Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128021682, 9780128023761

Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals

1st Edition

Editors: James Collins
eBook ISBN: 9780128023761
Paperback ISBN: 9780128021682
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 29th September 2016
Page Count: 576
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Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals is a unique reference that provides a complete overview of the non-vitamin micronutrients, including calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc.

In addition, the book covers the nutritional and toxicological properties of nonessential minerals chromium, fluoride and boron, and silicon and vanadium, as well as ultra-trace minerals and those with no established dietary requirement for humans. Users will find in-depth chapters on each essential mineral and mineral metabolism, along with discussions of dietary recommendations in the United States and around the world.

Key Features

  • Presents the only scientific reference to cover all of the nutritionally relevant essential major and trace minerals
  • Provides a broad introductory chapter on each mineral to give readers valuable background and context
  • Clarifies the cellular and molecular aspects of each mineral and its genetic and genomic aspects
  • Includes coverage of all nutritionally relevant minerals—essential major trace minerals and ultra-trace minerals
  • Underscores the important interactions between minerals so readers learn how metabolism of one mineral influences another


Nutrition science and food science researchers, graduate students. Dieticians, health professionals, epidemiologists and public health professionals, students, graduates, post-graduates, lecturers, teachers, professors

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Series Preface
  • Part I. Calcium
    • Chapter 1. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Disease
      • Introduction
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Calcium–Phosphate Homeostasis
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Disorders of the Parathyroid Glands
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Disorders of the Kidney
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Bone Mineral Density
      • Conclusions
      • Summary Points
      • Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 2. Molecular Aspects of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Calcium Homeostasis
      • Introduction
      • Structural Components of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Function in the Parathyroid Gland
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Function in Bone
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Function in the Kidney
      • Pathophysiological Disorders of the Kidney and Calcium-Sensing Receptor Modulation
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Function in the Gastrointestinal System
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor Function in the Skin
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3. New Developments in Our Understanding of the Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis by Vitamin D
      • Introduction
      • Bioactivation of Vitamin D
      • Regulation of Vitamin D Metabolism
      • New Insights Into Mechanisms Involved in the Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in Intestine, Kidney, and Bone
      • Genomic Mechanism of 1,25-DihydroxyVitamin D3 Action
      • Summary Points and Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 4. Calcium in Obesity and Related Diseases: The Calcium-Sensing Receptor as a Novel Mediator
      • Introduction
      • Obesity: A Serious Public Health Problem Worldwide
      • Cellular Mechanisms for Fat Dysfunction: Role of Calcium
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 5. Calcium: Basic Nutritional Aspects
      • Introduction
      • Summary Points
      • Key Facts
    • Chapter 6. Molecular Aspects of Calcium and Bone Mineralization
      • Introduction
      • Metabolism and Regulation
      • Calcium, Genetics, and Genetic Disorders
      • Other Genetic Factors Affecting Calcium Homeostasis
      • Conclusions
  • Part II. Copper
    • Chapter 7. Copper: Basic Physiological and Nutritional Aspects
      • Copper: Historical Facts
      • Copper Biochemistry
      • Biochemical and Physiologic Functions of Copper
      • Catalytic Functions of Copper (Copper-Dependent Proteins)
      • Physiological Functions of Copper
      • Copper Bioavailability and Nutrient Interactions
      • Copper Metabolism
      • Copper Deficiency in Humans
      • Copper: Dietary Considerations and Requirements
      • Evaluation of Copper Status
      • Copper Toxicity and Upper Limits
    • Chapter 8. Copper and Molecular Aspects of Cell Signaling
      • Introduction
      • The Copper Metalloproteome
      • Copper Modulation of Cell Signaling
      • Copper as a Regulator of Epigenetics
      • Cell–Cell Signaling Regulated by Copper
      • How Other Minerals Are Affected or Behave
      • Perspectives
      • Summary Points
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 9. Copper and Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factor Regulation of Gene Expression
      • Introduction to Hypoxia-Inducible Factors
      • Relationship between Copper and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1
      • Mechanisms by Which Cu Regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Activity
      • Clinical Implications
      • Open Questions
    • Chapter 10. Copper in Wilson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases, Copper-Lowering Therapy in Cancer and Other Diseases, and Copper Deficiency
      • Introduction
      • Wilson’s Disease
      • Alzheimer’s Disease
      • The Promise of Copper-Lowering Therapy in Cancer and Other Diseases
      • Clinical Copper Deficiency
  • Part III. Iodine
    • Chapter 11. Iodine: Basic Nutritional Aspects
      • Role of Iodine
      • Iodine Metabolism
      • Sources of Iodine Nutrition
      • Recommended Dietary Intake of Iodine
      • Factors Influencing Iodine Bioavailability
      • Assessment of Iodine Nutrition
      • Iodine Deficiency
      • Treatment and Prevention of Iodine Deficiency
      • Toxic Effects of Excess Iodine Intake
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. Iodine and Thyroid Hormone Synthesis, Metabolism, and Action
      • Iodide Transport
      • Iodine Clearance
      • Direct Actions of Iodine
      • Thyroid Hormone Action
    • Chapter 13. Iodine and Adipocytokines: Cellular Aspects
      • Introduction
      • The Role of Iodine in the Human Body
      • Possible Mechanism of Iodine Action
      • Iodine and Adipocytokines
      • Summary Points
  • Part IV. Iron
    • Chapter 14. Iron: Basic Nutritional Aspects
      • Introduction
      • Physiological Functions of Iron
      • Adverse Consequences of Too Much Iron
      • Finding the Right Balance
      • Iron and Our Diet
    • Chapter 15. Hepcidin and the Hormonal Control of Iron Homeostasis
      • Introduction
      • Biology of Hepcidin
      • The Regulation of Hepcidin Expression
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 16. Genetic Rodent Models of Systemic Iron Homeostasis
      • Introduction
      • Maternal–Fetal and Maternal–Neonatal Iron Physiology
      • Overview of Dietary Iron Absorption
      • Gastric Acidification
      • Iron Import Into Duodenum
      • Iron Export From Duodenum to Blood
      • Regulation of Hepcidin Expression
      • Distribution of Iron to Organs
      • Cellular Iron Utilization
      • Erythropoiesis
      • Recycling of Iron From Red Cells
      • Iron Export
      • Iron Toxicity
      • Areas for Additional Models and Future Research
      • Other Minerals
      • Summary Points
      • Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 17. Iron, Cancer, and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Signaling
      • Introduction
      • Oxygen-Sensing Transcription Factors
      • Oxygen and Iron Signaling
      • Hypoxia and Cancer
      • Iron and Cancer Risk
      • Mechanisms Regulating Intratumoral Iron
      • Mechanisms of Iron Action
      • Potential in Cancer Therapy
      • Other Minerals in Cancer
      • Summary Points and Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 18. Iron Transporters and Iron Homeostasis
      • Overview of Whole-Body Iron Homeostasis and Scope of Review
      • Dietary Iron Absorption by the Enterocyte
      • Iron Metabolism in the Hepatocyte
      • Iron Metabolism in the Developing Erythroid Cell
      • Regulation of Iron Homeostasis by Hepcidin
    • Chapter 19. Regulation of Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Expression and Function
      • Introduction—Historical Perspective
      • One Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Function—Nutritional Iron Entry Into Duodenal Enterocytes
      • A Second DMT1 Function—Endosomal Export after Iron Acquisition in Most Cells via the Tf Cycle
      • Metal-Ion Transport by Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1
      • Reduction, Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Function, and Iron Metabolism
      • Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Isoforms, Interactions, and Modifications
      • Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Regulation—An Overview
      • DMT1 Regulation—Transcription
      • Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Regulation—Posttranscriptionally at the mRNA Level
      • Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Regulation—at the Translational Level
      • Divalent Metal-Ion Transporter-1 Regulation—Posttranslationally at the Protein Turnover Level
      • Summary Points
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
  • Part V. Zinc
    • Chapter 20. Discovery of Zinc for Human Health and Biomarkers of Zinc Deficiency
      • Introduction
      • Discovery of Zinc as an Essential Element for Human Health
      • Therapeutic Impact of Zinc
      • Biomarkers of Zinc Deficiency in Egypt
    • Chapter 21. Zinc Signals and Immune Function
      • Signal Transduction in Mammalian Cells
      • The Immune System
      • The Physiological Role of Zinc in the Immune System
      • Zinc Signals
      • Sensors for Zinc Signals
      • Targets of Zinc Signals
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 22. Posttranslational Mechanisms of Zinc Signaling
      • Introduction
      • Zinc-Transport Proteins
      • Posttranslational Modification of Zinc-Transport Proteins
      • Applications
      • How Other Minerals Are Affected
      • Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 23. Zinc Transporters in Health and Disease
      • Introduction
      • ZIP and ZnT Transporter Biochemistry
      • ZIP and ZnT Transporters in Health and Disease
      • Zinc Transporters and Inherited Human Diseases
      • ZnT and ZIP Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 24. Genetic Study of Zinc Transporters and Zinc Signaling
      • Introduction: Zinc as an Essential Trace Element
      • Zinc Transporters and Signaling in Physiology and Pathogenesis
      • Zinc Transporters and the “Zn Signaling Axis”
      • Future Perspectives
  • Part VI. Magnesium
    • Chapter 25. Magnesium: Basic Nutritional Aspects
      • Introduction
      • Tissue Distribution
      • Biological Roles
      • Body Homeostasis
      • Requirements
      • Dietary Deficiency Occurrence
      • Status Assessment
      • Deficiency Signs
      • Dietary Sources
      • Toxicity
    • Chapter 26. Magnesium and the Immune Response
      • Introduction (Background)
      • General Structural Features of Mg2+ Permeable Ion Channels and Transporters
      • Mg2+ and Its Potential Roles in Immunoreceptor Signaling
      • SLC41A1 and SLC41A2—Relatives of the Bacterial MgtE Family
      • The Channel Kinases TRPM6 and TRPM7—Mg2+ Sensors and Master Regulators
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 27. Magnesium Intake and Chronic Disease in Humans
      • Introduction
      • Magnesium and Diabetes Mellitus
      • Magnesium and Metabolic Syndrome
      • Magnesium and Hypertension
      • Magnesium and Cardiovascular Disease
      • Magnesium and Cancer
      • Magnesium and Interactions With Other Minerals
      • Conclusion
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 28. Magnesium and Embryonic Development
      • Introduction
      • Chemical Properties of Magnesium and Its Function and Regulation in Cells
      • Magnesium’s Impact on Embryogenesis
      • Function of TRPM7 and TRPM6 Channels During Embryogenesis
      • TRPM7 Regulates Gastrulation During Vertebrate Embryogenesis
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 29. Magnesium, Vascular Function, and Hypertension
      • Introduction
      • Magnesium Metabolism
      • Magnesium Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract
      • Magnesium Excretion by the Kidney
      • Compartmentalization of Magnesium in the Body
      • Regulation of Cellular Magnesium Homeostasis
      • Cellular Magnesium Influx
      • TRPM6 and TRPM7 Cation Channels
      • Magnesium Transporter Subtype 1
      • Magnesium Efflux from Cells
      • Magnesium and Vascular Function
      • Magnesium and Hypertension
      • TRPM7 and Cardiovascular Disease
      • Conclusions
  • Part VII. Manganese
    • Chapter 30. Nutritional, Genetic, and Molecular Aspects of Manganese Intoxication
      • Essentiality and Toxicity of Manganese
      • Mechanisms of Mn Transport to the Central Nervous System
      • Molecular Mechanisms of Mn Neurotoxicity
      • Genetic Aspects of Mn Intoxication
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 31. Manganese and Nutritional Immunity
      • Introduction
      • Manganese Distribution
      • Calprotectin: Chelating Manganese and Zinc at the Site of Infection
      • Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein-1/SLC11A1: Starving Bacteria in Macrophages
      • Bacterial Manganese Importers: Acquiring Manganese During Infection
      • Manganese-Requiring Processes in Bacterial Pathogens
      • Intersection of Manganese Nutritional Immunity With Other Minerals
      • Areas for Future Study
      • Conclusions
      • Summary Points
      • Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 32. Manganese and Mitochondrial Function
      • Introduction
      • Manganese Speciation: Does Mn2+ or Mn3+ Cause the Most Damage?
      • Mitochondria
      • The Mitochondrial Role in Apoptosis
      • Manganese Inhibition of Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • Manganese-Induced Increases in Mitochondrial Production of Reactive Oxygen Species
      • Evidence for Induction of Apoptosis by Manganese
      • Conclusions
  • Part VIII. Molybdenum
    • Chapter 33. Molybdenum Cofactor in Humans: Health, Disease, and Treatment
      • Introduction
      • Deficiencies in Molybdenum Enzymes
      • Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
      • Treatment of Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
      • Association of Molybdenum With Other Metals and Disorders
      • Conclusion and Future Perspectives
      • List of Abbreviations
  • Part IX. Phosphorus
    • Chapter 34. Phosphorus: Basic Nutritional Aspects
      • Introduction
      • How Other Minerals Are Affected or Behave
      • Summary Points
      • Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 35. Molecular Mechanisms of Adverse Health Effects Associated With Excess Phosphorus Intake
      • Introduction
      • Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Phosphorus Homeostasis
      • Excess Phosphorus Intake Associated With Disruption of Regulatory Mechanisms Related to Phosphorus Homeostasis and Disease Risk
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 36. Transcriptional Regulation of Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Gene Expression
      • Introduction
      • Regulatory Factors of Type II NaPi Cotransporters
      • Transcriptional Regulation of SLC34A1/NaPi-IIa Gene
      • Transcriptional Regulation of SLC34A2/NaPi-IIb Gene
      • Transcriptional Regulation of the SLC34A3/NaPi-IIc Gene
      • Conclusion and Perspective
  • Part X. Selenium
    • Chapter 37. Selenium: Basic Nutritional Aspects
      • Nutritional Essentiality and Metabolism of Selenium
      • Incorporation of Selenium Into Selenoproteins
      • Physiological Functions of Selenoproteins
      • Regulation of Selenoprotein Expression
      • Pharmacological Effects of Selenium
      • Selenium Toxicity and Interactions With Vitamin E and Minerals
      • New Methods and Models and Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 38. Selenium and Cancer
      • Introduction
      • Selenium and Epidemiologic Studies
      • Selenocompounds or Selenoproteins?
      • Polymorphisms in Selenoproteins and Relevance to Cancer
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 39. Could Selenium Be a Double-Edged Sword?
      • Introduction
      • Sources of Animal-Based Se for Human Consumption
      • Selenoproteins and Their Functions
      • Mechanisms of Selenium/Selenoprotein Action
      • Nutritional Requirements of Selenium
      • Types of Selenium Supplements
      • Dual Role of Cancer Prevention and Promotion
      • Interaction of Selenium With Other Micro Nutrients
      • Conclusion
  • Part XI. Electrolytes
    • Chapter 40. Sodium: Basic Nutritional Aspects
      • Introduction
      • How Other Minerals Are Affected or Behave
      • Summary Points
      • Key Facts
      • Mini Dictionary of Terms
    • Chapter 41. Potassium Channel Mutations and Human Disease: Focus on Adrenal Hypertension
      • Introduction
      • Broad Classification of Potassium Channels
      • Known Mutated Potassium Channel Genes and Associated Phenotypes
      • Primary Aldosteronism: A Common Cause of Hypertension Associated With KCNJ5 Mutations
      • Conclusions
  • Part XII. Nonessentials
    • Chapter 42. Chromium: Basic Nutritional and Toxicological Aspects
      • Introduction
      • Chromium Is Not an Essential Element
      • Chromium(III) Toxicity and the Fate of Chromium Supplements In Vivo
      • Pharmacologically Active Chromium
    • Chapter 43. Nonessential Trace Minerals: Basic Nutritional and Toxicological Aspects
      • Introduction
      • Boron
      • Silicon
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 44. Fluoride: Intake and Metabolism, Therapeutic and Toxicological Consequences
      • Chemical Origin and Properties
      • Sources of Fluoride Exposure
      • Fluoride Metabolism
      • Function
      • Excessive Intake and Toxicity
      • Adequate Daily Intake and Tolerable Upper Intake Level
  • Index


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About the Editor

James Collins

Dr. James F. Collins, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the Food Science and Human Nutrition department at the University of Florida. He has directed a research program funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for the past 10+ years and is recognized as an expert on mineral homeostasis and nutrient regulation of gene expression. Dr. Collins was presented with the Mead Johnson award from the American Society for Nutrition for outstanding research on intestinal iron absorption in 2011; he currently serves on the editorial boards for the Journal of Nutrition and the Journal of Biological Chemistry and is an academic editor for PLoS One.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Florida, Gainesville, USA

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