Molecular Mechanisms Of Oxygen Activation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123336408, 9780323143264

Molecular Mechanisms Of Oxygen Activation

1st Edition

Editors: Osamu Hayaishi
eBook ISBN: 9780323143264
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1974
Page Count: 696
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Molecular Mechanisms of Oxygen Activation reviews some of the major advances that have been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying oxygen activation, with emphasis on the role of oxygen activation in contemporary biological processes. The biological role of oxygenases in the metabolism of fatty acids and steroids is discussed, along with the functions of heme-containing dioxygenases, α-ketoglutarate-coupled dioxygenases, and pterin-requiring aromatic amino acid hydroxylases.
This book is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with an overview of the general properties and biological functions of oxygenases, along with the chemical aspects of oxygen fixation reactions. The reader is then introduced to research concerning fatty acid and steroid oxygenases which has appeared in the literature since 1962, paying particular attention to the mechanism of oxygenation and the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroids. Subsequent chapters explore the biological functions of a variety of oxygenases such as heme-containing dioxygenases, copper-containing oxygenases, flavoprotein oxygenases, and pterin-requiring aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Superoxide dismutase, cytochrome c oxidase, peroxidase, and bacterial monoxygenases are also considered. This monograph should serve as a valuable reference for biochemists as well as undergraduate and graduate students of biochemistry.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. General Properties and Biological Functions of Oxygenases

I. Historical Background

II. Nomenclature, Classification, and General Properties of Oxygenases

III. Chemical Aspects of Oxygen Fixation Reactions

IV. Biological Function of Oxygenases

V. Natural Distribution of Oxygenases


2. Oxygenases in Fatty Acid and Steroid Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Lipoxygenase

III. Biosynthesis of Prostaglandins

IV. Fatty Acid Hydroxylations

V. Fatty Acid Desaturation

VI. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol

VII. Conversion of Cholesterol into Steroid Hormones

VIII. Metabolism of Steroid Hormones in Liver

IX. Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Bile Acids


3. Heme-Containing Dioxygenases

I. Introduction

II. History of L-Tryptophan Oxygenase

III. Biological Role and Distribution of Tryptophan Oxygenase

IV. Physicochemical Properties of Tryptophan Oxygenase

V. Catalytic Mechanism

VI. Regulation of L-Tryptophan Oxygenase Activity

VII. DL-Tryptophan Oxygenase of Rabbit Intestine


Supplementary References

4. Nonheme Iron Dioxygenase

I. Introduction

II. Catechol Dioxygenases

III. Other Dioxygenases Requiring Nonheme Iron

IV. Reaction Mechanism


5. α-Ketoglutarate-Coupled Dioxygenases

I. Introduction

II. Prolyl Hydroxylase

III. Lysyl Hydroxylase

IV. 7-Butyrobetaine Hydroxylase

V. Dioxygenases in Pyrimidine and Nucleoside Metabolism

VI. p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Hydroxylase

VII. General Discussion


Note Added in Proof

6. Microsomal Cytochrome P-450-Linked Monooxygenase Systems in Mammalian Tissue

I. Introduction

II. Catalytic Components

III. Substrate Interaction with Cytochrome P-450

IV. On the Mechanism of the Cytochrome P-450-Linked Monooxygenase Reaction

V. On the Substrate Specificity of Microsomal Cytochrome P-450-Linked Monooxygenase Systems

VI. Relationship of the Cytochrome P-450-Linked Monooxygenase System to the Microsomal Membrane

VII. Substrate-Induced Synthesis of the Liver Microsomal Monooxygenase System


7. Flavoprotein Oxygenases

I. Introduction

II. Internal Flavoprotein Monooxygenases

III. External Flavoprotein Monooxygenases

IV. External Flavoprotein Dioxygenase


8. Pterin-Requiring Aromatic Amino Acid Hydroxylases

I. Introduction

II. Phenylalanine Hydroxylase

III. Tyrosine Hydroxylase

IV. Tryptophan Hydroxylase


9. Copper-Containing Oxygenases

I. Introduction

II. Tyrosinases

III. Dopamine ß-Hydroxylase

IV. Quercetinase (Flavonol 2,4-Oxygenase)

V. Conclusion


10. Chemical Models and Mechanisms for Oxygenases

I. Introduction

II. General Characteristics of O2 and O2 Reactions

III. Reactivity of Reduced O2 Species

IV. The Oxenoid Mechanism

V. Monooxygenases

VI. Dioxygenases

VII. Conclusions


11. Superoxide Dismutase

I. Introduction

II. A Historical Account of the Discovery of Superoxide Dismutase

III. Superoxide Dismutases from Eucaryotic Sources

IV. Superoxide Dismutases from Procaryotic Sources

V. Biological Significance of Superoxide Dismutase

VI. Applications of Superoxide Dismutase

VII. Some Chemical Properties of Oxygen and Its Reduction Products

VIII. Projected Studies


12. Cytochrome c Oxidase

I. Introduction

II. Physicochemical Properties

III. Reaction Characteristics of the Isolated Enzyme

IV. Interactions of Oxidase with the Membrane

V. Conclusions


13. Peroxidase

I. Introduction

II. Functions of Peroxidases

III. Structure of Peroxidases

IV. Relationship between Structure and Function

V. Conclusion


14. Bacterial Monoxygenases—The P450 Cytochrome System

I. Introduction

II. Bacterial Monoxygenases

III. Biology

IV. Chemistry and Physics

V. Summary


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1974
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Osamu Hayaishi

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