Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Biosynthesis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127442501, 9780323141703

Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Biosynthesis

1st Edition

Editors: Herbert Weissbach
eBook ISBN: 9780323141703
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 736
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Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Biosynthesis is a collection of papers dealing with cell-free systems at the molecular level, including transfer RNA; the initiation, elongation, and termination processes; ribosome structure and function; mRNA translation; and DNA-directed in vitro protein synthesis. A couple of papers review tRNA, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and aspects of ribosome structure. One paper discusses affinity labeling in the study of binding and catalytic sites of large complex and heterogeneous systems such as the ribosome. The investigator should be aware of the chemically reactive or photoactivatible analogue reacting specifically with one or more ribosomal components. This reaction should be determined if it is dependent on the correct binding of the affinity label at the functional site. Another paper describes the series of reactions in protein synthesis as the process by which the ribosome moves relative to the messenger RNA. Other papers discuss messenger RNA and its translation, DNA-dependent cell-free protein synthesis, as well as the genetics of the translational apparatus. The collection will benefit microbiologists, biotechnologists, and academicians connected with the biological sciences.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Twenty Years of Molecular Biology

Text 1

1 tRNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

I. Introduction

II. The Aminoacylation Reaction

III. Structure and Specificity of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

IV. Structure of tRNA

V. Specificity of the Aminoacylation Reaction

VI. Specificity of Codon-Anticodon Interaction

VII. Elongation Factor Recognition of Aminoacyl-tRNA

VIII. tRNA-Ribosome Recognition

IX. tRNA Biosynthesis

X. Other Functions of tRNA

XI. Summary


2 Aspects of Ribosome Structure and Function

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Ribosomal Components

III. Programming the Ribosome

IV. The tRNA Selection Mechanism


3 Primary Structure and Three-Dimensional Arrangement of Proteins within the Escherichia coli Ribosome

I. Primary Structure of Proteins

II. Ribosome Structure and Topography


4 Affinity Labeling of Ribosomes

I. Introduction

II. General Principles of Affinity Labeling

III. Applications to Ribosomes

IV. Survey of Affinity Labeling Results

V. Conclusion


5 Initiation of Messenger RNA Translation into Protein and Some Aspects of its Regulation


Part I. Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes

I. Interaction of Initiation Factors with the Ribosomal Subunits

II. Interaction of Initiator fMet-tRNAf with Ribosomes and Initiation Factors

III. Interaction of Messenger RNA with Ribosomes and Initiation Factors

IV. Physiological Variations in Initiation of Protein Synthesis

Part II. Initiation of Protein Synthesis in the Cytoplasm of Eukaryotic Cells

V. Role of Met-tRNAf

VI. Selective Recognition of Met-tRNAf by Initiation Factors

VII. Binding of Met-tRNAf to 40 S Ribosomes

VIII. Formation of the 80 S Initiation Complex

IX. Specific Assays for Initiation of Eukaryotic mRNA Translation

X. Binding of Eukaryotic mRNA to Ribosomes

XI. Specificity of Eukaryotic mRNA Recognition

XII. Some Mechanisms of Control in Protein Synthesis Initiation

XIII. Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis Initiation in Eukaryotes

XIV. Mixed Prokaryotic-Eukaryotic Systems

XV. Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Protein Synthesis Initiation


6 Factors Involved in the Transfer of Aminoacyl-tRNA to the Ribosome

I. Prokaryotic Factors—General Comments

II. Purification and Properties of EF-Tu and EF-Ts

III. Interactions of EF-Tu and EF-Ts

IV. Other Functions of the Elongation Factors

V. Aminoacyl-tRNA Binding Cycle

VI. Eukaryote Elongation Factor 1

VII. Conclusions


7 Translocation

I. Introduction

II. Purification and Properties of Elongation Factor G

III. Reactions of EF-G

IV. Translocation

V. Elongation Factor 2

VI. Conclusions


8 Peptide Bond Formation

I. Introduction

II. The Elongation Epicycle

III. Peptidyl Transferase Assays

IV. Contributions to the Understanding of Transpeptidation by Antibiotics

V. Mechanism of Catalysis

VI. Structure of the Peptidyl Transferase

VII. Conclusion


9 Peptide Chain Termination

I. Introduction

II. Terminator Codons

III. Nonsense Suppression

IV. Soluble Release Factors

V. The Ribosomal Role

VI. RF Ribosomal Interaction

VII. Conclusion


10 Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. Classification of Inhibitors

III. Ribosome Structure and Function

IV. Localization of Antibiotic Action

V. Molecular Basis of Specificity and Activity of Inhibitors

VI. Comparison of Cell-Free Assays with Assays in Intact Cells

VII. Inhibitors of the Small Ribosome Subunit

VIII. Inhibitors of the Large Ribosomal Subunit

IX. Inhibitors of the Nonribosomal Factors

X. Miscellaneous Inhibitors


11 Messenger RNA and its Translation

I. Introduction

II. Identification of Messenger RNA

III. Synthesis, Structure, and Metabolism of mRNA

IV. Isolation of Messenger RNA

V. Translation of Exogenous mRNA

VI. Poly(A) and Messenger RNA Translation

VII. Messenger Ribonucleoprotein Particles


12 DNA-Dependent Cell-Free Protein Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. The Cell-Free Coupled Systems for RNA and Protein Synthesis

III. Studies on Regulation of Protein Synthesis

IV. Fidelity of the Coupled System

V. Conclusions


13 Genetics of the Translational Apparatus

I. Introduction

II. Methodology

III. Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases


V. Ribosomes

VI. Conclusion




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© Academic Press 1977
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Herbert Weissbach

Affiliations and Expertise

Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Roche Research Center, Nutley, New Jersey, U.S.A.

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