Momentum Transfer in Fluids

Momentum Transfer in Fluids

1st Edition - January 1, 1956

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  • Author: Wm.H. Corcoran
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151924

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Description

Momentum Transfer in Fluids provides information pertinent to fluid mechanics. This book discusses several topics related to the movement of fluids, including boundary-layer analysis, statistical treatment of turbulence, as well as laminar and turbulent shear-flow. Comprised of seven chapters, this book starts with an overview of the physical nature of momentum and describes the application of this concept to systems of variable weight, which are useful in the prediction of the physical behavior of fluids in motion. This text then explores the fundamental properties and the macroscopic aspects of turbulent flow. Other chapters present the significance and utility of mixing length and other macroscopic turbulence parameters. This book discusses as well the prediction of the velocity and friction as functions of position in the flowing stream. The final chapter deals with the qualitative aspects of boundary flows for compressible and incompressible fluids. This book is a valuable resource for scientists and chemical engineers.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter I. Introduction to momentum transfer

    I-1. Fundamental Variables

    I-2. Frames of Reference

    I-3. Definition of Element of Volume

    I-4. Conservation of Momentum

    I-5. Pressure Gradient

    I-6. Thermodynamics of Flowing Systems

    I-7. Stress and Deformation

    I-8. Types of Fluid Flow

    I-9. Time Averages

    I-10. Flow Equation for an Important Special Case

    I-11. Flow in a Circular Pipe

    Example I

    I-12. The Bernoulli Equation

    I-13. Flow between Parallel Flat Plates

    I-14. Laminar Flow in a Cylindrical Pipe

    I-15. Steady, Uniform, Laminar Flow between Parallel Plates

    I-16. Dimensionless Parameters

    Example 2

    Example 3

    I-17. Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow

    I-18. Friction Coefficients

    I-19. Smooth and Rough Circular Pipes

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter II. Some Simple Properties of Turbulent Flow

    II-1. Concepts of Flow

    II-2. Temperature Fluctuations

    II-3. Transfer of Momentum as a Result of Turbulence

    II-4. Measurement of Velocity

    II-5. Characteristic Length

    II-6. Mixing Length

    II-7. Eddy Viscosity

    II-8. Dimensionless Relations

    II-9. Flow near Boundary

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter III. Some Macroscopic Characteristics of Turbulent Flow

    III-1. The Similarity Hypothesis

    III-2. Idealized Turbulent Flow between Parallel Plates Based on Similarity Hypothesis

    III-3. Idealized Turbulent Flow in a Circular Channel — Similarity Hypothesis

    III-4. The Momentum Transfer Hypothesis

    ΙΙΙ-5. Idealized Turbulent Flow between Parallel Plates — Momentum Transfer Hypothesis

    III-6. Transport Characteristics

    III-7. The Vorticity Transport Hypothesis

    III-8. Simplified Velocity Deficiency Relations

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter IV. Velocity Distribution and Friction Factors for Turbulent Flow

    IV-1. Velocity Distribution at Boundary in Circular Conduits

    IV-2. Transition Region

    IV-3. Flow between Parallel Plates

    IV-4. Behavior near Center of Channel

    IV-5. Bulk Velocities

    IV-6. Resistance to Flow

    IV-7. Resistance Factor λ

    IV-8. Laminar Film Thickness

    IV-9. Velocity Distribution in Rough Conduits

    IV-10. Friction Factor

    IV-11. Experimental Results for Flow in Circular Conduits

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter V. General Equations of Fluid Motion

    V-1. Equation of Continuity

    V-2. Boundary Conditions for the Equation of Continuity

    V-3. Acceleration of the Flowing Fluid

    V-4. External Forces Acting on a Flowing Fluid

    V-5. Forces Acting on the Surface of a Portion of a Flowing Fluid

    V-6. Momentum Equations for a Flowing Fluid

    V-7. Acceleration of the Flowing Fluid (Continued)

    V-8. Evaluation of the Surface Stresses in a Flowing Fluid

    V-9. Navier-Stokes Equations

    V-10. Navier-Stokes Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates

    V-11. Navier-Stokes Equations for Spherical Coordinates

    V-12. Dimensionless Form of the Equations of Motion

    Example 1

    Example 2

    V-13. Initial and Boundary Conditions for the Equations of Motion

    V-14. Comments on the Solution of the Equations of Motion

    V-15. General Discussion of Turbulent Flow

    V-16. Reynolds Transformation of the Equations of Motion

    Example 3

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter VI. Some Properties of Turbulence

    VI-1. Measurement of the Physical Nature of Turbulence

    VI-2. Correlations

    VI-3. Characteristic Properties

    VI-4. Kinetic Energy

    VI-5. Spectrum of Turbulence

    VI-6. Decay of Turbulence

    VI-7. Temperature Fluctuations

    VI-8. Eddy Viscosities

    VI-9. Structure of Turbulent Shear-Flow

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter VII. Boundary Layer

    VII-1. Steady Uniform Flow

    VII-2. Nonuniform, Steady Boundary-Flow

    VII-3. Transition

    VII-4. Boundary Flows for Incompressible Fluids

    VII-5. Navier-Stokes Equations

    VII-6. Environmental Conditions

    VII-7. Separation

    VII-8. Drag on Immersed Bodies

    VII-9. Flow along a Flat Plate

    Example 1

    Example 2

    VII-10. Drag

    VII-11. Thickness of Boundary Layer

    VII-12. Effect of Curvature

    VII-13. Flow about Circular Cylinders

    Example 3

    VII-14. The Momentum Theorem

    VII-15. A Polynomial Velocity Distribution

    Example 4

    VII-16. Estimation of Separation

    VII-17. Analysis

    VII-18. Turbulent Boundary Layers

    VII-19. Effect of Anisotropic Turbulence

    VII-20. Minor Correction Terms

    VII-21. Effects of Dissipation and Thermal Transfer

    VII-22. Temperature Recovery Factors

    VII-23. Laminar Flow

    VII-24. Slip Flow

    VII-25. Turbulent Flow

    Nomenclature

    References

    Appendix I. A derivation of Bernoulli's Equation

    Nomenclature

    Appendix II. An Introduction to Tensors and the Statistical Theory of Turbulence

    AII-1. An Introduction to Tensors

    ΑΙΙ-2. Newtonian Stress Tensor

    ΑΙΙ-3. Acceleration in Generalized Coordinates

    ΑΙΙ-4. Components of Vorticity

    ΑΙΙ-5. Navier-Stokes Equation

    AII-6. Reynolds Stresses

    AII-7. Bernoulli's Equation

    AII-8. Definition of Isotropic Turbulence

    AII-9. Derivation of the Correlation Tensor for Isotropic Turbulence

    AII-10. Correlation Coefficients between the Derivatives of the Velocities

    AII-11. Expression of Mean Values by Integrals

    AII-12. Correlation between Pressure and Velocity

    AII-13. Triple Correlations

    AII-14. Propagation of the Correlation

    AII-15. Relation between Correlation and Spectral Theories

    Nomenclature

    References

    Appendix III. Constants and Conversion Factors, Dimensions

    Nomenclature

    References

    Appendix IV. Analysis of Potential Flow Across a Cylinder

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 406
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1956
  • Published: January 1, 1956
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151924

About the Author

Wm.H. Corcoran

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