Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Biosynthesis

Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Biosynthesis

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editor: Herbert Weissbach
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141703

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Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Biosynthesis is a collection of papers dealing with cell-free systems at the molecular level, including transfer RNA; the initiation, elongation, and termination processes; ribosome structure and function; mRNA translation; and DNA-directed in vitro protein synthesis. A couple of papers review tRNA, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and aspects of ribosome structure. One paper discusses affinity labeling in the study of binding and catalytic sites of large complex and heterogeneous systems such as the ribosome. The investigator should be aware of the chemically reactive or photoactivatible analogue reacting specifically with one or more ribosomal components. This reaction should be determined if it is dependent on the correct binding of the affinity label at the functional site. Another paper describes the series of reactions in protein synthesis as the process by which the ribosome moves relative to the messenger RNA. Other papers discuss messenger RNA and its translation, DNA-dependent cell-free protein synthesis, as well as the genetics of the translational apparatus. The collection will benefit microbiologists, biotechnologists, and academicians connected with the biological sciences.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Twenty Years of Molecular Biology

    Text 1

    1 tRNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    I. Introduction

    II. The Aminoacylation Reaction

    III. Structure and Specificity of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    IV. Structure of tRNA

    V. Specificity of the Aminoacylation Reaction

    VI. Specificity of Codon-Anticodon Interaction

    VII. Elongation Factor Recognition of Aminoacyl-tRNA

    VIII. tRNA-Ribosome Recognition

    IX. tRNA Biosynthesis

    X. Other Functions of tRNA

    XI. Summary


    2 Aspects of Ribosome Structure and Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution of Ribosomal Components

    III. Programming the Ribosome

    IV. The tRNA Selection Mechanism


    3 Primary Structure and Three-Dimensional Arrangement of Proteins within the Escherichia coli Ribosome

    I. Primary Structure of Proteins

    II. Ribosome Structure and Topography


    4 Affinity Labeling of Ribosomes

    I. Introduction

    II. General Principles of Affinity Labeling

    III. Applications to Ribosomes

    IV. Survey of Affinity Labeling Results

    V. Conclusion


    5 Initiation of Messenger RNA Translation into Protein and Some Aspects of its Regulation


    Part I. Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes

    I. Interaction of Initiation Factors with the Ribosomal Subunits

    II. Interaction of Initiator fMet-tRNAf with Ribosomes and Initiation Factors

    III. Interaction of Messenger RNA with Ribosomes and Initiation Factors

    IV. Physiological Variations in Initiation of Protein Synthesis

    Part II. Initiation of Protein Synthesis in the Cytoplasm of Eukaryotic Cells

    V. Role of Met-tRNAf

    VI. Selective Recognition of Met-tRNAf by Initiation Factors

    VII. Binding of Met-tRNAf to 40 S Ribosomes

    VIII. Formation of the 80 S Initiation Complex

    IX. Specific Assays for Initiation of Eukaryotic mRNA Translation

    X. Binding of Eukaryotic mRNA to Ribosomes

    XI. Specificity of Eukaryotic mRNA Recognition

    XII. Some Mechanisms of Control in Protein Synthesis Initiation

    XIII. Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis Initiation in Eukaryotes

    XIV. Mixed Prokaryotic-Eukaryotic Systems

    XV. Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Protein Synthesis Initiation


    6 Factors Involved in the Transfer of Aminoacyl-tRNA to the Ribosome

    I. Prokaryotic Factors—General Comments

    II. Purification and Properties of EF-Tu and EF-Ts

    III. Interactions of EF-Tu and EF-Ts

    IV. Other Functions of the Elongation Factors

    V. Aminoacyl-tRNA Binding Cycle

    VI. Eukaryote Elongation Factor 1

    VII. Conclusions


    7 Translocation

    I. Introduction

    II. Purification and Properties of Elongation Factor G

    III. Reactions of EF-G

    IV. Translocation

    V. Elongation Factor 2

    VI. Conclusions


    8 Peptide Bond Formation

    I. Introduction

    II. The Elongation Epicycle

    III. Peptidyl Transferase Assays

    IV. Contributions to the Understanding of Transpeptidation by Antibiotics

    V. Mechanism of Catalysis

    VI. Structure of the Peptidyl Transferase

    VII. Conclusion


    9 Peptide Chain Termination

    I. Introduction

    II. Terminator Codons

    III. Nonsense Suppression

    IV. Soluble Release Factors

    V. The Ribosomal Role

    VI. RF Ribosomal Interaction

    VII. Conclusion


    10 Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Classification of Inhibitors

    III. Ribosome Structure and Function

    IV. Localization of Antibiotic Action

    V. Molecular Basis of Specificity and Activity of Inhibitors

    VI. Comparison of Cell-Free Assays with Assays in Intact Cells

    VII. Inhibitors of the Small Ribosome Subunit

    VIII. Inhibitors of the Large Ribosomal Subunit

    IX. Inhibitors of the Nonribosomal Factors

    X. Miscellaneous Inhibitors


    11 Messenger RNA and its Translation

    I. Introduction

    II. Identification of Messenger RNA

    III. Synthesis, Structure, and Metabolism of mRNA

    IV. Isolation of Messenger RNA

    V. Translation of Exogenous mRNA

    VI. Poly(A) and Messenger RNA Translation

    VII. Messenger Ribonucleoprotein Particles


    12 DNA-Dependent Cell-Free Protein Synthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. The Cell-Free Coupled Systems for RNA and Protein Synthesis

    III. Studies on Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    IV. Fidelity of the Coupled System

    V. Conclusions


    13 Genetics of the Translational Apparatus

    I. Introduction

    II. Methodology

    III. Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    IV. tRNA

    V. Ribosomes

    VI. Conclusion



Product details

  • No. of pages: 736
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141703

About the Editor

Herbert Weissbach

Affiliations and Expertise

Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Roche Research Center, Nutley, New Jersey, U.S.A.

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