Morphometry of the Human Lung - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483200767, 9781483225791

Morphometry of the Human Lung

1st Edition

Authors: Ewald R. Weibel
eBook ISBN: 9781483225791
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 164
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Morphometry of the Human Lung considers the developments in understanding the quantitative anatomy of the lung, and in the correlation of anatomy with physiology.
This book is composed of 11 chapters, and begins with an overview of a systematic approach to a quantitative morphologic analysis of the architecture of the human lung, followed by a presentation of general problems of methodology and the derivation of reliable dimensional models of this organ. The subsequent chapters describe the methods of preparation of tissues, methods of random sampling, and adaptation of methodologies from other fields of science. These topics are followed by discussions the mathematical formulations for the translation of the data into the desired geometric forms and a technique of counting. The final chapters look into the mode of distribution and geometric forms that should eventually facilitate mathematical and physical considerations regarding the function of the lungs. These chapters also consider the application of these quantitative methods to the study of pathologic specimens, providing a most timely renovation of morphologic pathology. This book will be of value to pulmonologists, physiologists, and researchers who are interested in lung morphometry.

Table of Contents

I. Introduction

II. Organization of the Human Lung

III. Principles and Methods of Morphometry

A. Fundamental Questions of Sampling for Morphometric Studies

1. Randomness and Non-randomness of Distribution of Structures

2. Sampling of Randomly Distributed Structures

3. Sampling of Non-randomly Distributed Structures

B. Principles and Methods of Microscopic Quantitation on the Basis of Two-dimensional Samples

1. Principles for Analyzing Volumetric Proportions of Tissue Components

2. Principle for Counting Tissue Structures on Random Sections

3. Methods of Microscopic Measurement of Linear Dimensions

4. Principle for Estimating the Thickness of a Tissue Sheet such as the Alveolo-capillary Air-blood Barrier

5. Principles for Estimating the Area of Three-dimensional Surfaces

IV. Material and Methods of Preparation for Morphometric Studies of the Lung

A. Material Used in this Study

1. Material for Microscopic Studies

2. Material for Macroscopic Study of Conductive Airways

B. Preparation of the Lungs for Microscopic Studies

1. Fixation and Processing of Tissue

2. Degree of Inflation

3. Correction for Artifacts

4. Practical Methods of Random Sampling

5. Methods of Histologie Demonstration

C. Preparation of Lungs for Electron microscopic Studies

1. Fixation and Processing of Tissue

2. Discussion of Artifacts

3. Practical Sampling Procedures

V. Volumetric Composition of the Human Lung

VI. Geometry and Dimensions of Airways of Respiratory Zone

A. Geometry of Alveoli and their Relationship to Alveolar Ducts

B. Number of Alveoli

1. Results of our Studies

2. Discussion of Results

C. Linear Dimensions of the Average Alveolus

D. Total Alveolar Surface Area

1. Estimation of Total Alveolar Surface by Geometric Method

2. Estimation of Alveolar Surface Area by Mean-chord-length Method

3. Total Alveolar Surface from Linear Dimensions of Alveoli

4. Discussion and Correlation of Findings

E. Relation of Estimated Alveolar Surface Area to Actual Air-tissue-interface

F. Effect of Constitutional Lung Size and Different Degrees of Inflation on Alveolar Dimensions

VII. Geometry and Dimensions of Alveolar Capillary Network

A. Architecture of the Alveolar Capillary Network

B. Geometry of Capillary Segments

C. Dimensions of the Capillary Network

1. Dimensions and Number of Capillary Segments

2. Over-all Volume and Surface of the Alveolar Capillary Bed

D. Relation of Capillary Network Units to Pre- and Postcapillaries

E. Discussion of the Findings on the Total Capillary Network

VIII. Composition and Dimensions of Alveolo-capillary Tissue Barrier

A. Nature of the Alveolo-capillary Tissue Barrier

1. Alveolar Epithelium

2. Capillary Endothelium

3. Interstitium

4. Discussion

B. Over-all Dimensions of Air-blood Barrier

C. Distribution of Components Within Alveolo-capillary Tissue Space

D. Discussion

IX. Geometric and Dimensional Model of the Respiratory Zone

X. Geometry and Dimensions of Airways of Conductive and Transitory Zones

A. Architecture of the Human Airway System

1. General Organization and Definition of Terms

2. Pattern of Airway Branching

3. Geometry of the Airway Elements

4. Analytic Properties of a System of Dichotomies

B. Dimensions of Proximal Airway Elements of the Conductive Zone

1. Method of Analysis

2. Results of Measurement

3. Completion of Distribution of Diameters

4. Completion of Distribution of Lengths

5. Average Length-to-diameter Ratio

6. Average Dimensions of Airways of First Ten Generations

7. Variation of Airway Dimensions

C. Dimensions of Airway Elements of Transitory Zone

1. Dimensions of Alveolar Ducts and Sacs

2. Number of Alveolar Ducts and Sacs

3. Dimensions of Respiratory Bronchioles

D. Comparison of these Findings with Dimensions Obtained on Bronchograms

E. Average Number of Airway Generations and Correlation of Dimensions

F. Discussion of the Findings

XI. Geometric and Dimensional Airway Models of Conductive, Transitory and Respiratory Zones of Human Lung

A. Model "A": Regular Dichotomy

B. Model "B" : Irregular Dichotomy



Subject Index


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Academic Press
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Ewald R. Weibel

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