Multimedia Communications

Multimedia Communications

Directions and Innovations

1st Edition - October 19, 2000

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  • Editor: Jerry Gibson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080512242

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Description

The rapid advances and industry demands for networked delivery of information and pictures through computer networks and cable television has created a need for new techniques and standards for the packaging and delivery of digital information. Multimedia Communications presents the latest information from industry and academic experts on all standards, methods and protocols. Internet protocols for wireless communications, transcoding of Internet multimedia for universal access, ATM and ISDN chapters, videoconferencing standards, speech and audio coding standards, multi-casting and image compression techniques are included.

Key Features

  • Latest Internet protocols for wireless communications
  • Transcoding of Internet multimedia for universal access
  • ATM and ISDN chapters
  • Videoconferencing standards
  • Speech and audio coding standards
  • Multi-casting
  • Latest image compression techniques

Readership

Electrical engineers and computer engineers in multimedia, communications, and signal processing

Table of Contents

  • Preface xv
    List of Contributors xvii
    Chapter 1:ÊÊMultimedia Communications: Source Representations,
    Networks, and Applications 1
    Jerry D. Gibson
    1.1 Introduction 1
    1.2 Networks and Network Services 3
    1.3 Multimedia Sources 6
    1.4 Source and Destination Terminals 8
    1.5 Applications of Multimedia Communications Networks 9
    1.5.1 Video Streaming to Multiple Users 10
    1.5.2 Videoconferencing 11
    1.6 Conclusions 12
    1.7 For Further Reading 12
    Chapter 2:ÊÊFuture Telecommunication Networks: Traffic and Technologies 13
    Leonid G. Kazovsky, Giok-Djan Khoe, and M. Oskar van Deventer
    2.1 Key Technologies 14
    2.2 Impact of Competition 16
    2.3 Four Traffic Hypotheses 17
    2.3.1 Hypothesis 1: Conventional Growth 17
    2.3.2 Hypothesis 2: The Internet Age 18
    2.3.3 Hypotheses 3 and 4: The Digital Video Age 18
    2.3.4 HDTV in the United States 20
    2.3.5 Traffic Attributes 20
    2.4 Synergy: Future Projections 21
    2.5 Summary and Conclusions 22
    2.6 Bibliography 22
    Chapter 3:ÊÊSpeech Coding Standards 25
    Andreas S. Spanias
    Abstract 25
    3.1 Introduction 25
    3.2 Speech Analysis-Synthesis and Linear Prediction 27
    3.2.1 Long-Term Prediction (LTP) 29
    3.3 Linear Prediction and Speech Coding Standards 29
    3.3.1 Open-Loop Linear Prediction 29
    3.3.2 Standards Based on Analysis-by-Synthesis
    Linear Prediction 32
    3.4 Standards Based on Subband and Transform Coders 39
    3.4.1 The ITU G.722 Subband Coder 39
    3.4.2 Sinusoidal Transform Coding 40
    3.4.3 The Multiband Excitation Coder and the
    Inmarsat-M Standard 40
    3.5 Summary and Emerging Standards 41
    3.6 References 42
    Chapter 4:ÊÊAudio Coding Standards 45
    Chi-Min Liu and Wen-Whei Chang
    4.1 Introduction 45
    4.2 ISO/MPEG Audio Coding Standards 45
    4.2.1 MPEG-1 46
    4.2.2 MPEG-2 48
    4.2.3 MPEG-4 49
    4.3 Other Audio Coding Standards 50
    4.3.1 Philips PASC 50
    4.3.2 Sony ATRAC 51
    4.3.3 Dolby AC-3 52
    4.4 Architectural Overview 53
    4.4.1 Psychoacoustic Modeling 53
    4.4.2 Time-Frequency Mapping 54
    4.4.3 Quantization 54
    4.4.4 Variable-Length Coding 56
    4.4.5 Multichannel Correlation and Irrelevancy 57
    4.4.6 Long-Term Correlation 57
    4.4.7 Pre-echo Control 58
    4.4.8 Bit Allocation 59
    4.5 Conclusions 59
    4.6 Definitions of Key Terms 59
    4.7 References 60
    4.8 Bibliography 60
    Chapter 5:ÊÊStill Image Compression Standards 61
    Michael W. Hoffman and Khalid Sayood
    5.1 Introduction 61
    5.2 Lossy Compression 62
    5.2.1 JPEG 62
    5.2.2 JPEG2000 68
    5.3 Lossless Compression 71
    5.3.1 JPEG 71
    5.3.2 JPEG-LS 71
    5.4 Bilevel Image Compression 73
    5.4.1 JBIG 73
    5.4.2 JBIG2 78
    5.5 Definitions of Key Terms 79
    5.6 References 80
    5.7 Bibliography 80
    Chapter 6:ÊÊMultimedia Conferencing Standards 81
    David Lindbergh
    6.1 Introduction 81
    6.2 H.320 for ISDN Videoconferencing 82
    6.2.1 The H.320 Standards Suite 83
    6.2.2 Multiplex 84
    6.2.3 System Control Protocol 84
    6.2.4 Audio Coding 85
    6.2.5 Video Coding 86
    6.2.6 H.231 and H.243: Multipoint 87
    6.2.7 H.233 and H.234: Encryption 89
    6.2.8 H.331 Broadcast 89
    6.3 H.320 Network Adaptation Standards: H.321 and H.322 89
    6.3.1 H.321: Adaptation of H.320 to ATM and B-ISDN 90
    6.3.2 H.322: Adaptation of H.320 to IsoEthernet 90
    6.4 A New Generation: H.323, H.324, and H.310 90
    6.4.1 H.245 Control Protocol 91
    6.4.2 Audio and Video Codecs 91
    6.4.3 H.323 for Packet Switched Networks 93
    6.4.4 H.324 for Lot-Bit-Rate Circuit Switched Networks 96
    6.4.5 H.310 for ATM and B-ISDN Networks 98
    6.5 T.120 for Data Conferencing and Conference Control 98
    6.6 Summary 98
    6.7 References 99
    Chapter 7:ÊÊMPEG-1 and -2 Compression 101
    Tom Lookabaugh
    7.1 Introduction 101
    7.2 The MPEG Model 101
    7.2.1 Key Applications and Problems 102
    7.2.2 Strategy for Standardization 102
    7.3 MPEG Video 103
    7.3.1 The Basic Algorithm 103
    7.3.2 Temporal Prediction 106
    7.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition 110
    7.3.4 Quantization 111
    7.3.5 Variable-Length Coding 112
    7.3.6 Rate Control 113
    7.3.7 Constrained Parameters, Levels, and Profiles 114
    7.4 Summary 116
    Chapter 8:ÊÊMPEG-4 and MPEG-7 117
    Jerry D. Gibson
    8.1 Introduction 117
    8.2 MPEG-4 118
    8.2.1 MPEG-4 Systems Model 120
    8.2.2 Natural Video Coding 124
    8.2.3 Audio and Speech Coding 125
    8.3 MPEG-7 127
    8.4 Summary 128
    8.5 References 128
    Chapter 9:ÊÊATM Network Technology 129
    Yoichi Maeda and Koichi Asatani
    9.1 Introduction 129
    9.2 Overview 130
    9.2.1 Background 130
    9.2.2 Basic ATM Concept 131
    9.2.3 ATM Network Protocol Structure 131
    9.2.4 International Standardization and
    Recommendations 132
    9.3 Physical Layer Specifications 133
    9.3.1 Basic Characteristics of the TC Sublayer 134
    9.3.2 Interface Bit Rates 134
    9.4 ATM Layer Specifications 134
    9.5 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
    Specifications 135
    9.6 Network Aspects of B-ISDN 135
    9.6.1 Traffic Control 135
    9.6.2 ATM Layer Performance 137
    9.6.3 OAM Functions 138
    9.6.4 Signaling Procedure 138
    9.6.5 VB5 Interfaces 139
    9.7 Other ATM Network Technologies 140
    9.7.1 IP Over ATM 140
    9.7.2 MPEG2 Over ATM 141
    9.8 Concluding Remarks 141
    9.9 Definitions of Key Terms 141
    9.10 Bibliography 142
    9.11 For Further Information 142
    Chapter 10:ÊÊISDN 143
    Koichi Asatani and Toshinori Tsuboi
    10.1 Introduction 143
    10.1.1 General Features of ISDN 143
    10.1.2 Service Aspects of ISDN 144
    10.1.3 Access Features 146
    10.2 ISDN User-Network Interfaces 146
    10.2.1 ISDN UNI Structure 146
    10.2.2 Reference Configurations and
    Reference Points 147
    10.2.3 Interface Features 148
    10.3 Layers 1, 2, and 3 Specifications of UNI 151
    10.3.1 Layered Structure 151
    10.3.2 Basic Interface Layer 1 151
    10.3.3 Primary Rate Interface Layer 1 158
    10.3.4 Layer 2 Specification 162
    10.3.5 Layer 3 Specification 168
    10.4 Access Transmission Line Systems 171
    10.4.1 Outline of Transmission Line System 171
    10.4.2 Metallic Transmission Line System
    for Basic Access 172
    10.4.3 Primary Rate Transmission System 176
    10.5 References 177
    Chapter 11:ÊÊVideo-on-Demand Broadcasting Protocols 179
    Steven W. Carter, Darrell D. E. Long, and Jehan-Fran ois P ris
    11.1 Introduction 179
    11.2 Common Terms and Concepts 180
    11.3 Staggered Broadcasting Protocols 180
    11.4 Pyramid Broadcasting Protocols 181
    11.5 Harmonic Broadcasting Protocols 184
    11.6 Summary 186
    11.7 Definitions of Key Terms 187
    11.8 References 188
    11.9 For Further Information 189
    Chapter 12:ÊÊInternet Telephony Technology and Standards Overview 191
    Bernard S. Ku
    12.1 Introduction 191
    12.2 Internet Telephony Architecture Overview 192
    12.3 Related Internet Telephony Standards 194
    12.3.1 IETF 195
    12.3.2 ETSI Telecommunications and Internet Protocol
    Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON) 195
    12.3.3 ITU-T 196
    12.3.4 T1S1 198
    12.4 Current and Developing Internet Telephony Protocols 198
    12.4.1 H.323 198
    12.4.2 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 200
    12.4.3 Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) 202
    12.4.4 MEGACO/H.248 (H.GCP) 203
    12.5 How Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Works 205
    12.5.1 PSTN Gateways 205
    12.5.2 VoIP Gatways 206
    12.5.3 IPTel Gateways 207
    12.6 Open Issues in Internet Telephony 209
    12.7 IN/IP Integration 210
    12.7.1 New Elements/Functions Required 211
    12.7.2 Special Extensions Required 212
    12.7.3 New IN/IP Interworking Interfaces 213
    12.7.4 Information Flow for Click-to-Dial (CTD) Service 214
    12.8 SS7/IP Integration 215
    12.8.1 Transport of SS7 Over IP-Related Protocols 216
    12.8.2 Interworking of SS7 with IP-Related Protocols 216
    12.8.3 Future of IP/SS7 217
    12.9 Concluding Remarks 217
    12.10 Glossary 217
    12.11 Definitions of Key Terms 218
    12.12 Acknowledgments 219
    12.13 Bibliography 219
    Chapter 13:ÊÊWideband Wireless Packet Data Access 221
    Justin Chuang, Leonard J. Cimini, Jr., and Nelson Sollenberger
    13.1 Introduction 221
    13.1.1 The Wireless Data Opportunity 221
    13.1.2 Current Wireless Data Systems 222
    13.1.3 Emerging and Future Wireless Data Options 223
    13.1.4 Summary and Outline of the Chapter 225
    13.2 Packet Data Access Using WCDMA 225
    13.2.1 Variable-Rate Packet Data 225
    13.3 Packet Data Access Using EDGE 228
    13.3.1 Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy 229
    13.4 Packet Data Access Using Wideband OFDM 232
    13.4.1 Physical-Layer Techniques 232
    13.4.2 Physical-Layer Solutions 232
    13.4.3 Frequency Reuse and Spectral Efficiency 234
    13.4.4 Dynamic Packet Assignment Protocol 235
    13.4.5 Dynamic Packet Assignment Performance 235
    13.4.6 Radio Link Resource Organization 236
    13.4.7 Frame Structure for Dynamic Packet Assignment 239
    13.4.8 Simulation Model 240
    13.4.9 Simulation Peformance Results 241
    13.5 Conclusions 244
    13.6 References 244
    Chapter 14:ÊÊInternet Protocols Over Wireless Networks 247
    George C. Polyzos and George Xylomenos
    Abstract 247
    14.1 Introduction 247
    14.2 Internet Protocols and Wireless Links 248
    14.2.1 Internet Transport Layer Protocols 248
    14.2.2 Protocol Performance Over a Single
    Wireless Link 249
    14.2.3 Protocol Performance Over Multiple Links 251
    14.3 Performance Enhancements for Internet Protocols 253
    14.3.1 Approaches at the Transport Layer 253
    14.3.2 Approaches Below the Transport Layer 254
    14.4 The Future: Challenges and Opportunities 256
    14.4.1 Wireless System Evolution 256
    14.4.2 Goals for Protocol Evolution 257
    14.5 Summary 258
    14.6 References 258
    Chapter 15:ÊÊTranscoding of the InternetÕs Multimedia Content for
    Universal Access 261
    Richard Han and John R. Smith
    15.1 Introduction 261
    15.1.1 Adapting to Bandwidth Heterogeneity 262
    15.1.2 Adapting to Client Heterogeneity 265
    15.2 End-to-End vs. Proxy-Based Transcoding Designs 266
    15.3 Architecture of a Transcoding Proxy 271
    15.4 To Transcode or Not to Transcode 274
    15.4.1 A Store-and-Forward Image Transcoding Proxy 274
    15.4.2 A Streamed Image Transcoding Proxy 277
    15.5 Transcoding Policies for Selecting Content 280
    15.5.1 Optimal Policies for Offline Pretranscoding 281
    15.5.2 Policies for Real-Time Transcoding 284
    15.6 A Sample Set of Transcoding Policies 289
    15.7 Related Issues 291
    15.8 Acknowledgments 293
    15.9 References 293
    Chapter 16:ÊÊMulticasting: Issues and Networking Support 297
    Upkar Varshney
    16.1 Introduction 297
    16.2 Multicasting Support 298
    16.3 Multicasting in IP-Based Networks 299
    16.3.1 Routing Protocols for IP Multicast 301
    16.3.2 Multimedia Support and IP Multicasting 301
    16.3.3 Multimedia Multicasting Applications on
    the MBone 302
    16.4 Multicasting in ATM Networks 302
    16.4.1 Multicasting Schemes for ATM Networks 303
    16.5 IP Multicasting Over ATM 305
    16.5.1 Problems in RSVP Over ATM 305
    16.5.2 IP Multicast Over ATM in VBNS 306
    16.6 Reliable Multicast Transport Protocols 306
    16.7 Multicasting in Wireless Networks 307
    16.7.1 Issues in IP Multicasting Over Wireless 308
    16.7.2 Multicast Support in Wireless ATM 308
    16.8 Summary and the Future of Multicasting 308
    16.9 Definitions of Key Terms 309
    16.10 References 309
    16.11 For Further Reading 310
    Index 311

Product details

  • No. of pages: 318
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2000
  • Published: October 19, 2000
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080512242

About the Editor

Jerry Gibson

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

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