Molecular Tools and Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Molecular Tools and Infectious Disease Epidemiology

1st Edition - December 28, 2010

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  • Author: Betsy Foxman
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741332
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920849

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Description

Molecular Tools and Infectious Disease Epidemiology examines the opportunities and methodologic challenges in the application of modern molecular genetic and biologic techniques to infectious disease epidemiology. The application of these techniques dramatically improves the measurement of disease and putative risk factors, increasing our ability to detect and track outbreaks, identify risk factors and detect new infectious agents. However, integration of these techniques into epidemiologic studies also poses new challenges in the design, conduct, and analysis. This book presents the key points of consideration when integrating molecular biology and epidemiology; discusses how using molecular tools in epidemiologic research affects program design and conduct; considers the ethical concerns that arise in molecular epidemiologic studies; and provides a context for understanding and interpreting scientific literature as a foundation for subsequent practical experience in the laboratory and in the field. The book is recommended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students studying infectious disease epidemiology and molecular epidemiology; and for the epidemiologist wishing to integrate molecular techniques into his or her studies.

Key Features

  • Presents the key points of consideration when integrating molecular biology and epidemiology
  • Discusses how using molecular tools in epidemiologic research affects program design and conduct
  • Considers the ethical concerns that arise in molecular epidemiologic studies
  • Provides a context for understanding and interpreting scientific literature as a foundation for subsequent practical experience in the laboratory and in the field

Readership

Graduate and advanced undergraduate students studying infectious disease epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, the epidemiologist wishing to integrate molecular techniques into his or her studies

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 1. Introduction and Historical Perspective

    1.1. Introduction to Molecular Epidemiology

    1.2. Historical Perspectives

    1.3. Landmark Molecular Epidemiologic Studies

    1.4. What Makes Modern Molecular Tools Different?

    1.5. How Modern Molecular Epidemiology Differs From Traditional Epidemiologic Studies Using Laboratory Methods

    1.6. Overview of this Textbook

    Chapter 2. How Molecular Tools Enhance Epidemiologic Studies

    2.1. What is Misclassification Bias?

    2.2. How Reducing Misclassification via Molecular Tools Enhances Epidemiologic Studies

    2.3. Ways Molecular Tools Advance the Science of Epidemiology

    Chapter 3. Applications of Molecular Tools to Infectious Disease Epidemiology

    3.1. Outbreak Investigation

    3.2. Surveillance

    3.3. Transmission System

    3.4. Increase Understanding of the Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases

    3.5. Identify Previously Unknown or Uncultivable Infectious Microbes

    3.6. Provide Insight into Pathogen Gene Function and Host–Pathogen Interaction

    Chapter 4. A Primer of Epidemiologic Study Designs

    4.1. Experiment

    4.2. Cohort Study

    4.3. Cross-Sectional Study

    4.4. Case–Control Study

    4.5. Ecologic Study

    4.6. Biases

    Chapter 5. A Primer of Molecular Biology

    5.1. Central Dogma and Some Caveats

    5.2. Material Tested Using Molecular Tools

    5.3. Gene Variants, SNPS, Insertions, Deletions, and Frameshift Mutations

    5.4. Extrachromosomal Elements and Transposons

    5.5. Recombination

    5.6. Horizontal Gene Transfer

    5.7. An Introduction to Common Molecular Methods

    5.8. Sorting by Size, Charge, and Other Characteristics

    5.9. Polymerase Chain Reaction

    5.10. Sequencing

    5.11. Hybridization/antigen–Antibody Reactions

    Chapter 6. Molecular Tools

    6.1. Molecular Tools and Epidemiology

    6.2. The “OMICS”

    6.3. Genomics

    6.4. Transcriptomics

    6.5. Proteomics

    6.6. Metabolomics

    6.7. Epigenomics

    6.8. Interactomics

    6.9. Metagenomics and Metatranscriptomics

    6.10. Selecting the Correct Technique for the Research Question

    Chapter 7. Omics Analyses in Molecular Epidemiologic Studies

    7.1. Bioinformatics, Genetic Sequences, and Molecular Epidemiology

    7.2. Assemble Gene Sequences

    7.3. Compare and Analyze Genetic Sequence

    7.4. Gene Mapping

    7.5. Bioinformatics, Microarrays, and Application to Molecular Epidemiology

    7.6. Determining Similarity and Relatedness

    7.7. Analyses of Microbiome Data

    7.8. Documenting Genetic, Molecular, and Epidemiologic Data Sets

    Chapter 8. Determining the Reliability and Validity and Interpretation of a Measure in the Study Populations

    8.1. Identify All Data Handling and Processing Steps, from Specimen Collection to Recording Data in a Database

    8.2. Assess the Potential for Error at Each Step, and the Error Tolerance

    8.3. Determine the Reliability of the Selected Measure Across a Range of Values

    8.4. Determine the Validity of the Selected Measure

    8.5. Determine the Intralaboratory and Interlaboratory Reliability

    8.6. Determine the Appropriate Interpretation of the Measurement

    8.7. Using Stored Materials

    Chapter 9. Designing and Implementing a Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    9.1. Operationalizing a Research Question

    9.2. Study Design Trade-Offs Associated with Including Molecular Tools

    9.3. Constraints on the Study Protocol Imposed by Molecular Testing

    9.4. Choosing Measures of Exposure and Outcome

    9.5. Using a Commercial Kit

    9.6. Molecular Fingerprinting

    Chapter 10. Study Conduct

    10.1. Documentation of All Protocols and Operating Procedures

    10.2. Regular Meetings with Study Personnel

    10.3. Training and Retraining of Study Personnel

    10.4. Quality Control and Quality Assurance

    10.5. Specimen Handling and Storage

    10.6. Interim Data Analysis

    10.7. Types of Interim Data Analysis

    Chapter 11. Think About Data Analysis When Planning a Study

    11.1. Data Analysis and Study Design

    11.2. Estimating the Required Sample Size and (Conversely) Determining if the Conducted Study was Sufficiently Large

    11.3. Data Structure

    11.4. Data Cleaning

    11.5. General Analytic Strategies

    11.6. Molecular Level

    11.7. Interactions of Microbes and Host

    11.8. Human–Human Interactions

    11.9. Interactions of Human Populations

    Chapter 12. Human and Animal Subject Protection, Biorepositories, Biosafety Considerations, and Professional Ethics

    12.1. What is Research?

    12.2. Why Researchers are Obligated to Behave Ethically

    12.3. Protection of Human Subjects

    12.4. Studies Using Previously Collected Data

    12.5. Ethical Issues Associated With Biorepositories

    12.6. Public Data Access

    12.7. Shipping of Materials Between Institutions

    12.8. Protection of Animal Subjects

    12.9. Biological Safety

    12.10. Professional Ethics

    Chapter 13. Future Directions

    13.1. Methodological Development

    13.2. Surveillance

    13.3. Transmission

    13.4. Interactions

    13.5. Closing Thoughts

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 240
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: December 28, 2010
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741332
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920849

About the Author

Betsy Foxman

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health; Director, Center for Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

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