical and feasible methods that use a variety of organisms to screen potential mutagenic agents, increased mutation rates in human populations, mutagens that are currently used commercially, and the interrelationships between mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The reader is also introduced to genetic toxicology, detection of chemically induced mutations in experimental animals, and chromosome and somatic mutations in humans.
This book is a valuable resource for scientists, policymakers, and administrators of environmental programs.
Introduction: Genetic Toxicology
Gene Mutation as a Cause of Human Disease
The Molecular Basis of Mutation
The Genetic Material
Replication of Genetic Material
Utilization o f Genetic Information
The Nature of Mutations
Mechanisms o f Mutagenesis
The Effects o f Mutation on the Organism
Monitoring of Chemical Mutagens in our Environment
Problems in Testing for Mutagenic Activity
1. Comparative Mutagenesis
2. Evaluation of Results from Mutagenesis Testing
3. Weak Mutagenic Activity: A Major Problem Area
The Detection of Mutations with Non-Mammalian Systems
1. DNA Transformation
A Bacterial System for Detecting Mutagens and Carcinogens
Advantages of Using a Particular Set of Four Strains We Have Developed in Salmonella typhimurium
Frameshift Mutagens and Their Relation to Polycyclic Hydrocarbons
Agents That Have Been Shown to Be Mutagenic Using These Strains
Reasons Why a Compound That Is Mutagenic or Carcinogenic in Humans May Be Missed in a Bacterial Screen
Reasons That a Compound That Is Mutagenic for Bacteria May Not Be Mutagenic for Humans
The Need to Detect Chemically Induced Mutations in Experimental Animals
The Need to Use Mammalian Systems for Mutagenicity Testing
Animal (Mammalian) Test Systems
Impact of Mutagenicity Screening on Carcinogenicity Studies
Insensitivity of Animal Data
Definitive Animal Experiments — The Only Practical Means of Eliminating Mutagenic Agents
Chromosome Mutations in Man
Human Chromosomal Polymorphism
Characterizing Human Chromosomal Mutations
Monitoring Human Chromosomal Mutations
Detecting an Increase in Human Chromosomal Mutations
The Detection of Increased Mutation Rates in Human Populations
The Approaches to Monitoring Human Populations
1. The Use of Population Characteristics
2. The Use of Sentinel Phenotypes
3. The Use of Biochemical and/or Chromosomal Mutations
Some Problems in Monitoring for Mutations at the Chemical Level
1. Primarily Technical Questions
2. Primarily Theoretical Issues
Monitoring Somatic Mutations in Human Populations
The Frequency of Point Mutations
Somatic Point Mutations
Repair of Somatic Mutations
Sentinel Phenotypes for Somatic Mutation
Pesticidal, Industrial, Food Additive, and Drug Mutagens
I. Pesticidal Mutagens
II. Industrial Mutagens
III. Food and Feed Additive and Naturally Occurring Mutagens
IV. Drug Mutagens
Mutagenicity of Biologicals
Possible Relationships between Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis
Interrelations between Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, and Teratogenicity
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 1972
- 1st January 1972
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
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