Multimedia Communications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122821608, 9780080512242

Multimedia Communications

1st Edition

Directions and Innovations

Editors: Jerry Gibson
Hardcover ISBN: 9780122821608
eBook ISBN: 9780080512242
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 19th October 2000
Page Count: 318
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Table of Contents

Preface xv List of Contributors xvii Chapter 1:ÊÊMultimedia Communications: Source Representations, Networks, and Applications 1 Jerry D. Gibson 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Networks and Network Services 3 1.3 Multimedia Sources 6 1.4 Source and Destination Terminals 8 1.5 Applications of Multimedia Communications Networks 9 1.5.1 Video Streaming to Multiple Users 10 1.5.2 Videoconferencing 11 1.6 Conclusions 12 1.7 For Further Reading 12 Chapter 2:ÊÊFuture Telecommunication Networks: Traffic and Technologies 13 Leonid G. Kazovsky, Giok-Djan Khoe, and M. Oskar van Deventer 2.1 Key Technologies 14 2.2 Impact of Competition 16 2.3 Four Traffic Hypotheses 17 2.3.1 Hypothesis 1: Conventional Growth 17 2.3.2 Hypothesis 2: The Internet Age 18 2.3.3 Hypotheses 3 and 4: The Digital Video Age 18 2.3.4 HDTV in the United States 20 2.3.5 Traffic Attributes 20 2.4 Synergy: Future Projections 21 2.5 Summary and Conclusions 22 2.6 Bibliography 22 Chapter 3:ÊÊSpeech Coding Standards 25 Andreas S. Spanias Abstract 25 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 Speech Analysis-Synthesis and Linear Prediction 27 3.2.1 Long-Term Prediction (LTP) 29 3.3 Linear Prediction and Speech Coding Standards 29 3.3.1 Open-Loop Linear Prediction 29 3.3.2 Standards Based on Analysis-by-Synthesis Linear Prediction 32 3.4 Standards Based on Subband and Transform Coders 39 3.4.1 The ITU G.722 Subband Coder 39 3.4.2 Sinusoidal Transform Coding 40 3.4.3 The Multiband Excitation Coder and the Inmarsat-M Standard 40 3.5 Summary and Emerging Standards 41 3.6 References 42 Chapter 4:ÊÊAudio Coding Standards 45 Chi-Min Liu and Wen-Whei Chang 4.1 Introduction 45 4.2 ISO/MPEG Audio Coding Standards 45 4.2.1 MPEG-1 46 4.2.2 MPEG-2 48 4.2.3 MPEG-4 49 4.3 Other Audio Coding Standards 50 4.3.1 Philips PASC 50 4.3.2 Sony ATRAC 51 4.3.3 Dolby AC-3 52 4.4 Architectural Overview 53 4.4.1 Psychoacoustic Modeling 53 4.4.2 Time-Frequency Mapping 54 4.4.3 Quantization 54 4.4.4 Variable-Length Coding 56 4.4.5 Multichannel Correlation and Irrelevancy 57 4.4.6 Long-Term Correlation 57 4.4.7 Pre-echo Control 58 4.4.8 Bit Allocation 59 4.5 Conclusions 59 4.6 Definitions of Key Terms 59 4.7 References 60 4.8 Bibliography 60 Chapter 5:ÊÊStill Image Compression Standards 61 Michael W. Hoffman and Khalid Sayood 5.1 Introduction 61 5.2 Lossy Compression 62 5.2.1 JPEG 62 5.2.2 JPEG2000 68 5.3 Lossless Compression 71 5.3.1 JPEG 71 5.3.2 JPEG-LS 71 5.4 Bilevel Image Compression 73 5.4.1 JBIG 73 5.4.2 JBIG2 78 5.5 Definitions of Key Terms 79 5.6 References 80 5.7 Bibliography 80 Chapter 6:ÊÊMultimedia Conferencing Standards 81 David Lindbergh 6.1 Introduction 81 6.2 H.320 for ISDN Videoconferencing 82 6.2.1 The H.320 Standards Suite 83 6.2.2 Multiplex 84 6.2.3 System Control Protocol 84 6.2.4 Audio Coding 85 6.2.5 Video Coding 86 6.2.6 H.231 and H.243: Multipoint 87 6.2.7 H.233 and H.234: Encryption 89 6.2.8 H.331 Broadcast 89 6.3 H.320 Network Adaptation Standards: H.321 and H.322 89 6.3.1 H.321: Adaptation of H.320 to ATM and B-ISDN 90 6.3.2 H.322: Adaptation of H.320 to IsoEthernet 90 6.4 A New Generation: H.323, H.324, and H.310 90 6.4.1 H.245 Control Protocol 91 6.4.2 Audio and Video Codecs 91 6.4.3 H.323 for Packet Switched Networks 93 6.4.4 H.324 for Lot-Bit-Rate Circuit Switched Networks 96 6.4.5 H.310 for ATM and B-ISDN Networks 98 6.5 T.120 for Data Conferencing and Conference Control 98 6.6 Summary 98 6.7 References 99 Chapter 7:ÊÊMPEG-1 and -2 Compression 101 Tom Lookabaugh 7.1 Introduction 101 7.2 The MPEG Model 101 7.2.1 Key Applications and Problems 102 7.2.2 Strategy for Standardization 102 7.3 MPEG Video 103 7.3.1 The Basic Algorithm 103 7.3.2 Temporal Prediction 106 7.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition 110 7.3.4 Quantization 111 7.3.5 Variable-Length Coding 112 7.3.6 Rate Control 113 7.3.7 Constrained Parameters, Levels, and Profiles 114 7.4 Summary 116 Chapter 8:ÊÊMPEG-4 and MPEG-7 117 Jerry D. Gibson 8.1 Introduction 117 8.2 MPEG-4 118 8.2.1 MPEG-4 Systems Model 120 8.2.2 Natural Video Coding 124 8.2.3 Audio and Speech Coding 125 8.3 MPEG-7 127 8.4 Summary 128 8.5 References 128 Chapter 9:ÊÊATM Network Technology 129 Yoichi Maeda and Koichi Asatani 9.1 Introduction 129 9.2 Overview 130 9.2.1 Background 130 9.2.2 Basic ATM Concept 131 9.2.3 ATM Network Protocol Structure 131 9.2.4 International Standardization and Recommendations 132 9.3 Physical Layer Specifications 133 9.3.1 Basic Characteristics of the TC Sublayer 134 9.3.2 Interface Bit Rates 134 9.4 ATM Layer Specifications 134 9.5 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Specifications 135 9.6 Network Aspects of B-ISDN 135 9.6.1 Traffic Control 135 9.6.2 ATM Layer Performance 137 9.6.3 OAM Functions 138 9.6.4 Signaling Procedure 138 9.6.5 VB5 Interfaces 139 9.7 Other ATM Network Technologies 140 9.7.1 IP Over ATM 140 9.7.2 MPEG2 Over ATM 141 9.8 Concluding Remarks 141 9.9 Definitions of Key Terms 141 9.10 Bibliography 142 9.11 For Further Information 142 Chapter 10:ÊÊISDN 143 Koichi Asatani and Toshinori Tsuboi 10.1 Introduction 143 10.1.1 General Features of ISDN 143 10.1.2 Service Aspects of ISDN 144 10.1.3 Access Features 146 10.2 ISDN User-Network Interfaces 146 10.2.1 ISDN UNI Structure 146 10.2.2 Reference Configurations and Reference Points 147 10.2.3 Interface Features 148 10.3 Layers 1, 2, and 3 Specifications of UNI 151 10.3.1 Layered Structure 151 10.3.2 Basic Interface Layer 1 151 10.3.3 Primary Rate Interface Layer 1 158 10.3.4 Layer 2 Specification 162 10.3.5 Layer 3 Specification 168 10.4 Access Transmission Line Systems 171 10.4.1 Outline of Transmission Line System 171 10.4.2 Metallic Transmission Line System for Basic Access 172 10.4.3 Primary Rate Transmission System 176 10.5 References 177 Chapter 11:ÊÊVideo-on-Demand Broadcasting Protocols 179 Steven W. Carter, Darrell D. E. Long, and Jehan-Fran ois P ris 11.1 Introduction 179 11.2 Common Terms and Concepts 180 11.3 Staggered Broadcasting Protocols 180 11.4 Pyramid Broadcasting Protocols 181 11.5 Harmonic Broadcasting Protocols 184 11.6 Summary 186 11.7 Definitions of Key Terms 187 11.8 References 188 11.9 For Further Information 189 Chapter 12:ÊÊInternet Telephony Technology and Standards Overview 191 Bernard S. Ku 12.1 Introduction 191 12.2 Internet Telephony Architecture Overview 192 12.3 Related Internet Telephony Standards 194 12.3.1 IETF 195 12.3.2 ETSI Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON) 195 12.3.3 ITU-T 196 12.3.4 T1S1 198 12.4 Current and Developing Internet Telephony Protocols 198 12.4.1 H.323 198 12.4.2 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 200 12.4.3 Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) 202 12.4.4 MEGACO/H.248 (H.GCP) 203 12.5 How Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Works 205 12.5.1 PSTN Gateways 205 12.5.2 VoIP Gatways 206 12.5.3 IPTel Gateways 207 12.6 Open Issues in Internet Telephony 209 12.7 IN/IP Integration 210 12.7.1 New Elements/Functions Required 211 12.7.2 Special Extensions Required 212 12.7.3 New IN/IP Interworking Interfaces 213 12.7.4 Information Flow for Click-to-Dial (CTD) Service 214 12.8 SS7/IP Integration 215 12.8.1 Transport of SS7 Over IP-Related Protocols 216 12.8.2 Interworking of SS7 with IP-Related Protocols 216 12.8.3 Future of IP/SS7 217 12.9 Concluding Remarks 217 12.10 Glossary 217 12.11 Definitions of Key Terms 218 12.12 Acknowledgments 219 12.13 Bibliography 219 Chapter 13:ÊÊWideband Wireless Packet Data Access 221 Justin Chuang, Leonard J. Cimini, Jr., and Nelson Sollenberger 13.1 Introduction 221 13.1.1 The Wireless Data Opportunity 221 13.1.2 Current Wireless Data Systems 222 13.1.3 Emerging and Future Wireless Data Options 223 13.1.4 Summary and Outline of the Chapter 225 13.2 Packet Data Access Using WCDMA 225 13.2.1 Variable-Rate Packet Data 225 13.3 Packet Data Access Using EDGE 228 13.3.1 Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy 229 13.4 Packet Data Access Using Wideband OFDM 232 13.4.1 Physical-Layer Techniques 232 13.4.2 Physical-Layer Solutions 232 13.4.3 Frequency Reuse and Spectral Efficiency 234 13.4.4 Dynamic Packet Assignment Protocol 235 13.4.5 Dynamic Packet Assignment Performance 235 13.4.6 Radio Link Resource Organization 236 13.4.7 Frame Structure for Dynamic Packet Assignment 239 13.4.8 Simulation Model 240 13.4.9 Simulation Peformance Results 241 13.5 Conclusions 244 13.6 References 244 Chapter 14:ÊÊInternet Protocols Over Wireless Networks 247 George C. Polyzos and George Xylomenos Abstract 247 14.1 Introduction 247 14.2 Internet Protocols and Wireless Links 248 14.2.1 Internet Transport Layer Protocols 248 14.2.2 Protocol Performance Over a Single Wireless Link 249 14.2.3 Protocol Performance Over Multiple Links 251 14.3 Performance Enhancements for Internet Protocols 253 14.3.1 Approaches at the Transport Layer 253 14.3.2 Approaches Below the Transport Layer 254 14.4 The Future: Challenges and Opportunities 256 14.4.1 Wireless System Evolution 256 14.4.2 Goals for Protocol Evolution 257 14.5 Summary 258 14.6 References 258 Chapter 15:ÊÊTranscoding of the InternetÕs Multimedia Content for Universal Access 261 Richard Han and John R. Smith 15.1 Introduction 261 15.1.1 Adapting to Bandwidth Heterogeneity 262 15.1.2 Adapting to Client Heterogeneity 265 15.2 End-to-End vs. Proxy-Based Transcoding Designs 266 15.3 Architecture of a Transcoding Proxy 271 15.4 To Transcode or Not to Transcode 274 15.4.1 A Store-and-Forward Image Transcoding Proxy 274 15.4.2 A Streamed Image Transcoding Proxy 277 15.5 Transcoding Policies for Selecting Content 280 15.5.1 Optimal Policies for Offline Pretranscoding 281 15.5.2 Policies for Real-Time Transcoding 284 15.6 A Sample Set of Transcoding Policies 289 15.7 Related Issues 291 15.8 Acknowledgments 293 15.9 References 293 Chapter 16:ÊÊMulticasting: Issues and Networking Support 297 Upkar Varshney 16.1 Introduction 297 16.2 Multicasting Support 298 16.3 Multicasting in IP-Based Networks 299 16.3.1 Routing Protocols for IP Multicast 301 16.3.2 Multimedia Support and IP Multicasting 301 16.3.3 Multimedia Multicasting Applications on the MBone 302 16.4 Multicasting in ATM Networks 302 16.4.1 Multicasting Schemes for ATM Networks 303 16.5 IP Multicasting Over ATM 305 16.5.1 Problems in RSVP Over ATM 305 16.5.2 IP Multicast Over ATM in VBNS 306 16.6 Reliable Multicast Transport Protocols 306 16.7 Multicasting in Wireless Networks 307 16.7.1 Issues in IP Multicasting Over Wireless 308 16.7.2 Multicast Support in Wireless ATM 308 16.8 Summary and the Future of Multicasting 308 16.9 Definitions of Key Terms 309 16.10 References 309 16.11 For Further Reading 310 Index 311


Description

The rapid advances and industry demands for networked delivery of information and pictures through computer networks and cable television has created a need for new techniques and standards for the packaging and delivery of digital information. Multimedia Communications presents the latest information from industry and academic experts on all standards, methods and protocols. Internet protocols for wireless communications, transcoding of Internet multimedia for universal access, ATM and ISDN chapters, videoconferencing standards, speech and audio coding standards, multi-casting and image compression techniques are included.

Key Features

@bul:* Latest Internet protocols for wireless communications

  • Transcoding of Internet multimedia for universal access
  • ATM and ISDN chapters
  • Videoconferencing standards
  • Speech and audio coding standards
  • Multi-casting
  • Latest image compression techniques

Readership

Electrical engineers and computer engineers in multimedia, communications, and signal processing.


Details

No. of pages:
318
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2001
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080512242
Hardcover ISBN:
9780122821608

Reviews

Experts from industry and academia overview current practices and future directions in the delivery of multiple media content over communications networks to users. Applications that incorporate multiple media types are specifically addressed, such as two-way, multipoint video conferencing and one-way streaming of video and audio. Chapters are descriptive in nature, focused on the presentation of results, insights, and key concepts, with a minimum of mathematical analyses and abstraction. Each chapter is intended to stand alone. Gibson is affiliated with the department of electrical engineering at Southern Methodist University.Book News, Inc.®, Portland, OR


About the Editors

Jerry Gibson Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA