Muscle 2-Volume Set

Muscle 2-Volume Set

Fundamental Biology and Mechanisms of Disease

1st Edition - July 18, 2012

Write a review

  • Editors: Joseph Hill, Eric Olson
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123815101
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123815118

Purchase options

Purchase options
In Stock
DRM-free (EPub, Mobi, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

A valuable study of the science behind the medicine, Muscle: Fundamental Biology and Mechanisms of Disease brings together key leaders in muscle biology. These experts provide state-of-the-art insights into the three forms of muscle--cardiac, skeletal, and smooth--from molecular anatomy, basic physiology, disease mechanisms, and targets of therapy. Commonalities and contrasts among these three tissue types are highlighted. This book focuses primarily on the biology of the myocyte.   Individuals active in muscle investigation--as well as those new to the field--will find this work useful, as will students of muscle biology. In the case of hte former, many wish to grasp issues at the margins of their own expertise (e.g. clinical matters at one end; molecular matters at the other), adn this book is designed to assist them. Students, postdoctoral fellows, course directors and other faculty will find this book of interest. Beyond this, many clinicians in training (e.g. cardiology fellows) will benefit.

Key Features

  • The only resource to focus on science before the clinical work and therapeutics
  • Tiered approach to subject: discussion first of normal muscle function through pathological/disease state changes, and ending each section with therapeutic interventions
  • Coverage of topics ranging from basic physiology to newly discovered molecular mechanisms of muscle diseases for all three muscle types: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth

Readership

The primary audience for this work is entry level and experienced researchers, practicing clinicians, postdocs, graduate students, and medical students across molecular and muscle medicine, developmental biology, molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, cardiology, translational medicine and biomedicine.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    Acknowledgments

    VOLUME 1

    Part I: Introduction

    Chapter 1. An Introduction to Muscle

    Cardiac Muscle

    Skeletal Muscle

    Smooth Muscle

    Common Molecular Mechanisms

    Summary

    Chapter 2. A History of Muscle

    Introduction

    Early Observations

    Animal Spirits and the Vital Force

    Electrical Activation

    Energy Utilization: Work and Heat

    Energy Production: Metabolism

    Contractile Proteins

    The Sliding-Filament Hypothesis

    Calcium, Excitation–Contraction Coupling, Relaxation

    Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Part II: Cardiac Muscle

    Section A: Basic Physiology

    Chapter 3. Cardiac Myocyte Specification and Differentiation

    Early Fate Decisions in Commitment of Mesoderm to the Cardiac Muscle Lineage

    Cardiac Progenitors Arise from Two Molecularly Distinct “Heart Fields”

    Differentiation of Cardiac Progenitors into Functional Myocytes

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 4. Transcriptional Control of Cardiogenesis

    Overview of Transcription Factors Necessary for Heart Development

    Transcriptional Regulation of Cardiac Morphogenesis

    Transcriptional Regulation of Cardiac Conduction System Development

    Transcriptional Regulation of Cardiomyocyte Proliferation

    Summary and Perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 5. Cardiomyocyte Ultrastructure

    Introduction

    Myocyte Architecture

    Non-Myocyte Tissue Compartment

    Regional Variation in Structure

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 6. Overview of Cardiac Muscle Physiology

    Introduction

    The Cardiac Pump

    Regulation of the Cardiac Pump

    Basis for the Cardiac Output Changes During Exercise

    Bibliography

    Chapter 7. Ionic Fluxes and Genesis of the Cardiac Action Potential

    Ionic Flux in Cardiomyocytes

    Membrane Transporters

    Action Potential Genesis

    Action Potential Propagation – Electrical Communication

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 8. G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in the Heart

    Introduction

    Overview of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Cardiac G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    The Future of GPCR Drug Targeting

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 9. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Cardiac Muscle

    Overview of RTK Biology

    RTK Expression and Function in Cardiac Myocytes

    RTK Transactivation by GPCR

    Conclusion: Toward Integrative Signaling Approaches

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10. Communication in the Heart: Cardiokines as Mediators of a Molecular Social Network

    Cardiokines and the Molecular Social Network of Cell Communication

    Mechanisms of Secretory Protein Synthesis, Processing, and Secretion

    ANP, The Archetype Cardiokine

    Novel Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling Proteins in the Heart

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 11. Calcium Fluxes and Homeostasis

    Introduction

    Intracellular and Extracellular Ca2+ Concentrations During Diastole

    Surface Membrane Ca2+ Efflux Mechanisms

    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) Ca2+ Storage and Release

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ Regulation

    Ca2+, Mitochondria, Cell Death, and Contractile Dysfunction

    Ca2+ and Transcriptional Regulation and Hypertrophy

    Ca2+/CaM-CAMKII-HDAC Pathway

    Ca2+-CaM-Calcineurin-NFAT Pathway

    Ca2+ Flux Balance is Ca2+ Homeostasis

    Physiological Regulation of Ca2+ to Control Cardiac Contractility

    Dysregulated Ca2+ and Cardiac Dysfunction in Heart Disease

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 12. Excitation–Contraction Coupling in the Heart

    Introduction

    Excitation at the Sarcolemma

    Ca2+ Release from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum – Myocyte Contraction

    Cardiomyocyte Relaxation

    The RyR2 Macromolecular Complex and its Regulation

    Regulation of EC Coupling by β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 13. Role of Sarcomeres in Cellular Tension, Shortening, and Signaling in Cardiac Muscle

    Introduction

    Cardiac Sarcomeres Have Distinct Structures and Functions

    State Changes in Cardiac Sarcomeres and the Heart Beat

    Control of Contractility at the Level of Sarcomeric Proteins

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 14. Cardiovascular Mechanotransduction

    Introduction

    Acute Physiological Adaptations to Mechanical Stress

    Overview and Localization of Mechanosensitive Structures

    Mechanotransduction Initiated at the Sarcomere

    Fibroblast–Cardiomyocyte Crosstalk

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 15. Cardiomyocyte Metabolism: All Is in Flux

    Fuel Metabolism in Perspective

    Mitochondria and the Dynamics of Metabolism in the Heart

    The Highways of Energy Transfer

    Tracing Metabolic Pathways ex vivo and in vivo

    Genetic Models for the Elucidation of Cardiac Metabolism

    Major Energy-Providing Substrates

    Metabolic Remodeling

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 16. Transcriptional Control of Striated Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function

    General Overview of Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis

    Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitry Involved in Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitry Orchestrating Mitochondrial Biogenesis: The PGC-1 Coactivators

    Defining the Requisite Role of Transcriptional Regulatory Factors in Striated Muscle Mitochondrial Biology and Physiology: Lessons from Gene-Targeted Mice

    Implications for Myocardial Disease

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 17. Mitochondrial Morphology and Function

    Relationships with Other Cellular Structures

    Mitochondrial Compartments

    Mitochondrial Shape and Tethering to the SR: Molecular Determinants

    Energy-Linked Functions

    Mitochondrial Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

    The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 18. Genetics and Genomics in Cardiovascular Gene Discovery

    What is the Genetic Paradigm and Why is Genomics Indispensible?

    The Structure and Conservation of the Human Genome

    The Functions Encoded in the Human Genome

    The Nature of Sequence Variation in Man: From Individual Genes to Whole Genomes

    Mapping a Disease Locus by Linkage, Association, and Dosage Variants

    Cardiovascular Genetics and Genomics: A Status Report Using Key Examples

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 19. Cardiovascular Proteomics: Assessment of Protein Post-Translational Modifications

    Introduction

    Technical Heart of Proteomics: Analytical Separation, Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatics

    Tackling the Subproteomes

    Site-Specific Quantification of Protein PTMs by MRM

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Section B: Adaptations and Response

    Chapter 20. Adaption and Responses: Myocardial Innervations and Neural Control

    Introduction

    Regulation of Brainstem Autonomic Function

    Myocardial Innervations from Brainstem to Organ: Efferent Parasympathetic Innervation

    Myocardial Innervations from Brainstem to Organ: Efferent Sympathetic Innervation

    Myocardial Innervations: Cardiac Afferent Innervation

    Integration of Sympatho-Vagal Balance at the Level of the Myocyte

    Cardiac Autonomic Control and Cardiovascular Disease

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 21. Regulation of Cardiac Systolic Function and Contractility

    Introduction: What is Contractility?

    Measuring Systole

    Control of Systole by Altered Loading

    Control of Systole by Heart Rate

    Post-Translational Regulation of Myofilament Proteins

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 22. Intracellular Signaling Pathways in Cardiac Remodeling

    Concept of Physiological and Pathological Remodeling in Heart

    Intracellular Signaling Pathways in Physiological Remodeling (Figure 22.2)

    Intracellular Signaling Pathways in Pathological Remodeling

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 23. Oxidative Stress and Cardiac Muscle

    Definition and Intracellular Dynamics of ROS

    Physiological Function of ROS

    The Role of Oxidative Stress in Mediating Cardiac Diseases and Aging

    The Role of Reductive Stress in Mediating Cardiac Diseases

    The Role of S-Nitrosylation and Nitrosative Stress in Mediating Cardiac Disease

    Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 24. Physiologic and Molecular Responses of the Heart to Chronic Exercise

    Physiologic Accommodations to Chronic Exercise

    Can Physiologic Cardiac Adaptation Lead To Cardiac Pathology?

    Molecular Remodeling in Physiologic Hypertrophy

    Gene Expression

    Myocardial Energetics and Mitochondrial Function

    Nodal Signaling Pathways

    Role of Non-Cardiocyte (Paracrine) Signaling Mechanisms

    Future Directions/Therapeutic Targets

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 25. Epigenetics in Cardiovascular Biology

    Introduction to Epigenetics

    Epigenetics and Heart Development

    Epigenetic Modifications in Cardiovascular Disease

    Present and Future Prospects for Epigenetic Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 26. Cardiac MicroRNAs

    Introduction

    MiRNA Biogenesis

    miRNA Function in the Heart

    MiRNA Dysregulation during Cardiac Disease

    Therapeutic Regulation miRNAs

    Plasma Detection of miRNAs as Novel Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease

    Concluding Remarks

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 27. Protein Quality Control in Cardiomyocytes

    Introduction

    Chaperones in PQC

    The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    ER-Associated PQC and Cardiac Dysfunction

    PQC Inadequacy in Cardiac Remodeling and Failure

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 28. Cardioprotection

    Mechanisms of Muscle Injury and Cell Death

    Cardioprotection Induced by Preconditioning and Postconditioning

    Cardioprotective Agents and Strategies

    Central Role of Mitochondria in Myocardial Cell Survival

    Translation to the Clinic

    Summary and Future Directions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 29. Cardiac Fibrosis: Cellular and Molecular Determinants

    Introduction

    The Role of Cardiac Fibroblasts in the Myocardium

    The Origin of Cardiac Fibroblasts

    Development of Fibrosis

    Clinical Manifestations of Cardiac Fibrosis

    Treatment of Cardiac Fibrosis

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 30. Autophagy in Cardiac Physiology and Disease

    Cardiac Growth and Plasticity

    Autophagy: Cellular Cannibalization

    Molecular Anatomy of Autophagy

    Pathways Governing Autophagy

    Functional Consequences of Autophagic Flux in the Heart

    Autophagy in Human Cardiovascular Disease

    Cardiac Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target

    Summary and Perspective

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 31. Programmed Cardiomyocyte Death in Heart Disease

    Introduction: The Role of Programmed Cell Death in Health and Disease

    Different Mechanisms of Programmed Cell Death in the Heart

    Programmed Cell Death in Heart Disease

    Genetic and Pharmacological Inhibition of Programmed Cardiomyocyte Death

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 32. Wnt and Notch: Potent Regulators of Cardiomyocyte Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Introduction

    Cardiac Development: Contribution of Multiple Cell Lineages

    Wnt Signaling in Cardiogenesis

    Notch Signaling in Cardiogenesis

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Section C: Myocardial Disease

    Chapter 33. Congenital Cardiomyopathies

    Normal Muscle Structure and Function

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy

    Left Ventricular Noncompaction

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 34. Genetics of Congenital Heart Disease

    Introduction

    T-Box Transcription Factors and Associated Factors: NKX2.5, GATA4, MYH6

    Neural Crest Cells and Laterality: TFAP2B, CITED2, ZIC3

    Cardiac Outflow Tract Development: Notch Signaling Pathway

    Other Genetic Syndromes Caused by Single Gene Defects

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 35. Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Introduction

    Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Biomechanical Stress Signaling and Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    Inhibition of Hypertrophy as a Therapeutic Concept

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 36. Ischemic Heart Disease

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology of Myocardial Ischemia

    Myocardial Infarction

    Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 37. The Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

    Introduction and Definitions

    Symptoms of Heart Failure

    Signs and Radiographic Features of Heart Failure

    The Initial Deleterious Event

    Neurohormonal Responses to the Initial Deleterious Event

    Pathological Left Ventricular Remodeling

    Hemodynamic Alterations in Heart Failure

    Current Therapy of Heart Failure and Relationship to Pathophysiology

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 38. The Right Ventricle: Reemergence of the Forgotten Ventricle

    Formation and Structure of the Right Ventricle

    The Right Ventricle in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Adaptive Versus Maladaptive RVH

    Sympathetic Activation in PH

    Right Ventricular Metabolism in RVH

    Diseases of the Right Ventricle

    Right Ventricular Infarction

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 39. Mammalian Myocardial Regeneration

    Normal Myocardial Growth and Cell Cycle Activity

    The Extent of Endogenous Myocardial Regeneration (Table 39.1)

    Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    Proliferation of Differentiated Cardiomyocytes

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 40. The Structural Basis of Arrhythmia

    Introduction

    Anatomy of the Cardiac Conduction System

    Structural Basis for Bradyarrhythmias

    Structural Basis of Tachyarrhythmias

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 41. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Brief Review of Cardiac Cellular and Tissue Electrophysiology

    Abnormalities of Impulse Generation

    Abnormalities of Impulse Propagation

    Cardiac Remodeling

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 42. Genetic Mechanisms of Arrhythmia

    Introduction

    The Genetics of Mendelian Arrhythmogenic Disorders

    Specific Molecular Mechanisms in Inherited Arrhythmias

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 43. Infiltrative and Protein Misfolding Myocardial Diseases

    Introduction

    Protein Misfolding in Cardiac Disease

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Manifestations

    Diagnosis

    Myofibrillar Cardiomyopathies

    Amyloid Cardiomyopathies

    Therapy and Management

    Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 44. Cardiac Aging: From Humans to Molecules

    Introduction

    Macroscopic Structural and Functional Changes

    Microscopic Structural and Functional Changes in Isolated Cardiac Muscle and Cell-Culture Systems

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 45. Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms in Heart Failure

    Adrenergic Receptor Control of Ventricular Function

    Relevance of Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms

    Cardiac Function in Genetically Altered Mice

    Human Studies

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 46. Cardiac Gene Therapy

    Introduction

    Gene Delivery

    Targets

    Clinical Trials

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 47. Protein Kinases in the Heart: Lessons Learned from Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

    Introduction and Background

    Her2/Erb-B2

    Angiogenesis Inhibitors Targeting VEGF/VEGFRs and PDGFRs

    PDGFR

    Targeting The PI3-K Pathway

    Applications of Kinase Inhibitors to Treat Cardiac Disease – The Other Side of the Coin

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 48. Cell Therapy for Cardiac Disease

    Introduction

    Potential Cell Sources

    Mechanisms of Action for Cell-Based Therapies

    Selected Cell Therapy Clinical Trials

    Future Directions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 49. Chemical Genetics of Cardiac Regeneration

    Introduction

    Small-Molecules and Stem Cells: Perfect Partners in an Imperfect World

    In Vitro Biological Systems for Cardiac Differentiation

    Physiological Screening

    Ex Vivo Applications

    Targeting The Niche In Vivo

    Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 50. Device Therapy for Systolic Ventricular Failure

    Introduction

    Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Heart Failure

    Ventricular Dyssynchrony and Heart Failure

    Mechanically Assisted Heart Failure: Cellular and Molecular Observations on Reverse Remodeling

    The Future: Bridging the Clinical Observations With the Current Understanding of Myocardial Reverse Remodeling

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 51. Novel Therapeutic Targets and Strategies against Myocardial Diseases

    Introduction

    G-CSF Therapy for Treatment of Myocardial Infarction

    The Role of Tumor-Suppressor Gene Products in Myocardial Pathologies

    REFERENCES

    VOLUME 2

    Part III: Skeletal Muscle

    Section A: Basic Physiology

    Chapter 52. Skeletal Muscle Development

    Introduction

    Trunk and Limb Muscles

    Head Muscles

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 53. Skeletal Muscle: Architecture of Membrane Systems

    The Membrane Systems Involved in Calcium Cycling

    Mitochondria

    Golgi and Associated Organelles

    Pathology of Myofibrils and Membrane Systems

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 54. The Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction

    The Structure of the Junction

    The Ultrastructure of the Junction

    Clustering of AChR at the Synapse

    A Modification to the Agrin Hypothesis: Muscle Pre-Patterning of Receptors

    Retrograde Signaling

    Structural Biology of the Nerve Terminal Via Electron Microscopy

    The Life History of the Neuromuscular Junction

    Specificity of Muscle Innervation

    Muscle Plasticity Mediated by the NMJ

    Some Issues in the Development of Motor Units

    The Role of Synaptic Glia

    Schwann Cells Play a Role in Repair of Muscle Innervation after Nerve Damage

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 55. Neuromechanical Interactions that Control Muscle Function and Adaptation

    Impact of Motor Unit Organization on Muscle Function

    Control of Muscle Fiber Diameter and Length

    Integration of Active and Passive Elements of Neuromuscular Components, In Vivo

    Links Between Neuromechanical and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Muscle Protein Homeostasis

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 56. Control of Resting Ca Concentration in Skeletal Muscle

    Introduction

    Mechanisms for Ca2+ Removal from the Myoplasm of Muscle Cells

    Mechanisms for Ca2+ Entry into the Myoplasm in Skeletal Muscle

    Methods for Measurements Resting [Ca2+]I in Muscle Cells

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 57. Skeletal Muscle Excitation–Contraction Coupling

    Overview of Steps in Skeletal Muscle Excitation–Contraction Coupling

    The Muscle Fiber Action Potential Activates Force Production

    A Rise in Myoplasmic [Ca2+] Links Fiber Depolarization to Force Activation

    During Steady Experimental Depolarization, Maximum Force Increases Over a Narrow Voltage Range

    Large Depolarizations Activate Force Within Milliseconds

    Biophysical Characterization of the TT Voltage Sensors

    Ca2+ Release Flux from the SR Exhibits an Early Peak and Rapid Inactivation During Depolarization

    Molecular Components for T-Tubule Membrane Potential Control of SR Ca2+ Release

    The Dihydropyridine Receptor is the Skeletal Muscle TT Voltage Sensor for EC Coupling

    The Ryanodine Receptor is the SR Calcium Release Channel

    SR Calcium Release Channels can be Studied Directly in Fragmented Systems, but Generally Lack the TT Voltage Sensor

    Physiological Mechanism for Activation of the SR Calcium Release Channels in Muscle Fibers

    Unitary Ca2+ Release Events: Ca2+ Sparks

    Calcium Dependent Contractile Filament Activation

    Relaxation

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 58. The Contractile Machinery of Skeletal Muscle

    Sarcomeres are Repeating Units of the Myofibrils

    Bands and Filaments

    Thin Filament Regulation of Muscle Contraction

    The Scaffolding Proteins Give Stability and Elasticity to the Sarcomere

    The Z-Line is Involved in Signaling

    Faults in the Cross-Striation Alignment

    Z-Line Defects in Pathology

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 59. Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Muscle Metabolism During the Absorptive State

    Muscle Metabolism During Fasting

    Muscle Metabolism During Exercise

    Muscle Insulin Resistance

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 60. Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types

    Diversity of Muscles, Motor Units, and Muscle Fiber Types

    Muscle Fiber Types During Development and Aging

    Molecular and Functional Differences Among Muscle Fiber Types

    Signaling Pathways Involved in Fiber Type Specification and Remodeling

    REFERENCES

    Section B: Adaptations and Response

    Chapter 61. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Development and Function by microRNAs

    microRNA Biogenesis and Function

    Skeletal Muscle Without miRNAs

    Skeletal Muscle-Specific miRNAs

    miR-206 in Skeletal Muscle Function and Disease

    miR-1 in Skeletal Muscle Development, Function and Disease

    miR-133a in Skeletal Muscle Biology

    MyomiRs and Myofiber Type Specification

    Other miRNAs in Skeletal Muscle Biology

    Therapeutic Implications of miRNAs in Skeletal Muscle Disorders

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 62. Musculoskeletal Tissue Injury and Repair: Role of Stem Cells, Their Differentiation, and Paracrine Effects

    Pathophysiology of Skeletal Muscle Injury

    Muscle Stem Cell-Mediated Skeletal Muscle Repair

    Muscle Stem Cell-Mediated Cardiac Repair

    Muscle Stem Cell-Mediated Bone Repair

    Muscle Stem Cell-Mediated Cartilage Repair

    Muscle Stem Cell Differentiation into Host Tissue is not a Major Determinant of Success of Repair

    Conclusions

    Future Directions in Stem Cell Therapy

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 63. Immunological Responses to Muscle Injury

    General Characteristics of the Inflammatory Response to Acute Muscle Injury

    The Th1 Inflammatory Response in Injured Skeletal Muscle

    The Th2 Inflammatory Response in Injured Skeletal Muscle

    Inflammatory Cell-Derived Cytokines Have Direct Effects on Muscle Growth and Regeneration

    Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 64. Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Exercise

    Specificity of Signaling

    Adaptation of Skeletal Muscle to Resistance Exercise

    Adaptation to Endurance Exercise

    Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 65. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Introduction

    Requirement of Satellite Cells in Regeneration

    Signaling Pathways in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Contribution to Muscle Regeneration by Other Stem Cells

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 66. Skeletal Muscle Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex and Muscular Dystrophy

    Introduction

    The Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex in Skeletal Muscle

    Dystroglycan: Post-Translational Processing and Function

    Sarcoglycan-Sarcospan Subcomplex

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Disruption of the Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex

    Sarcoglycan-Deficient Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    Dystroglycanopathies: Limb-Girdle to Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    The Mechanistic Basis of Maintaining Muscle Membrane Integrity

    REFERENCES

    Section C: Skeletal Muscle Disease

    Chapter 67. Statin-Induced Muscle Toxicity: Clinical and Genetic Determinants of Risk

    Clinical Aspects

    Pharmacokinetic Factors

    Pharmacodynamic Factors

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 68. Myotonic Dystrophy

    Genetics and Mechanism of Repeat Expansion

    Skeletal Muscle in DM1

    Skeletal Muscle in DM2

    Cardiac Muscle in DM1

    Cardiac Muscle in DM2

    Pathophysiology of DM

    Therapeutic Implications

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 69. Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: Unraveling the Mysteries of a Complex Epigenetic Disease

    Clinical and Histological Features

    Genetic Features

    Epigenetic Features

    Candidate Genes and Affected Pathways

    Therapeutic Strategies

    Outlook and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 70. ECM-Related Myopathies and Muscular Dystrophies

    Introduction

    Myopathies of the ECM

    Disorders of the Reticular Lamina and Beyond

    Other Skeletal Dysplasias

    Summary

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 71. Molecular Pathogenesis of Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Marfan Syndrome

    Introduction

    Increased Activity of TGF-β Signaling in Marfan Syndrome

    Functional Role of TGF-β Signaling in Skeletal Muscle

    TGF-β Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Marfan Syndrome (5)

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 72. Diseases of the Nucleoskeleton

    Introduction

    Structure and Function of the Nucleoskeleton

    Diseases Linked to Defects of the Nucleoskeleton

    Pathophysiological Mechanisms?

    Conclusions and Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 73. Channelopathies of Skeletal Muscle Excitability

    Clinical Phenotypes from Channel Mutations that Alter Sarcolemmal Excitability

    Chloride Channel Loss-of-Function Defects Cause Myotonia

    Sodium Channel Gain-of-Function Mutations Cause Myotonia Or Periodic Paralysis

    Leaky Mutant Sodium Channels Cause Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

    Calcium Channel Mutations in Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

    Inward Rectifier Potassium Channel Loss-of-Function Defects in the Andersen–Tawil Syndrome and Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 74. Thick and Thin Filament Proteins: Acquired and Hereditary Sarcomeric Protein Diseases

    Introduction

    Altered Myosin and Actin Protein Expression

    Hereditary Thick and Thin Filament Protein Myopathies

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 75. Metabolic and Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Muscle Fat Metabolism and Disorders (Figure 75.1)

    Muscle Carbohydrate Metabolism and Disorders (Figure 75.2)

    Mitochondrial Myopathies

    REFERENCES

    Section D: Therapeutics

    Chapter 76. Gene Therapy of Skeletal Muscle Disorders Using Viral Vectors

    Introduction

    Gene Therapy Vectors and Skeletal Muscle Transduction

    Gene Therapy of the Muscular Dystrophies

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 77. Cell-Based Therapies in Skeletal Muscle Disease

    Therapeutic Strategies for Muscular Dystrophies

    Cell Candidates

    Genetic Manipulation for Autologous Cell Therapy

    Clinical Trials

    Conclusion

    Aknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 78. Immunological Components of Genetically Inherited Muscular Dystrophies: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2B

    Introduction

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2B

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 79. Myostatin: Regulation, Function, and Therapeutic Applications

    Discovery of Myostatin and its Biological Function as a Negative Regulator of Muscle Mass

    Regulation of MSTN Extracellularly by Binding Proteins

    Development of MSTN Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutic Agents

    Physiological Effects of Targeting MSTN Signaling in Normal and Disease Settings

    Conclusions and Speculation

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 80. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Regulation and Its Actions in Skeletal Muscle Growth and Repair

    Introduction

    IGF-I Activity and its Regulation

    Regulation of IGF-I Production and Activity

    Alternative Splicing

    Potential Functions of IGF-I E-Peptides

    IGF-I Processing

    Targets for Therapy

    Risks of IGF-I for Therapy

    Current and Emerging Strategies for Therapy

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 81. Novel Targets and Approaches to Treating Skeletal Muscle Disease

    Introduction

    Disease Targets

    Resealing Muscle Membrane Disruption

    Stimulating Muscle Growth

    Inflammation and Fibrosis

    Calcium and Mitochondrial Dysregulation in Muscle Disease

    Gene Correction Strategies

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Part IV: Smooth Muscle

    Section A: Basic Physiology

    Chapter 82. Development of the Smooth Muscle Cell Lineage

    Diversity of the Smooth Muscle Cell Lineage(s)

    SMC Progenitors and Stem Cells

    Embryologic Origins of Smooth Muscle Cell Lineage

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 83. Smooth Muscle Myocyte Ultrastructure and Contractility

    Introduction

    The Contractile Apparatus

    The Myosin Motor

    Myosin Filaments

    Contractile Regulation

    Actin

    Mechanics and Energetics of Contraction

    Architecture and Function of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    Mitochondria

    Surface Vesicles

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 84. Potassium, Sodium, and Chloride Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells

    Introduction

    Potassium Channels

    Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels

    Chloride Channels

    Perspectives

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 85. G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Smooth Muscle

    Introduction

    G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Involved in the Regulation of Smooth Muscle Cell Function

    Pharmacological Regulation of Smooth Muscle Function Through GPCRs

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 86. Calcium Homeostasis and Signaling in Smooth Muscle

    Introduction

    Sources of Ca2+ in Smooth Muscle Cells

    Ca2+ Clearance Systems

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 87. Regulation of Smooth Muscle Contraction

    Types of Contractile Stimulation

    Contractile Signaling Pathways by Target

    Organization of Signaling Pathways

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Section B: Heterogeneities

    Chapter 88. Heterogeneity of Smooth Muscle

    Introduction

    Smooth Muscle

    Smooth Muscle-Like Cells

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 89. Microcirculation

    Introduction

    Architecture of the Microcirculation

    Arterioles and Arteriolar Smooth Muscle

    Capillaries and Pericytes

    Venules

    Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 90. Uterine Smooth Muscle

    Excitation–Contraction Coupling in the Myometrium

    Effects of Female Hormones on the Myometrium

    Parturition

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Section C: Adaptations and Response

    Chapter 91. Oxidative Stress, Endothelial Dysfunction, and Its Impact on Smooth Muscle Signaling

    Introduction

    The L-Arginine/No/cGMP Pathway in Vascular Tissue

    Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction

    Endothelial Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Vascular Superoxide Sources

    Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species on the Activity and Expression of the sGC and the cGK-I

    Oxidative Stress and Consequences for the Activity and Expression of the cGMP-Dependent Kinase I

    Endothelial Function and Prognosis

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 92. Hemodynamic Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function

    Introduction

    Mechanical Forces in Vessel Physiology

    Mechanosensitive Gene Expression Networks in VSMC

    Mechanotransducers in VSMC

    Recapitulation of Vascular Developmental Signaling

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 93. Myogenic Tone and Mechanotransduction

    Myogenic Tone and Mechanotransduction

    The Myogenic Response in Microcirculatory Control

    The Underlying Mechanism(s)

    Future Considerations

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 94. Cell–Cell Communication Through Gap Junctions

    Coordination of Organ Function

    Gap Junctions are Clusters of Intercellular Channels Formed by Connexins

    Functional Aspects of Gap Junctional Coupling In Smooth Muscle In Specific Organs

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 95. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Adaptation

    Normal Differentiated Phenotype of VSMC

    Effectors of the Normal VSMC Differentiation Program

    Conditions of VSMC Phenotypic Adaptation

    Perspective

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 96. Molecular Pathways of Smooth Muscle Disease

    Introduction

    Migration

    Proliferation

    Inflammation

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Section D: Smooth Muscle Disease

    Chapter 97. Genetic Variants in Smooth Muscle Contraction and Adhesion Genes Cause Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections and Other Vascular Diseases

    Introduction

    Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Mutations in Genes for SMC Contraction Proteins Cause Familial Thoracic Aortic Disease

    Genetic Variants Contributing to Sporadic Thoracic Aortic Disease Disrupt Smooth Muscle Cell Contraction and Adhesion

    ACTA2 Mutations Cause Occlusive Vascular Diseases in Addition to FTAAD

    Syndrome of Global Smooth Muscle Dysfunction Due to a De Novo ACTA2 Mutation

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 98. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Remodeling in Atherosclerosis and Restenosis

    Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Vascular Remodeling

    The Role of VSMC in Atheroma Evolution and Complications

    Role of Adult Progenitor Cells in VSMC Remodeling During Atherosclerosis

    Role of Genetics in VSMC Remodeling Leading to Atherosclerosis

    Future Directions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 99. Arterial Hypertension

    Introduction

    Vascular Smooth Muscle and Vascular Functional Changes in Hypertension

    Vascular Smooth Muscle and Vascular Structural Changes in Hypertension

    Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Vascular Remodeling

    Vascular Smooth Muscle, Endothelial Function, and Hypertension-Associated Vascular Changes

    Vascular Smooth Muscle, Inflammation, and Vascular Remodeling in Hypertension

    Vascular Aging, Remodeling, and Hypertension

    Vascular Calcification

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 100. Diabetic Vascular Disease

    Introduction

    Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes

    The Role of Hyperglycemia in Endothelial Dysfunction

    The Role of Hyperinsulinemia in Endothelial Dysfunction

    The Role of the RAAS in Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes

    The Role of Oxidative Stress in Diabetes-Related Endothelial Dysfunction

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 101. Vascular Mechanisms of Hypertension in the Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia

    Preeclampsia

    Placentation and the Origin of Preeclampsia

    Placental Ischemia and Hypoxia

    Endothelial Dysfunction in Preeclampsia

    Potential Therapies for the Treatment of Preeclampsia

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 102. Erectile Dysfunction

    Erectile Dysfunction is An Important Medical Condition

    The Role of Smooth Muscle in Erectile Physiology

    Maintenance of the Flaccid State

    Initiation of An Erection

    Biochemical Mechanisms Regulating Corporal Smooth Muscle Tone

    The BK Channel Indirectly Blocks the L-Type Calcium Channel and is a Target For Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

    Calcium Sensitization of Smooth Muscle Cells

    Regulation of Corporal Smooth Muscle Tone Through Changes in Myosin Isoform Expression

    The Role of Androgens in Erectile Function

    Mechanisms Underlying Priapism

    Conclusion: Is it Easy to Treat Erectile Dysfunction?

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 103. Smooth Muscle in the Normal and Diseased Pulmonary Circulation

    Introduction: Pulmonary Versus Systemic Circulations

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Animal Models of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Origins of Pulmonary Smc in Development and in Pulmonary Hypertensive Vascular Remodeling

    Phenotypic and Functional Heterogeneity of PA-SMCs

    Mechanisms Involved in Control of SMC (Or SM-Like Cell) Phenotype in Pulmonary Vascular Disease

    Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 104. Airway Smooth Muscle and Asthma

    Structure and Function of Airway Smooth Muscle

    Excitation–Contraction Coupling and its Modulation in Asthma

    Mechanical Adaptation of Airway Smooth Muscle

    Molecular Mechanisms for Mechanical Adaptation of Airway Smooth Muscle

    Regulation of Airway Smooth Muscle Function By Adhesion Complex Proteins

    Summary and Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 105. Aging

    Introduction

    Age-Related Modifications of Arterial Wall

    Morphological and Functional Modifications of Aging SMCs

    Modulation of Signaling Pathways in Aged SMC

    Age-Related Accumulation of Advanced Glycosylation End Products in the Vessel Wall

    Conclusions

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 106. Vascular Calcification

    Clinical Significance

    Clinical Interactions Between Vascular and Bone Therapies

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 107. Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells: A Novel Target for the Treatment of Vascular Disease?

    Introduction

    The SPC Controversy

    SPCs in Vascular Diseases

    Molecular Mechanisms of Intimal SPC Accumulation

    Therapeutic Options of Targeting SPCs

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 108. Smooth Muscle: Novel Targets and Therapeutic Approaches

    Introduction

    Novel Approaches to Therapeutic Targeting of Smooth Muscle Tissues

    Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1528
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: July 18, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123815101
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123815118

About the Editors

Joseph Hill

Joseph Hill
Dr. Hill is a cardiologist-scientist whose research strives to decipher mechanisms of structural, functional, and electrical remodeling of the heart. He earned M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Duke University, conducted postdoctoral scientific training with Jean-Pierre Changeux at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, and pursued clinical training in Internal Medicine and Cardiology at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School. Dr. Hill served on faculty at the University of Iowa for 5 years before moving in 2002 to UT Southwestern as Chief of Cardiology and Director of the Harry S. Moss Heart Center. Dr. Hill's honors include election to the Association of University Cardiologists and the Association of American Physicians. Dr. Hill maintains an active clinical practice focusing on general cardiology, hypertension, and heart failure.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Internal Medicine and Molecular Biology; James T. Willerson, M.D. Distinguished Chair in Cardiovascular Diseases; Frank M. Ryburn, Jr., Chair in Heart Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Eric Olson

Dr. Olson has dedicated his career to deciphering mechanisms that control muscle gene regulation and development. He received B.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Wake Forest University. After postdoctoral training with Luis Glaser at Washington University School of Medicine, he joined the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in 1984 and became Professor and Chairman in 1991. In 1995, he founded the Department of Molecular Biology at UT Southwestern. Dr. Olson has received numerous prestigious awards and honors. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and its Institute of Medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Molecular Biology; Robert A. Welch Distinguished Chair; Annie and Willie Nelson Professor; Pogue Distinguished Chair in Research on Cardiac Birth Defects, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Muscle 2-Volume Set"