Monitoring Solar Heating Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080299921, 9781483140711

Monitoring Solar Heating Systems

1st Edition

A Practical Handbook

Editors: R. Ferraro R. Godoy D. Turrent
eBook ISBN: 9781483140711
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1983
Page Count: 266
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Monitoring Solar Heating Systems: A Practical Handbook focuses on the CEC Performance Monitoring Group’s objective to draw conclusions on benefits of installing solar heating systems in different parts of the European Economic Community. This book notes that small numbers of domestic solar heating systems have been built and installed in Europe, both in private homes and, more often, in homes built as part of national research and development programs. To demonstrate the value of solar energy and to monitor the behavior and output of solar heating systems, performance monitoring systems have been installed to collect the relevant performance data. Various recommendations are made and mentioned in Chapter 2, while several materials have been drawn together to assist those without previous detailed experience in this field to gain insight into monitoring the solar heat systems; these discussions are included in Chapters 3 and 4. This text also covers the monitoring of solar assisted active space heating systems, solar assisted passive space heating systems, and solar assisted domestic hot water systems.
This book is a useful reference for those involved in monitoring the solar heating systems, who consider their task in light of the experience of others.

Table of Contents


0.0 Introduction

0.1 Context

0.2 Scope

0.3 Objectives

0.4 Audience

0.5 Time Scales in a Typical Monitoring Program

0.6 The Handbook

1.0 Performance Monitoring: Active and Passive Systems

1.1 Monitoring Objectives and Strategy

1.2 Levels of Monitoring

1.3 Monitoring Active Systems

1.4 Monitoring Passive Systems

1.5 Passive Systems: Detailed Considerations

1.5.1 A Problem of Definition

1.5.2 A Problem of Measurement

1.5.3 Conclusions

2.0 Measuring Requirements

2.1 Sub-System Breakdown

2.1.1 Active and Passive Systems

2.1.2 Measuring Points

2.2 Continuous and One-Time Measurements

2.3 Frames

3.0 Measuring Instruments: Selection and Installation

3.1 General

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Initial Instrument Selection

3.1.3 Systematic and Accidental Errors

3.1.4 Overall Accuracy Standards

3.2 Solar Radiation Measurement

3.2.1 Measurement: General

3.2.2 Instrument Types

3.2.3 Measurement: Direct and Diffuse Radiation

3.2.4 Installation and Data Recording

3.2.5 Calibration and Accuracy

3.3 Wind Speed and Direction

3.3.1 Measurement: General

3.3.2 Instrument Types

3.3.3 Installation and Data Recording

3.3.4 Calibration and Accuracy

3.4 Humidity Measurement

3.4.1 Measurement: General

3.4.2 Instrument Types

3.4.3 Applications

3.5 Atmospheric Pressure Measurement

3.5.1 Measurement: General

3.5.2 Instrument Types

3.6 Mass Flowmeters

3.6.1 Measurement: General

3.6.2 Instrument Types

3.6.3 Installation and Data Recording

3.6.4 Calibration and Accuracy

3.7 Heat Flow Measurement

3.7.1 Measurement: General

3.7.2 Instrument Types

3.7.3 Applications

3.7.4 Installation and Data Recording

3.7.5 Calibration

3.8 Heat Flux Measurement

3.8.1 Measurement: General

3.8.2 Instrument Types

3.8.3 Installation and Data Recording

3.8.4 Application

3.8.5 Calibration

3.9 Auxiliary Fuel Measurement

3.9.1 Measurement: General

3.9.2 Instrument Types and Accuracy

3.10 Occupancy Measurement: Doors and Windows

3.10.1 Measurement: General

3.10.2 Instrument Types and Installation

3.10.3 Data Recording

3.11 Wiring

3.11.1 General

3.11.2 Coding and Installation

4.0 Temperature Measurements

4.1 Measurement: General

4.2 Instrument Types and Data Recording

4.2.1 General

4.2.2 Thermocouples

4.2.3 Thermopiles

4.2.4 Resistance Thermometer Devices (RTD's)

4.2.5 Thermistors

4.3 Installation

4.3.1 General

4.3.2 Thermocouples

4.3.3 Resistance Temperature Devices

4.3.4 Thermistors

4.4 Applications

4.4.1 External Ambient Temperature

4.4.2 Internal Space Temperature

4.4.3 Air Temperature Measurements in Ducts and Air Collectors

4.4.4 Liquid Temperature Measurements in Pipes and Collectors

4.4.5 Temperature Measurement of Solids and Surfaces

4.5 Calibration and Accuracy

4.5.1 Accuracy Standards

4.5.2 Calibration

5.0 Data Acquisition Systems, Data Storage, Transmission and Recording

5.1 General

5.2 Basic Requirements

5.3 Main Components-Outline Description

5.3.1 Sensors

5.3.2 Data Reception Devices

5.3.3 Control Systems

5.3.4 Data Storage and Transmission

5.3.5 Alternative Configurations

5.4 Technical Elements of Data Processing

5.4.1 Word Length

5.4.2 Accuracy of Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADS) for Particular Sensors

5.4.3 Memory Capacity

5.4.4 Mass Storage Capacity

5.4.5 Identification of On-site Software Requirements

5.5 Data Storage, Reduction, Transmission and Recording

5.5.1 Alternatives

5.5.2 Storage and Transfer of Reduced Data

5.5.3 Storage and Transfer of Raw Data

5.5.4 Storage of Analyzed Data

5.5.5 Data Storage Devices

5.5.6 Choice of Data Storage Device

5.5.7 Data Transfer Using Communication Lines

5.5.8 Recording Formats

5.6 Pulse Counters and Integration Units

5.6.1 Pulse Counters

5.6.2 Integration Units

6.0 Measurement Requirements and Data Acquisition Systems: Case Study Examples

6.1 Measurement Requirements and Data Acquisition Systems

6.1.1 General

6.1.2 Sample Tasks: Calculation of the Number of Measuring Points

6.1.3 Range of Measurement Frequencies and Number of Records to be Stored

6.1.4 Variations Due to Site Geography and Microprocessor Equipment Sources

6.2 Data Acquisition System Equipment: 4 Configurations

6.2.1 General

6.2.2 Configuration 1

6.2.3 Configuration 2

6.2.4 Configuration 3

6.2.5 Configuration 4

6.2.6 Comparative Assessment of System Facilities

6.2.7 Assessment of Data Acquisition Systems for Sample Tasks

6.3 Data Acquisition Systems: Costs

6.4 Conclusions

7.0 Data Reduction and Treatment

7.1 General

7.2 Calculations Required

7.2.1 Common Variables

7.2.2 Conversion to Required Units

7.2.3 Averaging/Integration

7.2.4 Average in Space

7.2.5 Calculation of Heat Flows

7.3 Errors

7.3.1 Transmission of Errors

7.3.2 Errors Resulting from Measuring Frequency

7.4 Gaps in Data

7.4.1 General

7.4.2 A Sample Strategy for Filling Gaps in Data

7.5 Examples of Data Handling and Treatment

7.5.1 Raw Data Stored and Transferred on Magnetic Tape

7.5.2 Data Reduction on Site, Storage and Transfer on Paper Tape

8.0 Check Procedures and Maintenance

8.1 General

8.1.1 The Need for Systematic Check Procedures

8.1.2 Different Stages of Checking

8.1.3 Planning the Monitoring System and Solar Heating System

8.1.4 Software for Data Acquisition Systems

8.1.5 Laboratory Test Rigs

8.2 Checking Sensors before Installation

8.2.1 General

8.2.2 Pyranometers

8.2.3 Anemometers and Hygrometers

8.2.4 Absolute Temperatures

8.2.5 Temperature Difference

8.2.6 Mass Flowmeters

8.2.7 Liquid Heat Meters

8.2.8 Heat Flux Meters

8.3 Commissioning

8.4 In-Situ Checks Performed during the Monitoring Period

8.4.1 General

8.4.2 Regular Checks

8.4.3 In-Situ Check of Storage Heat Loss Coefficient

8.4.4 In-Situ Check of Liquid Heat Meters

8.5 Servicing and Maintenance of the Equipment


A.1.0 Post Monitoring Procedures

A.1.1 General

A.1.2 Checking for Correct Function of Solar Installations

A.1.3 Checking the Condition of the Major Components and System Behavior over a Long Period

A.1.4 Standard Maintenance or Service Check of the Total System

A.1.5 Conclusions and Recommendations

A.2.0 One-Time Measurements

A.2.1 General

A.2.2 Collector Efficiency

A.2.3 Standing Losses from Heat Storage Tanks

A.2.4 Auxiliary Boiler Efficiency

A.2.5 Heat Pump Coefficient of Performance

A.2.6 Heat Recovery Efficiency

A.2.7 Thermal Calibration of the House

A.3.0 Reference Documents & Bibliography

A.4.0 Definitions

A.5.0 Monitoring Organizations

A.6.0 Monitoring Equipment Catalog


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1983
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

R. Ferraro

R. Godoy

D. Turrent