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Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123943804, 9781483281957

Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors

1st Edition

Editors: Günter Kahl Josef S. Schell
eBook ISBN: 9781483281957
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 642
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Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors provides an opportunity to learn in detail about the latest insights into the mechanism of transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The study of the molecular mechanism responsible for the crown gall phenomenon (induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) illustrates the point that the fundamental study of the cause(s) and mechanism(s) of abnormal growth might be one of the most efficient ways to understand cellular differentiation and the molecular basis of gene expression. The book is organized into three parts that contain research on abnormal plant growth, crown gall tumors, and potential vectors for genetic engineering in agriculture. The genetic structure responsible for the neoplasmic transformation of plant cells in crown galls is a bacterial plasmid (called Ti for tumor-inducing). Research described in this volume demonstrates that these Ti plasmids were designed by evolution as natural gene vectors with which some bacteria can introduce active genes into plants. These transferred genes are maintained by integration in the plant genome and their expression is directly or indirectly responsible for the tumorous growth pattern.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors



I Abnormal Plant Growth

1 Habituation of Cultured Plant Cells

I. Introduction

II. Stable Changes in the Growth Factor Requirement of Cultured Tissues

III. The Nature of the Heritable Change in Habituation

IV. Habituation and Crown Gall Tumor Transformation

V. Concluding Remarks


2 Genetic Tumors: Physiological Aspects of Tumor Formation in Interspecies Hybrids

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Tumors in Animals and Man

III. Tumor Formation in Plants

IV. Cytogenetic Control of Heritable Tumors in Nicotiana

V. Interspecific Hybridization by Protoplast Fusion

VI. Morphology and Histology of Genetic Tumors

VII. Tumor Growth In Vitro

VIII. Role of Phytohormones during Tumorigenesis

IX. Tumor Induction and Tumor Inhibition Other Than by Phytohormones

X. Amino Acids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

XI. Indoleacetic Acid Transport and the Cell Membrane

XII. Conclusion


3 Wound Tumor Disease

I. Introduction

II. Background Information

III. Viral Etiology

IV. Possible Future Research on the Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor


4 Biology of Legume-Rhizobium Interactions in Nodule Formation

I. Introduction

II. Infection Processes

III. Nodule Formation

IV. Other Aspects of Nodule Development

V. Ineffective Nodules

VI. Observations


5 Insect Galls

I. Introduction

II. Diversity of Insect-Induced Galls

III. A Model Gall System: Galls of Cecidomyiidae

IV. Discussion and Conclusions


II Crown Gall Tumors

6 A History of the Crown Gall Problem



7 Molecular Biology of Wound Healing: The Conditioning Phenomenon

I. Introduction

II. The "Portal of Entry" Hypothesis and Its Variants

III. The Conditioning Phenomenon

IV. Conclusions


8 Ti Plasmids of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: The Nature of the TIP

I. Introduction

II. Ti Plasmids and Their Role in Crown Gall Formation

III. Genetic Colonization and Opine Concepts

IV. Ti Plasmids: Catabolic Plasmids and Natural Gene Vectors for Plants

V. The "Transformed" State

VI. General Conclusions


9 Integration and Transcription of Ti Plasmid Fragments

I. Introduction

II. DNA-Filter Hybridization Studies

III. Kinetics of DNA Reassociation

IV. Large Plasmids Found to Carry Tumor-Inducing Genes

V. Part of the Ti Plasmid in the Tumor Cell

VI. Characteristics of T-DNA

VII. Organization of T-DNA: Southern Blotting Analysis

VIII. Border Sequences

IX. Location of T-DNA in the Tumor Cell

X. Boundary Fragments Isolated by Molecular Cloning

XI. Transcription of T-DNA in Tumor Cells

XII. Stability of T-DNA


10 Conjugation and Transfer of Ti Plasmids in Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Achieving Conjugation

III. Factors Influencing Conjugation

IV. Host Range of Ti Plasmids

V. Intergeneric Transfer of Elements Useful in Genetic Studies on the Ti Plasmid

VI. Conjugation and Tumor Induction

VII. General Discussion and Summary


11 Transposable Genetic Elements in Bacteria and in Maize

I. Introduction

II. Transposable DNA Elements in Bacteria

III. Transposable Genetic Elements in Maize


12 Tumors Induced by Different Strains of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

I. Tumor Induction by Agrobacteria

II. Tumors Induced by Different Agrobacterial Strains

III. Localization of the Genes Determining Tumor Induction and Tumor Morphology

IV. Tumor Induction by Strains Carrying Two Different Ti Plasmids

V. Fine Mapping of Genes Controlling Tumor Morphology

VI. Hypothesis about the Relation between Tumor Morphology and Plant Hormones


13 Teratomas and Secondary Tumors

I. Teratomas

II. Secondary Tumors


14 Reversal of Crown Gall Tumors

I. Introduction—General Considerations

II. Types of Tumors

III. Reversal of Unorganized Tumors

IV. Reversal of Teratomas

V. Conclusions



15 Occurrence and Biosynthesis of Opines

I. Introduction

II. Natural Occurrence of Opines

III. Are Opines Specific Markers for Crown Gall Cells?

IV. Biosynthesis of Opines in Crown Gall Cells

V. The Role of Opine Synthesis in Crown Gall Tumor Cells

VI. Conclusion


16 Opine Utilization by Agrobacterium

I. Introduction

II. Studies on Opine Utilization

III. Conclusion


17 Enzymes in Octopine and Nopaline Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Synthesis of the Octopine Family

III. Synthesis of the Nopaline Family

IV. Synthesis of Other Opines

V. Bacterial Enzymes for Utilization of Opines

VI. Conclusions


18 Genetic Determination of Octopine Degradation

I. Introduction

II. Octopine and Tumor Formation

III. Permease and Oxidase

IV. Octopine, Lysopine, and Octopinic Acid Share a Common Bacterial Degradation System

V. Extrachromosomal Location of Octopine Degradation Genes

VI. Position of the uad Genes on the Ti Plasmid

VII. Regulatory Ti Plasmid Mutants

VIII. Coordinated Control of Octopine Degradation and Ti Transfer

IX. A Complementation System for Ti Genes

X. Negative Control of uad and tra Genes

XI. Additional Regulatory Elements?

XII. Other Octopine Plasmids Have a Related Repressor

XIII. Transfer Negative Ti Plasmids and Tumor Induction


19 Structure and Function of Tumor Cell Chromatin

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Chromatin

III. Function of Chromatin


20 Ti Plasmid-Coded Proteins in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in Crown Gall Tumor Cells

I. Introduction

II. Search for Bacterial Specific Proteins in Crown Gall Cells

III. Crown Gall Tumor Proteins

IV. Ti Plasmid-Coded Proteins

V. Further Analysis of Strain C-58 Membrane


21 Ti Plasmids and Directed Genetic Engineering

I. Introduction

II. The Development of the Ti Plasmid as an Experimental Gene Vector

III. General Conclusions


III Potential Vectors for Genetic Engineering in Agriculture

22 Cauliflower Mosaic Virus: A Potential Vector for Plant Genetic Engineering

I. Introduction

II. Biological Properties of the Virus

III. The Structure of the Virus


V. The Genetic Information of the DNA

VI. Cloning of CaMV DNA

VII. Infectivity of the DNA

VIII. Prospects


23 The Plasmids of Rhizobium and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

I. Introduction

II. The Plasmids of Rhizobia

III. DNA Homology Studies

IV. Plasmids and Nodule Formation

V. Plasmids and Dinitrogen Fixation

VI. Ti Plasmids in Rhizobia

VII. Perspectives


24 Transfer of Symbiotic Genes in Rhizobium

I. Chromosome Involvement

II. Plasmid Involvement

III. Where Are the Nif Genes?

IV. Concluding Remarks




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© Academic Press 1982
28th January 1982
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Günter Kahl

Josef S. Schell

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