Muscle and Meat Biochemistry

Muscle and Meat Biochemistry

1st Edition - August 28, 1989

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  • Editor: A.M. Pearson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149297

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Muscle and Meat Biochemistry teaches the different concepts and topics under the eponymous subject. The book covers the gross and detailed composition and structure of muscles and the relationship of the nervous system with the muscular system; muscle cell differentiation and growth; proteins of the thick filament; and the molecular structure and enzymatic activity of myosin. The text also discusses the proteins found in the thin filament - actin, troponin, and myosin; skeletal muscle growth; protein metabolism; and fiber types. The book also encompasses cardiac and smooth muscle; sarcoplasmic proteins; the connective tissues - collagen, elastin, and ground substance; and the postmortem changes during conversion of muscle to meat. The text is recommended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for scientists who would like to know more about muscle biology, muscle physiology, and meat science.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 Composition and Structure

    I. Introduction

    II. Gross Composition

    A. Water and Fat

    B. Proteins

    C. Carbohydrates

    D. Soluble Nonprotein Substances

    III. Detailed Composition

    A. Water

    B. Fat (Lipids)

    C. Carbohydrates

    D. Proteins

    E. Minerals and Vitamins

    IV. Gross Muscle Structure

    A. Types of Muscle

    B. Gross Appearance

    C. The Muscle Fiber

    D. Cross-Striation Pattern

    E. Ultrastructural Organization

    V. The Nervous System

    VI. Summary

    Literature Cited

    2 Muscle Cell Differentiation and Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Myogenic Cell Lineage

    III. Bipotential Cell Lineage Theory

    IV. Ultrastructure and Morphology of Myoplast Fusion Relationship between Presumptive Myoblast Proliferation and Myoblast Fusion

    V. Activation of Gene Programs Directly Involved in the Contractile System

    VI. Morphology of Development in the Embryo

    VII. Participation of Satellite Cells in Postnatal Muscle Growth and Muscle Regeneration

    Literature Cited

    3 Proteins of the Thick Filament

    I. Introduction

    II. Molecular Structure of Myosin

    A. Natural Subunit Composition of Myosin

    B. Proteolytic Subunits of Myosin

    III. Enzymatic Activit y of Myosin Mechanism of ATP Hydrolysis by Myosin

    IV. Arrangement of Myosin within the Thick Filament

    A. Structure of the M-Line

    B. C-Protein

    V. Purification of Myosin

    Appendix: Preparation of Myosin

    Literature Cited

    4 Proteins of the Thin Filament: Actin, Tropomyosin, and Troponin

    I. Actin

    A. Introduction

    B. Purification of Actin from Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle

    C. Physical and Chemical Properties of Actin

    D. Properties of F-Actin and Thin Filaments

    II. Tropomyosin

    A. Introduction

    B. Purification of Tropomyosin

    C. Physical and Chemical Properties of Tropomyosin

    III. Troponin

    A. Purification and Properties of Troponin Complex

    B. Troponin T

    C. Troponin I

    D. Troponin C

    IV. Summary: Model of Interaction of Actin, Troponin, and Tropomyosin

    Appendix A: Preparation of Actin Powder

    Appendix B: Preparation of Actin

    Appendix C: Preparation of Tropomyosin and Troponin Complex

    Literature Cited

    5 Cytoskeletal and Other Proteins of the Myofibrils

    I. Introduction

    II. Proteins Overlapping Both the A-Band and the I-Band

    A. Titin (Connectin)

    B. Gap Filaments

    C. γ-Actinin

    D. β-Actinin

    E. Paratropomyosni

    III. Proteins Localized in the A-Band

    A. M-Line Proteins

    B. Other Proteins of the A-Band

    IV. Proteins Localized in the I-Band

    A. Z-Line Proteins

    B. N-Line Proteins

    V. Summary

    Literature Cited

    6 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    I. Introduction

    II. Transmission of Nerve Impulses to Muscle Cells

    III. Organization and Structure of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    IV. Isolation and General Properties of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum from Skeletal Muscle

    A. Intrinsic Proteins of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    B. Extrinsic Proteins of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    C. Enzymatic Model of Ca2+ Transport

    Literature Cited

    7 Contraction and Rigor Mortis

    I. Introduction

    II. Force Generation versus Filament Overlap

    III. Cross-Bridge Movement Correlation between Cross-Bridge Movement and Biochemistry of Contraction

    IV. Nature of the Conformational Change in Myosin

    Literature Cited

    8 Skeletal Muscle Growth and Protein Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. General Principles of Muscle Growth

    III. General Characteristics of Protein Degradation in Muscle

    IV. Protein Synthesis and Degradation during Growth and Muscle Hypertrophy

    V. Methodological Problems Associated with Measurement of Protein Metabolism

    Literature Cited

    9 Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types

    I. Introduction

    II. Systems for Classifying Muscles

    A. Appearance of Muscles

    B. Physiological Behavior

    C. Biochemical Properties

    D. Histochemical Staining Procedures

    III. Systems for Classifying Muscle Fibers

    A. Red, White, and Intermediate Fibers

    B. Type I and II Fibers

    C. Type A, B, and C Fibers

    D. Romanul's Fiber Typing System

    E. Type I, IIA , and IIB Fibers

    F. α-Red, β-Red, and α-White System

    IV. Physical Appearance of Different Muscle Fiber Types

    A. Color

    B. Size of Muscle Fibers

    C. Blood Supply

    D. Numbers of Mitochondria

    E. Width of A-Line

    F. Amount of Sarcoplasmci Reticulum

    G. Innervation of Different Fiber Types

    V. Biochemical Traits of Different Fiber Types

    A. Calcium Content

    B. Myoglobin Content

    C. Glycogen Content

    D. ATP, Creatine Phosphate, and Their Metabolites

    E. Lipid Content

    F. Soluble Proteins in Low Ionic Strength Solution

    G. Connective Tissue Content

    H. Enzyme Activities

    I. Differences in Myofibrillar Proteins

    J. Effects of Innervation and Development

    VI. Summary

    Literature Cited

    10 Cardiac and Smooth Muscle

    I. Introduction

    II. Smooth Muscle

    A. Size and Appearance of Smooth Muscle Fibers

    B. Organization and Subcellular Arrangement of Smooth Muscle Cells

    C. Chemical and Physical Properties of Smooth Muscle

    D. Mechanism of Smooth Muscle Contraction

    III. Cardiac Muscle

    A. Appearance and Size of Cardiac Muscle Fibers

    B. Arrangement and Subcellular Organization of Cardiac Muscle Cells

    C. Chemical and Physical Properties of Cardiac Muscle

    D. Synthesis and Turnover of Myofibrillar Proteins in Cardiac Muscle

    E. Role of Catecholamines in Myocardial Function

    F. Mechanism of Stress-Induced Heart Disease

    IV. Summary

    Literature Cited

    11 Sarcoplasmic Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Fractionation of Sarcoplasmic Proteins

    III. Nuclear Fraction

    A. DNA

    B. RNA

    C. Lipoproteins

    IV. Mitochondrial Fraction

    A. Isolation

    B. Components of the Mitochondrial Fraction

    V. Microsomal Fraction

    A. Microsomes

    B. Ribosomes

    C. Sarcoplasmci Reticulum

    VI. Cytoplasmic Supernatant or Cytosolic Fraction

    A. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenes

    B. Citric Acid Cycle

    C. Other Cytosolic Enzymes

    D. Respiratory Pigments

    VII. Summary

    Literature Cited

    12 The Connective Tissues: Collagen, Elastin, and Ground Substance

    I. Introduction

    II. Classification and Major Components of Connective Tissues

    A. Classification of Connective Tissues

    B. Components in Connective Tissues

    III. Collagen

    A. Molecular Structure

    B. Turnover of Collagen

    IV . Elastic Fibers

    A. Microfibrillar Component

    B. Elastin

    V. Constituents of Ground Substance

    A. Glycosaminoglycans and Their Protein Complexes

    B. Fibronectins, Laminin, and Other Extracellular Glycoproteins

    VI. Summary

    Literature Cited

    13 Postmortem Changes during Conversion of Muscle to Meat

    I. Introduction

    II. Glycogen, High-Energy Phosphates, and Their Metabolites

    A. Glycogen

    B. Interconversion and Degradation of High-Energy Phosphates

    C. Enzymes Catalyzing ATP Hydrolysis in Muscle

    III . Postmortem Changes Occurring in Conversion of Muscle to Meat

    A. Physical Changes

    B. Chemical Changes

    C. Factors Influencing Postmortem Glycolysis

    D. Structural and Tension Changes during Development of Rigor Mortis

    IV . Some Conditions Occurring in Muscle/Meat

    A. Cold Shortening

    B. Thaw Rigor

    C. Aging of Meat

    D. Water Holding Capacity of Muscle

    E. Dark Cutting Beef

    F. Pale, Soft, and Exudative Pork

    G. Dark, Firm, and Dry Pork

    H. Porcine Stress Syndrome

    I. Double Muscling in Cattle

    V. Some Postmortem Processing Characteristics of Muscle Processing of Pre- versus Postrigor Muscle

    VI. Meat Flavor

    Desirable Meat Flavor

    VII. Summary

    Literature Cited


Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1989
  • Published: August 28, 1989
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149297

About the Editor

A.M. Pearson

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