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Movement Disorders in Childhood - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124115736, 9780124115804

Movement Disorders in Childhood

2nd Edition

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Authors: Harvey S. Singer Jonathan Mink Donald Gilbert Joseph Jankovic
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124115736
eBook ISBN: 9780124115804
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th November 2015
Page Count: 594
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Movement Disorders in Childhood, Second Edition, provides the most up-to-date information on the diseases and disorders that affect motor control, an important area of specialization within child neurology.

Over the past several decades, advances in genetics, neuroimaging, neurophysiology, and other areas of neuroscience have provided new understanding of the underlying etiologies and mechanisms of these conditions as well as new opportunities for more accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

This new edition builds upon the success of the first edition, with comprehensive scientific and clinical updates of all chapters. In addition, there are new chapters on hereditary spastic paraplegia, quantitative motor assessments, autoimmune disorders, and movement disorders in the developmental neuropsychiatric disorders ADHD, OCD, and autism.

Additional materials are provided on the latest in drug treatments, computer based strategies for genetic diagnosis, and helpful videos for phenomenology.

Key Features

  • Provides the only current reference specifically focused on childhood movement disorders
  • Investigates the underlying etiologies and mechanisms of these disorders
  • Completely revised and updated with new materials and a more disease-oriented approach
  • New coverage of genetics and movement disorders, immunology and movement disorders, and an introduction to the latest quantitative analysis
  • New videos of instructive and unusual childhood movement disorders
  • 2016 BMA Medical Book Awards Highly Commended in Neurology


Neurologists, pediatricians, developmental pediatricians, and clinical researchers interested in pediatric neurology

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgment
  • Section I: Overview
    • Chapter 1. Basal Ganglia Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Physiology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Circuits and Neurotransmitters in the Basal Ganglia
      • Subthalamic Nucleus (STN)
      • Output Nuclei: Globus Pallidus Interna (GPi) and Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNpr)
      • Globus Pallidus externa (GPe)
      • Inhibiting and Disinhibiting Motor Patterns
      • Implications for Disease: Focal Lesions and Abnormal Movements
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Cerebellar Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, and Plasticity
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Cerebellar Structure, Function, and Symptoms
      • Macroscopic to Microscopic Cerebellar Structure
      • Neurotransmitters in the Cerebellum
      • Neuroplasticity in the Cerebellum
      • Cerebellar Stimulation
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Classification of Movement Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Ataxia (Chapter 14)
      • Athetosis (Chapter 10)
      • Ballismus (Chapter 10)
      • Chorea (Chapter 10)
      • Dystonia (Chapter 11)
      • Myoclonus (Chapter 12)
      • Parkinsonism (Chapter 15)
      • Stereotypies (Chapter 8)
      • Tics (Chapter 7)
      • Tremor (Chapter 13)
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Diagnostic Evaluation of Children with Movement Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Preclinic
      • In Clinic
      • The Diagnosis
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Motor Assessments
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Quantitative Measurement in Movement Disorders
      • Rating Scales for Pediatric Movement Disorders
      • References
  • Section II: Developmental Movement Disorders
    • Chapter 6. Transient and Developmental Movement Disorders in Children
      • Abstract
      • Benign Neonatal Sleep Myoclonus
      • Benign Myoclonus of Early Infancy (Benign Infantile Spasms)
      • Jitteriness
      • Shuddering
      • Paroxysmal Tonic Upgaze of Infancy
      • Spasmus Nutans
      • Head Nodding
      • Benign Paroxysmal Torticollis
      • Benign Idiopathic Dystonia of Infancy
      • Sandifer Syndrome
      • Posturing During Masturbation
      • References
  • Section III: Paroxysmal Movement Disorders
    • Chapter 7. Tics and Tourette Syndrome
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Tic Phenomenology
      • Tic Disorders
      • Epidemiology
      • Scales
      • Outcome
      • Associated Behaviors and Psychopathologies in Tic Disorders
      • Etiology
      • Pathophysiology of Tic Disorders
      • Treatment
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Motor Stereotypies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition
      • Differentiating Stereotypies from Other Disorders
      • Pathophysiology
      • Classification of Motor Stereotypies
      • Therapy
      • Patient and Family Resources
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Paroxysmal Dyskinesias
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Clinical Characteristics
      • Specific Disorders
      • References
  • Section IV: Hyperkinetic and Hypokinetic Movement Disorders
    • Chapter 10. Chorea, Athetosis, and Ballism
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Definitions of Chorea, Athetosis, and Ballism
      • Clinical Characteristics—Phenomenology of Chorea, Athetosis, and Ballism in Children
      • Localization and Pathophysiology
      • Diseases and Disorders
      • Summary of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Dystonia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Classification of Dystonias
      • Localization and Pathophysiology
      • Etiologies
      • Diagnostic Approach to Dystonia
      • Management and Treatment
      • Patient and Family Resources
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Myoclonus
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Definition of Myoclonus
      • Clinical Characteristics—Phenomenology of Myoclonus in Children
      • Localization and Pathophysiology
      • Diseases and Disorders
      • Autosomal Dominant, Cortical Myoclonus without Epilepsy
      • Hemifacial Spasm
      • Summary of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Tremor
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Definition of Tremor
      • Clinical Characteristics—Phenomenology of Tremor in Children
      • Localization and Pathophysiology
      • Diseases and Disorders
      • Approach to Diagnosis and Management
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Ataxia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Definition of Ataxia
      • Clinical Characteristics—Phenomenology of Ataxia in Children
      • Localization and Pathophysiology
      • Diseases and Disorders
      • Approach to Diagnosis and Management
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Parkinsonism
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Clinical Features of Parkinsonism
      • Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism
      • Etiologies of Parkinsonism in Children
      • Secondary Parkinsonism
      • Treatment of Parkinsonism
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Definitions of Spasticity and Hypertonia
      • Clinical Characteristics—Phenomenology of Spastic Paraplegia in Children
      • Localization and Pathophysiology
      • Diseases and Disorders
      • Treatment
      • Diagnostic and Management Approach
      • Summary
      • References
  • Section V: Selected Secondary Movement Disorders
    • Chapter 17. Inherited Metabolic Disorders with Associated Movement Abnormalities
      • Abstract
      • Pediatric Neurotransmitter Disorders
      • Metabolic Disorders
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Movement Disorders in Autoimmune Diseases
      • Abstract
      • Complication of a Systemic Autoimmune Disorder
      • Post-Streptococcal Infections
      • Autoimmune Basal Ganglia Encephalitis
      • Autoimmune Encephalopathies
      • Other Paraneoplastic Syndromes
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Movements that Occur in Sleep
      • Abstract
      • Overview of Sleep Physiology
      • Classification of Movements in Sleep
      • Sleep-Related Movement Disorders
      • Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders that are Present during the Daytime and Persist during Sleep
      • Seizures in and Around the Time of Sleep
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Cerebral Palsy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
      • Etiology
      • Differentiating Hypertonia in Children
      • Cerebral Palsy Syndromes
      • Diagnostic Tests
      • Management of Cerebral Palsy
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Movement Disorders and Neuropsychiatric Conditions
      • Abstract
      • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
      • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
      • Autism Spectrum Disorder
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Drug-Induced Movement Disorders in Children
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Definition of DIMDs
      • Clinical Characteristics—Phenomenology of DIMDs in Children
      • Drug-Induced Movement Disorders
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Functional (Psychogenic) Movement Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A. Drug Appendix
      • Acetazolamide
      • Amantidine
      • Amphetamine
      • Aripiprazole
      • Atomoxetine
      • Baclofen
      • Baclofen; Intrathecal Pump
      • Benztropine
      • Botulinum Toxin
      • Carbamazepine
      • Carbidopa/Levodopa
      • Clonazepam
      • Clonidine
      • Clozapine
      • Coenzyme Q10
      • Creatine
      • Cyclophosphamide
      • Dantroline
      • Fluphenazine
      • Gabapentin
      • Guanfacine
      • Haloperidol
      • IVIG
      • Levetiracetam
      • Methylphenidate
      • Modafinil/Armodafinil
      • Olanzapine
      • Penicillamine
      • Pimozide
      • Piracetam
      • Pramipexole
      • Prednisone and Methylprednisolone
      • Pregabalin
      • Primidone
      • Propranolol
      • Quetiapine
      • Reserpine
      • Risperidone
      • Rituximab
      • Ropinirole
      • Sodium Oxybate
      • Tetrabenazine
      • Tetrathiomolybdate (TM)
      • Tizanidine
      • Topiramate
      • Trientine
      • Trihexyphenidyl
      • Valproic Acid
      • Zinc
      • Ziprasidone
      • Zonisamide
    • Appendix B. Search Strategy for Genetic Movement Disorders
      • Using OMIM to Aid in Diagnosis
      • Example 1 Advanced Search: OMIM
      • Example 2 Advanced Search: Clinical Synopsis
      • Example 3 Advanced Search: Gene Map Advanced Search
      • Next Steps after the OMIM search
      • Using Simulconsult to Aid in Diagnosis
      • Example 1 Simulconsult Search
      • Summary
    • Appendix C. Video Atlas
      • Chapter 6 Transient and Developmental Movement Disorders in Children
      • Chapter 7 Tics and Tourette Syndrome
      • Chapter 8 Motor Stereotypies
      • Chapter 9 Paroxysmal Dyskinesias
      • Chapter 10 Chorea, Athetosis, and Ballism
      • Chapter 11 Dystonia
      • Chapter 12 Myoclonus
      • Chapter 13 Tremor
      • Chapter 14 Ataxia
      • Chapter 15 Parkinsonism
      • Chapter 17 Inherited Metabolic Disorders with Associated Movement Abnormalities
      • Chapter 18 Movement Disorders in Autoimmune Diseases
      • Chapter 20 Cerebral Palsy
      • Chapter 22 Drug-Induced Movement Disorders
      • Chapter 23 Functional Movement Disorders
    • Index


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© Academic Press 2016
16th November 2015
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Authors

Harvey S. Singer

Harvey S. Singer, M.D. is currently the Haller Professor of Pediatric Neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He graduated from Western Reserve University School of Medicine, did his pediatric training in Chicago and Cleveland, and his pediatric neurology residency at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, after which he remained on the faculty. Clinical research interests include movement disorders, especially Tourette syndrome, proposed autoimmune disorders, and stereotypic movements. His translational research-oriented laboratory focuses on autoimmune mechanisms in autism, PANDAS, the neurobiology of tics, and the pathophysiology of stereotypic movements in animal models. He has been the recipient of many federal and private grants. Dr. Singer has authored numerous original articles, chapters, and two books. He is the first recipient (2013) of the Child Neurology Society’s Blue Bird Clinic Training Program Directors award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA

Jonathan Mink

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA

Donald Gilbert

Donald Gilbert

Donald Gilbert, MD, earned his Bachelor of Arts at Princeton University, where he majored in philosophy. He subsequently earned his MD at the University of Michigan and spent a year at the National Institutes of Health as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Scholar. Dr. Gilbert did his pediatrics and neurology training at John Hopkins in Baltimore and is board certified in neurology with special competence in child neurology. Dr. Gilbert has an MS in clinical research design and statistical analysis from the University of Michigan.

At Cincinnati Children's, Dr. Gilbert directs the Movement Disorders and Tourette's Syndrome Clinics, which specialize in evaluation and pharmacologic treatment of tics, chorea, tremor, dystonia, stereotypies, ataxia, and other movement disorders Dr. Gilbert directs or participates in a number of single and multi-center studies into causes and treatments of Tourette's syndrome. Dr. Gilbert also does research into cortical inhibition and neuroplasticity mechanisms in childhood at the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Laboratory at Cincinnati Children's.

Affiliations and Expertise

Movement Disorders and Tourette Syndrome Clinics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Joseph Jankovic

After receiving his MD degree from the University of Arizona College of Medicine in 1973, Dr. Jankovic completed medicine internship at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, and residency in Neurology at the Neurological Institute, Columbia University, New York City, where he was selected as the Chief Resident and also obtained additional training in movement disorders with Stanley Fahn, MD. In 1977 he joined the faculty of Baylor College of Medicine and became a founder and director of the Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, which has since been recognized as a "Center of Excellence" by the National Parkinson Foundation and the Huntington Disease Society of America. Promoted to a full professor of Neurology in 1988, Dr. Jankovic currently holds the endowed Distinguished Chair in Movement Disorders.

One of the founders of the international Movement Disorder Society, Dr. Jankovic was elected its 3rd president in 1994. He is an Honorary Member of the American Neurological Association, Australian Association of Neurologists, French Neurological Society, European Federation of Neurological Societies, and the International Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Society. Selected as a “Great Teacher” by the National Institute of Health, Dr. Jankovic is the recipient of many other honors including the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Movement Disorders Research Award, sponsored by the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, the Guthrie Family Humanitarian Award, presented by the Huntington’s Disease Society of America, the Tourette Syndrome Association Lifetime Achievement Award, the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation Distinguished Service Award, the Baylor College of Medicine Alumni Association Distinguished Faculty Award, and the Fulbright & Jaworski Faculty Excellence Award.

Listed in Highly Cited Researcher (, Dr. Jankovic had been principal investigator in over hundred clinical trials and his pioneering research on drugs for parkinsonian disorders and hyperkinetic movement disorders, including botulinum toxin and tetrabenazine, has led to their approval by the Food and Drug Administration. Dr. Jankovic has published over 900 original articles and chapters, and edited or co-edited over 50 books and volumes, including several standard textbooks such as “Neurology in Clinical Practice”, “Principles and Practice of Movement Disorders”, and “Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders”. He has been a member of numerous editorial boards including Neurology, Movement Disorders, Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Journal of Neurological Sciences, Neurology Medlink, Clinical Neuropharmacology, Neurotherapeutics, Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, PeerJ, and other journals. Dr. Jankovic has co-directed the annual course “A Comprehensive Review of Movement Disorders”, in Aspen, Colorado since 1990. Invited as a key note speaker and an endowed lecturer in many national and international institutions and organizations, Dr. Jankovic has directed or lectured in annual AAN courses, MDS-sponsored Congresses as well as other international meetings. Dr. Jankovic has mentored numerous fellows and other trainees many of whom have become leaders in the field of neurology and movement disorders.

Certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Dr. Jankovic is a fellow of the AAN and an active member of many other professional organizations. He is current or past member of numerous scientific and medical advisory boards of national foundations including the Worldwide Education and Awareness for Movement Disorders (WE MOVE), Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, International Tremor Foundation, Tourette Syndrome Association, and the World Federation of Neurology Association of Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. Dr. Jankovic has also served on the executive scientific advisory board of the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research and the National Parkinson Foundation Clinical and Scientific Advisory Board. The Best Doctors in America, America’s Top Doctors, Listed in US News and World Report’s "Top Doctors", Who’s Who in the World, and other Who’s Who references (; full CV available on request).

Affiliations and Expertise

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA


2016 BMA Medical Book Awards Highly Commended in Neurology


2016 BMA Medical Book Awards Highly Commended in Neurology

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