- Electronic ISBN 9780080962580
- Print ISBN 9780123750211
Molecular Wine Microbiology features rigorous scientific content written at a level comprehensible for wine professionals as well as advanced students. It includes information on production and spoilage issues, the microbial groups relevant for wine production and microbial wine safety.
Microbiology has long been recognized as a key tool in studying wine production, however only recently have wine microbiology studies been addressed at a molecular level, increasing the understanding of how microbiology impacts not only the flavor quality of the wine, but also its safety. Understanding, at a molecular level, how a starter culture can impact ethanol, glycerol, volatile phenols, mannoproteins, biogenic amines or ochratoxin A of a wine are just some of the core points that must be considered in order to achieve maximium consumer acceptability while addressing safety concerns during processing and storage. While other books offer insights into the technological aspects of enology, this book is written by expert microbiologists, who explore the positive and negative impacts of gene function in the production of wine, from a microbiological point of view.
Chapter 1. Yeast. Saccharomyces I. Yeast for primary alcoholic fermentation.
1.1. Yeasts of interest for wine making
1.1.1. Yeast microbiota from grapes, cellars and must
1.1.2. Morphology and cellular organization of yeasts
1.1.3. Genetic features of wine yeasts
1.2.. Growth features of Saccharomyces during fermentation
1.2.1 Must composition
1.2.2. Physical parameters of the fermentation
1.2.3. Yeast growth and fermentation kinetics
1.2.4. Biochemistry of the fermentation
1.3. Gene expression along the fermentation process
1.3.1. Glycolytic genes
1.3.2. Osmotic stress responsive genes
1.3.3. Genes induced during stationary phase
1.3.4. Gene expression in wine yeasts under particular stress conditions
1.4. Yeast activities during fermentation that deserve improvement
1.4.1. Improvement of the fermentation power
1.4.2. Improvement of ethanol resistance
1.4.3. Improvement of sensorial and nutritional properties of the wine
Chapter 2. Yeast. Saccharomyces II. Second fermentation yeasts.
2.1. Sparkling wine making process. Technology and normative
2.1.1. Sparkling wines and their classification
2.1.2. Sparkling wines made by the traditional method
2.2. Making cava
2.2.1. Must fermentation
2.2.2. "Prisse de mouse"
2.2.3. Second fermentation
2.3. Microbiological aspects of second fermentation
2.4.1. Biochemical changes in the wine during wine ageing
2.4.2. Morphological changes of yeast cells during ageing
2.4.3. Genetics of autolysis. Autophagy
2.5. Effect of ageing on the quality of sparkling wines made by the traditional method
2.6. Methods to accelerate yeast autolysis, and their implication in the elaboration process
2.6.1. Temperature increase and addition of autolysates
2.6.2. Yeast genetic improvement
Chapter 3. Yeasts. Saccharomyces III. Yeast for wines with biological ageing.