Motivation for Learning and Performance

Motivation for Learning and Performance

1st Edition - June 20, 2015

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  • Author: Bobby Hoffman
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007792
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128011256

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Designed for educators, researchers, practitioners, or anyone interested in maximizing human potential, Motivation for Learning and Performance outlines 50 key motivation principles based on the latest scientific evidence from the disciplines of psychology, education, business, athletics, and neurology. Using a highly applied and conversational style, the book is designed to inform the reader about how to diagnosis, analyze, and mediate learning and performance challenges influenced by motivation. The book features chapters on the biopsychology of motivation, how motivation changes across the lifespan, and the important influence of culture on motivated behavior. Three chapters are devoted to practical strategies and the implementation of motivational change. Special sections are included on enhancing motivation at work, in the classroom, in competitive environments, and during online education. Hoffman employs the innovative approach of using his interviews with "real" people including many notable personalities across diverse cultures and disciplines to illustrate motivated behavior. For example, readers will learn what motivated the colossal investment fraud masterminded by Bernie Madoff, the intimate thoughts of former NFL superstar Nick Lowery when he missed a field goal, and the joys and tribulations of Emmy-nominated "Curb your Enthusiasm" actress Cheryl Hines. The book provides a practical, applied, and multi-disciplinary resource for anyone interested in motivation and performance, but especially for university students at the graduate or undergraduate level studying education, psychology, business, leadership, hospitality, sports management, or military science.  Additionally, the writing style and eclectic nature of the text will appeal to readers of non-fiction who can use the book to gain self-awareness to enhance performance of themselves or others.

Key Features

  • Considers motivation for both learning and performance
  • Identifies 50 foundational principles relating to motivation
  • Provides research evidence supporting the foundational principles
  • Includes interviews from famous individuals, identifying what motivated them and why
  • Includes research from psychology, education, neuroscience, business, and sports


Graduate courses in motivation and performance, researchers in cognitive psychology, applied psychology, and sports psychology

Table of Contents

    • Preface
      • The design of the book
      • The style of the book
      • The structure of the book
      • Key components of the book
    • Acknowledgments
    • Part I: The framework of human motivation
      • 1. Underpinnings: Five foundational doctrines of motivational science
        • Introduction
        • Principle #1—Motivational inequality is a measurable reality
        • Principle #2—Motivation can be defined, but not universally
        • Principle #3—There is no such thing as being unmotivated
        • Principle #4—Behavior≠motivation, and there are no "motivational" types
        • Principle #5—Individuals may not recognize or understand their own motives
        • References
      • 2. Contentious issues: How evidence refutes motivational misconceptions
        • Principle #6—Motivational beliefs differ from motivational knowledge
        • Principle #7—Motivational evidence can only answer certain questions
        • Principle #8—Motivation is related to learning and performance but causality is an uncertainty
        • Principle #9—Motivation is subordinate to character and personality
        • Principle #10—Motivation is the responsibility of leaders and can be taught
        • Principle #11—Theoretically, motivated behavior operates on a continuum
        • Principle #12—Optimal motivation is obtainable
        • References
      • 3. The biopsychology of motivation: Using evidence from neurology and endocrinology to understand motivated behavior
        • Principle #13—Neurological/endocrinological evidence informs or refutes behavioral evidence
        • Principle #14—Neurological/endocrinological inferences are multi-dimensional
        • Principle #15—The brain is a perceptual filter influencing subjective reality
        • Principle #16—Neurological system organization facilitates or inhibits action
        • Principle #17—Power and social dominance displays mimic sympathetic nervous system activation
        • Principle #18—Displays of affiliation mimic parasympathetic nervous system activation
        • Principle #19—Achievement and incentive reward share similar neural response patterns
        • Principle #20—Humanity is motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain
        • Principle #21—Motivated behavior is heritable and evolutionary
        • References
      • 4. Ch, ch, changes: The developmental trajectory of motivation
        • Principle #22—Biological change is predictable, motivational change is not
        • Principle #23—Academic and competency motives have developmental trajectories
        • Principle #24—Excellence judgments influence effort direction and intensity
        • Principle #25—Evolution of values and morality mediate moral motivation
        • Principle #26—Gender congruity evaluations substantially influence perceptions of "fit"
        • References
      • 5. A rose by any other name: The influence of culture on motivated behavior
        • Principle #27—Culture transcends demographics
        • Principle #28—Ethnic identity shapes self-concept and self-relevant motivations
        • Principle #29—Motivational differences exist between individualistic and collectivistic cultures
        • Principle #30—Communication and language patterns are revealing cultural markers
        • Principle #31—Leadership is subjectively interpreted according to culture
        • References
    • Part II: The powerful role of individual differences and self-beliefs
      • 6. You say to-may-toe, I say to-mah-toe: Individual differences in motives guide focus and effort
        • Principle #32—The source of motives determines goal emphasis and strategy choice
        • Principle #33—Individual reaction to incentives is variable, and predictable
        • Principle #34—Goal type and orientation are reliable and accurate predictors of behavior
        • Principle #35—Interest is a multi-faceted contributor to motivational intensity
        • References
      • 7. Mount Rushmore: Bedrock theories of applied motivation
        • Principle #36—Past performance guides future motivation
        • Principle #37—Certain motives are extraordinarily difficult to suppress
        • Principle #38—After ability, self-efficacy explains more performance variation than any other motivational self-belief
        • Principle #39—Motivational theory is applied temporally and situationally
        • References
      • 8. Can I see the real me?: The powerful influence of self-beliefs on motivated behavior
        • Principle #40—The psychological or physical presence of others may alter normative behavior
        • Principle #41—Pro-social behaviors are compliant, adaptive, and predictable
        • Principle #42—Pro-social motives are egoistic and altruistic
        • Principle #43—Performance inhibiting strategies augment self-worth
        • References
      • 9. No place to hide: Motivation and emotion
        • Principle #44—Emotional reactions are localized, subjective, and learned
        • Principle #45—Anxiety and boredom are performance-restricting culprits
        • Principle #46—Positive affect is a powerful performance determinant
        • Principle #47—Individuals restructure affect to regulate their emotions
        • References
    • Part III: Mediation and implementation strategies to promote optimal learning and performance
      • 10. Ready, aim, fire…repeat?: Self-regulation strategies to improve adaptive motivation
        • Principle #48—Self-regulation is personalized, transitory, and marginally predictable
        • Principle #49—Self-regulatory ability is depletable; accurate calibration is essential
        • Principle #50—Optimal motivation demands monitoring, metacognition, and metamotivation
        • References
      • 11. Location, location, location: Creating and implementing context-specific interventions
        • Promoting adaptive academic motivation
        • Strategies to motivate work performance
        • Optimizing motivation for athletic and public performances
        • Motivational strategies to enhance online learning and instructional design
        • References
      • 12. The transformers: Overcoming resistance to motivational change
        • Why do people resist change?
        • Which strategies will individuals use to refute change?
        • Overcoming change resistance in others
        • Instructional strategies supporting conceptual change
        • Learning from leaders
        • Epilogue
        • References
    • Appendix. Measuring motivation
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 426
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: June 20, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007792
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128011256

About the Author

Bobby Hoffman

Bobby Hoffman

Dr. Bobby Hoffman is an Associate Professor in the School of Teaching, Learning & Leadership at the University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, Florida. He is a 2006 graduate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) with a PhD in Educational Psychology. He has also earned a Master’s degree in Human Resources Psychology and a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology. He joined UCF in August 2006 after a 20-year career in human resources management and performance consulting working with the world's most successful companies including GE, NBC, KPMG, the NBA, along with other global technology, insurance, and pharmaceutical organizations. Currently, Bobby teaches a variety of classes at the graduate level in motivation, learning, cognition, and intelligence.

Dr. Hoffman has numerous scholarly publications in leading scientific journals in the field of educational psychology, performance consulting, and technology. Additionally, Dr. Hoffman has authored over thirty publications in the field of management and organizational development related to his previous consulting practice. Hoffman’s current line of research focuses upon motivation and specifically how cognition and motivation are entwined. His primary research focus is on “cognitive efficiency,” which investigates the role of optimal cognition when considering the costs related to learning and performance such as working memory, anxiety, and strategy use.

Dr. Hoffman is co-creator and former program director of UCF’s Applied Learning and Instruction Master’s program. In addition, Hoffman was program co-chair in 2011 for the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Division 15, Educational Psychology. He serves on several journal editorial boards including Contemporary Educational Psychology, Educational Psychology Review, and Educational Technology, Research & Development. When not devoting attention to teaching or research, Dr. Hoffman likes to spend time exercising, reading, traveling, mastering the Italian language, and focusing on the perpetual quest to motivate his two children, Robert and Rebecca.

Additional information on Dr. Hoffman can be reviewed on the UCF faculty page or through Google Scholar, or on his website

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, University of Central Florida, College of Education, Orlando, Florida, USA

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