Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses

Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Editor: John Stephenson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146685

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Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses deals with the molecular biology and biologic significance of RNA tumor viruses. Methods and procedures with broad application to diverse areas of molecular biology, including cell culture procedures, competition radioimmunoassays, molecular hybridization, oligonucleotide mapping, heteroduplex mapping, and restriction endonuclease techniques, are considered. This book is organized into 12 chapters and begins with a historical overview of tumor virology beginning with the early studies of Peyton Rous and leading up to the significant surge of activity during the later decade. The biology of endogenous retroviruses, their transmission both within and between species, and cellular regulatory factors influencing their expression are subsequently discussed. This book then addresses the nature and origin of transforming RNA viruses and gives a detailed review of knowledge concerning the genomic structure of type C viruses. Translational products encoded by the type C viral genome are examined in ensuing chapters, emphasizing the viral reverse transcriptase. Other mammalian retroviruses, including the mouse mammary tumor virus and type D isolates of primates, are also described. The book concludes by evaluating the possibility of direct etiologic involvement of either endogenous or exogenous RNA tumor viruses in human cancers. This book will be of value both to graduate students and to established investigators with specific interest in other aspects of molecular biology.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 Historical Background

    I. Introduction

    II. Avian Sarcoma Virus (ASV)

    III. Chicken Leukosis Viruses

    IV. Development of Inbred Strains of Mice

    V. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)

    VI. Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV)

    VII. Murine Sarcoma Virus (MSV)

    VIII. In Vitro Studies of MuLV and MSV

    IX. Other Mammalian Sarcoma Viruses

    X. Discovery of Reverse Transcriptase

    XI. Properties of RNA Tumor Viruses

    XII. Endogenous Nature of Retroviruses

    XIII. MuLV in Wild Mice

    XIV. Derivation of Highly Oncogenic Viruses by Recombination and "Rescue" of Endogenous Host Cellular Genes

    XV. Evidence of RNA Tumor Viruses in Many Mammalian Species, Including Primates

    XVI. The Viral-Oncogene and Protovirus Hypotheses


    Chapter 2 Interspecies Transmission of Mammalian Retroviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Transmission of Type C Virogenes between Distantly Related Species

    III. Primate Evolutionary Relationships

    IV. Phylogenetic Relationships of Mus Species

    V. Possible Normal Functions of Type C Viruses


    Chapter 3 The Endogenous Murine Type C Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Discovery of Murine Leukemia Viruses

    III. The Complex Polymorphism of Endogenous Type C Viruses

    IV. Endogenous Type C Virus Genes and Gene Products Found in Normal Mice

    V. Genetic Control of Endogenous Murine Type C Viruses

    VI. Other Host Regulatory Mechanisms for Endogenous Type C Viruses

    VII. Biological Functions of Endogenous Type C Viruses

    VIII. Conclusion


    Chapter 4 Germ Line Integration and Mendelian Transmission of Exogenous Type C Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Transmission of Exogenous Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV)

    III. Expression and Somatic Amplification of Moloney-MuLV Sequences in BALB/Mo Mice

    IV. Characterization of the Chromosomal Integration Sites of Murine Leukemia Viruses

    V. Discussion and Conclusions


    Chapter 5 Type C RNA Transforming Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Typical Sarcoma Virus Recombinants; Nucleotide Sequences and Evolutionary Origins

    III. "Atypical" Sarcomagenic Virus Recombinants; Origins of Nucleotide Sequences

    IV. Expression of Nucleotide Sequences Associated with Sarcoma Viruses in Normal Cells

    V. Changes in Genetic Content of Sarcomagenic Viruses

    VI. Product of the src Gene of Avian Sarcoma Virus


    Chapter 6 Structural Analysis of Retrovirus Genomes

    I. Structure of Nondefective Sarcoma Virus Genomes

    II. Structure of Other Retrovirus Genomes

    III. Conclusions


    Chapter 7 Type C Virus Structural and Transformation-Specific Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. gag-pol-Coded Virion Proteins

    III. env-Coded Proteins

    IV. Proteins Encoded by Type C Viruses with Transforming Activity


    Chapter 8 Primary Structure Analysis of Retrovirus Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Amino Acid Sequences of Mammalian Type C Virus gag Gene Products

    III. NH2-Terminal Sequences of Non-Type C Mammalian Retrovirus gag Gene Products

    IV. Amino Acid Sequences of Avian Type C Virus gag Gene Products

    V. env Gene Encoded Glycoproteins


    Chapter 9 Retrovirus Reverse Transcriptase

    I. Introduction

    II. Purification of Reverse Transcriptase

    III. Structural Properties of Reverse Transcriptase

    IV. Enzymatic Activities

    V. Polymerase Defective Mutants

    VI. Biosynthesis of pol Gene Products

    VII. DNA Synthesis in Vitro

    VIII. Utilization of Reverse Transcriptase to Prepare Complementary DNA from mRNA


    Chapter 10 Electron Microscopic Analysis of the Structure of RNA Tumor Virus Nucleic Acids

    I. Secondary Structure of Viral RNA

    II. Heteroduplex Studies


    Chapter 11 Type B and Type D Retroviruses

    I. Type B Retroviruses: Mouse Mammary Tumor Viruses (MMTVs)

    II. Type D Retroviruses: Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus, Langur Virus, and Squirrel Monkey Retrovirus


    Chapter 12 Prospects for the Etiologic Involvement of RNA Tumor Viruses in Human Cancer

    I. Plausibility of an Etiologic Role for RNA Tumor Viruses in Human Cancer

    II. Methodologic Approaches to the Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Candidate Human RNA Tumor Viruses

    III. Evidence of Candidate RNA Viruses Associated with Human Neoplasms

    IV. Outlook for the Future


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 540
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146685

About the Editor

John Stephenson

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