Molecular Wine Microbiology

Molecular Wine Microbiology

1st Edition - April 4, 2011

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  • Editors: Alfonso Carrascosa Santiago, Rosario Munoz, Ramon Gonzalez Garcia
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080962580
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123750211

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Molecular Wine Microbiology features rigorous scientific content written at a level comprehensible for wine professionals as well as advanced students. It includes information on production and spoilage issues, the microbial groups relevant for wine production and microbial wine safety. Microbiology has long been recognized as a key tool in studying wine production, however only recently have wine microbiology studies been addressed at a molecular level, increasing the understanding of how microbiology impacts not only the flavor quality of the wine, but also its safety. Understanding, at a molecular level, how a starter culture can impact ethanol, glycerol, volatile phenols, mannoproteins, biogenic amines or ochratoxin A of a wine are just some of the core points that must be considered in order to achieve maximium consumer acceptability while addressing safety concerns during processing and storage. While other books offer insights into the technological aspects of enology, this book is written by expert microbiologists, who explore the positive and negative impacts of gene function in the production of wine, from a microbiological point of view.

Key Features

  • Winner of the 2012 Jury Award in Enology from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine
  • Presents the most current methods of studying the microbiology of wine
  • Includes latest identification and typing methods, reducing identification time from days and weeks to minutes and hours
  • Provides important knowledge about the impact of microbiological factors at the molecular level for reduction of wine spoilage and increased wine quality and safety


Enology, Food Microbiology, and Food Science Researchers, teachers and students. Professional enologists working in wineries.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Yeast. Saccharomyces I. Yeast for primary alcoholic fermentation.
    1.1. Yeasts of interest for wine making
    1.1.1. Yeast microbiota from grapes, cellars and must
    1.1.2. Morphology and cellular organization of yeasts
    1.1.3. Genetic features of wine yeasts
    1.2.. Growth features of Saccharomyces during fermentation
    1.2.1 Must composition
    1.2.2. Physical parameters of the fermentation
    1.2.3. Yeast growth and fermentation kinetics
    1.2.4. Biochemistry of the fermentation
    1.3. Gene expression along the fermentation process
    1.3.1. Glycolytic genes
    1.3.2. Osmotic stress responsive genes
    1.3.3. Genes induced during stationary phase
    1.3.4. Gene expression in wine yeasts under particular stress conditions
    1.4. Yeast activities during fermentation that deserve improvement
    1.4.1. Improvement of the fermentation power
    1.4.2. Improvement of ethanol resistance
    1.4.3. Improvement of sensorial and nutritional properties of the wine

    Chapter 2. Yeast. Saccharomyces II. Second fermentation yeasts.
    2.1. Sparkling wine making process. Technology and normative
    2.1.1. Sparkling wines and their classification
    2.1.2. Sparkling wines made by the traditional method
    2.2. Making cava
    2.2.1. Must fermentation
    2.2.2. "Prisse de mouse"
    2.2.3. Second fermentation
    2.3. Microbiological aspects of second fermentation
    2.4. Ageing
    2.4.1. Biochemical changes in the wine during wine ageing
    2.4.2. Morphological changes of yeast cells during ageing
    2.4.3. Genetics of autolysis. Autophagy
    2.5. Effect of ageing on the quality of sparkling wines made by the traditional method
    2.6. Methods to accelerate yeast autolysis, and their implication in the elaboration process
    2.6.1. Temperature increase and addition of autolysates
    2.6.2. Yeast genetic improvement

    Chapter 3. Yeasts. Saccharomyces III. Yeast for wines with biological ageing.
    3.1. Introduction
    3.1.1. Making of wines with biological ageing
    3.1.2. Fermentation and ageing yeasts from wines with biological ageing
    3.2. Features of yeasts from wines with biological ageing
    3.2.1. Physiological features
    3.2.2. Genetic features
    3.3. Effect of environmental factors on the features of yeasts from wines with biological ageing
    3.3.1. Effect on the mitochondria
    3.3.2. Effect on nuclear chromosome
    3.3.3. Effect on the yeast membrane and cell membrane
    3.4. Evolution of cellular genome and yeast populations from wines with biological ageing
    3.5. Genetic improvement of wine yeasts.
    3.5.1. Improvement of the features of fermentation yeasts
    3.5.2. Improvement of the features of ageing yeasts
    3.6. Conclusions

    Chapter 4. Yeast. Non-Saccharomyces
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Isolation, identification and counting of non-Saccharomyces yeasts
    4.2.1. Isolation and counting
    4.2.2. Identification
    4.3. Role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine fermentation
    4.3.1. Effect on the process
    4.3.2. Effect on the aroma
    4.4. Design of mixed starter cultures
    4.5. Wine spoilage due to non-Saccharomyces yeasts
    4.5.1. Refermentation
    4.5.2. Excess of esther formation
    4.5.3. Increase in volatile acid content
    4.5.4. Production of volatile phenols and tetrahydropyridine derivatives
    4.5.5. Formation of microbial biofilms
    4.5.6. Deacidification
    4.6. Final considerations

    Chapter 5. Identification and molecular characterization of wine yeasts.
    5.1. Yeast biodiversity during fermentation
    5.2. Molecular methods for the identification and characterization of wine yeasts
    5.2.1. Identification methods
    5.2.2. Methods for the differentiation of strains within the S. cerevisiae species
    5.3.1. Hybridization techniques
    5.3.2. Pulse filed gel electrophoresis of chromosomes
    5.3.3. Restriction analysis of the mitochondrial DNA
    5.3.4. PCR based methods
    5.3.5. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)
    5.4. Applications
    5.4.1. Study of population dynamics during natural fermentations. Wine ecology.
    5.4.2. Study of population dynamics during inoculated fermentations. Implantation monitoring
    5.4.3. Characterization of commercial yeast strains
    5.4.4. Screening of new species and hybrids involved in wine fermentations
    5.4.5. Detection of wine spoilage yeasts

    Chapter 6. Genomics and proteomics of wine yeasts.
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Genomic features of wine yeasts
    6.3. Comparative genomics and the origin of the S. cerevisiae genome
    6.4. DNA chips. The yeast S. cerevisiae as a model for technology development
    6.4.1. Metabolic studies
    6.4.2. Effect of drugs and other compounds
    6.4.3. Application of DNA chips to the study of industrial yeast strains
    6.4.4. Genomics studies
    6.5. Proteomics of wine yeasts
    6.6. Other global studies
    6.7. Future prospects

    Chapter 7. Improvement of wine yeasts by genetic engineering techniques
    7.1. Wine, biotechnology and genetics
    7.1.1. Wine and classical genetics
    7.1.2. Wine and genetic engineering
    7.2. Genetic transformation systems for wine yeasts
    7.2.1. Transformation procedures
    7.2.2. Selection markers
    7.3. Regulation of gene expression: promoters with biotechnological interest
    7.4. Transgenic wine yeasts
    7.4.1. Improvement of the industrial winemaking process
    7.4.2. Improvement of the physico-chemical features of wine
    7.4.3. Sensorial and nutritional improvement
    7.5. Regulations about genetic engineering in wine
    7.5.1. Regulatory framework
    7.5.2. Labeling
    7.5.3. Situation in other countries
    7.6. Future

    Chapter 8. Lactic acid bacteria.
    8.1. Introduction. General features
    8.2. Identification of lactic acid bacteria
    8.2.1. Classical methods
    8.2.2. Molecular methods
    8.3. Population dynamics during wine making
    8.4. Metabolism.
    8.4.1. Metabolism of carbohydrates
    8.4.2. Metabolism of organic acids
    8.4.3. Metabolism of phenolic compounds
    8.4.4. Catabolism of aldehydes
    8.4.5. Hydrolysis of glycosides
    8.4.6. Synthesis and hydrolysis of esthers
    8.4.7. Hydrolysis of lipids
    8.4.8. Degradation of peptides and proteins
    8.4.9. Catabolism of amino acids
    8.5. Malolactic fermentation
    8.5.1. Use of malolactic starter cultures
    8.5.2.Contribution of MLF to the sensorial properties of wine
    8.6. Other relevant aspects
    8.6.1. Production of biogenic amines
    8.6.2. Formation of ethyl carbamate precursors
    8.6.3. Stress resistance
    8.6.4. Presence of bacteriphages
    8.6.5. Bacteriocine production
    8.7. Interactions between lactic acid bacteria and other microorganisms
    8.8. Wine spoilage by lactic acid bacteria
    8.8.1. Lactic acid spoilage
    8.8.2. Glycerol degradation and acrolein production
    8.8.3. Extracellular polysaccharides
    8.8.4. Off-flavors

    Chapter 9. Acetic acid bacteria.
    9.1. Introduction
    9.2. General features
    9.3. Nutrition and metabolism
    9.3.1. Metabolism of carbohydrates
    9.3.2. Metabolism of ethanol and other alcohols
    9.3.3. Metabolism of organic acids
    9.3.4. Metabolism of nitrogen
    9.4. Taxonomy
    9.4.1. Isolation
    9.4.2. Identification
    9.4.3. Molecular techniques for rapid identification of acetic acid bacteria
    9.4.4. Molecular techniques for strain characterization of acetic acid bacteria
    9.5. Development of acetic acid bacteria in wine enological processes
    9.5.1. Association of acetic acid bacteria with grapes
    9.5.2. Population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria during alcoholic fermentation
    9.6. Critical factors for acetic acid bacteria development. Control methods
    9.7. Wine spoilage by acetic acid bacteria
    9.8. Interactions with other wine microorganisms
    9.9. Final suggestions to avoid undesirable effects of acetic acid bacteria in wine

    Chapter 10. Filamentous fungi
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Main phytopathogenic fungi in grapevine
    10.2.1. Oidium
    10.2.2. Midiu
    10.2.3. Black rot
    10.2.4. Excoriosis
    10.2.5. Eutipiosis
    10.3. Botrytuis cinerea as a model case study of grapevine phytopathogenic fungi
    10.3.1. Infection of cultures
    10.3.2. Chemical penetration mechanism
    10.3.3. Research strategies for the phytopathogenic fungus B. cinerea

    Chapter 11. Production of starter cultures for winemaking
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Yeasts
    11.2.1. Historic notes
    11.2.2. Isolation and selection
    11.2.3. Production of biomass
    11.2.4. Drying
    11.2.5. Usage
    11.3. Lactic acid bacteria
    11.3.1. Selection and identification of strains
    11.3.2. Biomass production
    11.3.3. Freeze-drying packing and storage
    11.3.4. Usage

    Chapter 12. Conservation of wine related microbial strains
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Conservation methods for microbial strains
    12.2.1. Methods for long-term storage
    12.2.2. Alternative methods
    12.2.3. Other conservation methods
    12.2.4. Recovery
    12.3. Conservation of yeast of enological interest
    12.3.1. Long-term conservation
    12.3.2. Short-term conservation
    12.4. Conservation of wine bacteria
    12.4.1. Long-term conservation methods
    12.4.2. Short-term conservation
    12.5. Conservation of wine filamentous fungi
    12.5.1. Conservation methods for filamentous fungi

    Chapter 13. HACPC in wine making. Ochratoxin A.
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Generalities on HACPC
    13.2.1. Principles of HACPC
    13.2.2. Previous programs required
    13.3. Application of HACPC to winemaking
    13.3.1. Background
    13.3.2. Application of HACPC to ochratoxin A during winemaking

    Chapter 14. Applied enological microbiology
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Microbiological control of grapes
    14.3. Inoculation procedures
    14.3.1. Direct inoculation
    14.3.2. Preparation of ?pie de cuba? and calculation of inoculation percentages
    14.4. Molecular methods for the monitoring of the microorganisms employed
    14.5. Quality control of commercial yeasts and their implantation
    14.6. Control of lactic acid bacteria implantation
    14.7. Stuck fermentations, quick solutions
    14.7.1. Procedures in case of stuck fermentations
    14.8. Control of spoilage microorganisms
    14.8.1. Cautions against yeast spoilage
    14.8.2. Cautions against lactic acid bacteria spoilage
    14.8.3. Cautions against acetic acid bacteria spoilage
    14.9. Microbiology of the production of specific wines (Sherry wines, cava)
    14.9.1. ?Fino? wines
    14.9.2. ?Cava? wines
    14.10. Microbiological quality control of the final product
    14.11. New challenges for the scientific community: Genetically modified organisms.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 372
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: April 4, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080962580
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123750211

About the Editors

Alfonso Carrascosa Santiago

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Investigacion en Ciencias de la Alimentacion (CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain

Rosario Munoz

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos y Nutricion (CSIC), Madrid, Spain

Ramon Gonzalez Garcia

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (CSIC-UR-GR), Logrono, Spain

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