Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors

Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Editors: Günter Kahl, Josef S. Schell
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483281957

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Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors provides an opportunity to learn in detail about the latest insights into the mechanism of transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The study of the molecular mechanism responsible for the crown gall phenomenon (induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) illustrates the point that the fundamental study of the cause(s) and mechanism(s) of abnormal growth might be one of the most efficient ways to understand cellular differentiation and the molecular basis of gene expression. The book is organized into three parts that contain research on abnormal plant growth, crown gall tumors, and potential vectors for genetic engineering in agriculture. The genetic structure responsible for the neoplasmic transformation of plant cells in crown galls is a bacterial plasmid (called Ti for tumor-inducing). Research described in this volume demonstrates that these Ti plasmids were designed by evolution as natural gene vectors with which some bacteria can introduce active genes into plants. These transferred genes are maintained by integration in the plant genome and their expression is directly or indirectly responsible for the tumorous growth pattern.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors



    I Abnormal Plant Growth

    1 Habituation of Cultured Plant Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Stable Changes in the Growth Factor Requirement of Cultured Tissues

    III. The Nature of the Heritable Change in Habituation

    IV. Habituation and Crown Gall Tumor Transformation

    V. Concluding Remarks


    2 Genetic Tumors: Physiological Aspects of Tumor Formation in Interspecies Hybrids

    I. Introduction

    II. Genetic Tumors in Animals and Man

    III. Tumor Formation in Plants

    IV. Cytogenetic Control of Heritable Tumors in Nicotiana

    V. Interspecific Hybridization by Protoplast Fusion

    VI. Morphology and Histology of Genetic Tumors

    VII. Tumor Growth In Vitro

    VIII. Role of Phytohormones during Tumorigenesis

    IX. Tumor Induction and Tumor Inhibition Other Than by Phytohormones

    X. Amino Acids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

    XI. Indoleacetic Acid Transport and the Cell Membrane

    XII. Conclusion


    3 Wound Tumor Disease

    I. Introduction

    II. Background Information

    III. Viral Etiology

    IV. Possible Future Research on the Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor


    4 Biology of Legume-Rhizobium Interactions in Nodule Formation

    I. Introduction

    II. Infection Processes

    III. Nodule Formation

    IV. Other Aspects of Nodule Development

    V. Ineffective Nodules

    VI. Observations


    5 Insect Galls

    I. Introduction

    II. Diversity of Insect-Induced Galls

    III. A Model Gall System: Galls of Cecidomyiidae

    IV. Discussion and Conclusions


    II Crown Gall Tumors

    6 A History of the Crown Gall Problem



    7 Molecular Biology of Wound Healing: The Conditioning Phenomenon

    I. Introduction

    II. The "Portal of Entry" Hypothesis and Its Variants

    III. The Conditioning Phenomenon

    IV. Conclusions


    8 Ti Plasmids of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: The Nature of the TIP

    I. Introduction

    II. Ti Plasmids and Their Role in Crown Gall Formation

    III. Genetic Colonization and Opine Concepts

    IV. Ti Plasmids: Catabolic Plasmids and Natural Gene Vectors for Plants

    V. The "Transformed" State

    VI. General Conclusions


    9 Integration and Transcription of Ti Plasmid Fragments

    I. Introduction

    II. DNA-Filter Hybridization Studies

    III. Kinetics of DNA Reassociation

    IV. Large Plasmids Found to Carry Tumor-Inducing Genes

    V. Part of the Ti Plasmid in the Tumor Cell

    VI. Characteristics of T-DNA

    VII. Organization of T-DNA: Southern Blotting Analysis

    VIII. Border Sequences

    IX. Location of T-DNA in the Tumor Cell

    X. Boundary Fragments Isolated by Molecular Cloning

    XI. Transcription of T-DNA in Tumor Cells

    XII. Stability of T-DNA


    10 Conjugation and Transfer of Ti Plasmids in Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Achieving Conjugation

    III. Factors Influencing Conjugation

    IV. Host Range of Ti Plasmids

    V. Intergeneric Transfer of Elements Useful in Genetic Studies on the Ti Plasmid

    VI. Conjugation and Tumor Induction

    VII. General Discussion and Summary


    11 Transposable Genetic Elements in Bacteria and in Maize

    I. Introduction

    II. Transposable DNA Elements in Bacteria

    III. Transposable Genetic Elements in Maize


    12 Tumors Induced by Different Strains of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    I. Tumor Induction by Agrobacteria

    II. Tumors Induced by Different Agrobacterial Strains

    III. Localization of the Genes Determining Tumor Induction and Tumor Morphology

    IV. Tumor Induction by Strains Carrying Two Different Ti Plasmids

    V. Fine Mapping of Genes Controlling Tumor Morphology

    VI. Hypothesis about the Relation between Tumor Morphology and Plant Hormones


    13 Teratomas and Secondary Tumors

    I. Teratomas

    II. Secondary Tumors


    14 Reversal of Crown Gall Tumors

    I. Introduction—General Considerations

    II. Types of Tumors

    III. Reversal of Unorganized Tumors

    IV. Reversal of Teratomas

    V. Conclusions



    15 Occurrence and Biosynthesis of Opines

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Occurrence of Opines

    III. Are Opines Specific Markers for Crown Gall Cells?

    IV. Biosynthesis of Opines in Crown Gall Cells

    V. The Role of Opine Synthesis in Crown Gall Tumor Cells

    VI. Conclusion


    16 Opine Utilization by Agrobacterium

    I. Introduction

    II. Studies on Opine Utilization

    III. Conclusion


    17 Enzymes in Octopine and Nopaline Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Synthesis of the Octopine Family

    III. Synthesis of the Nopaline Family

    IV. Synthesis of Other Opines

    V. Bacterial Enzymes for Utilization of Opines

    VI. Conclusions


    18 Genetic Determination of Octopine Degradation

    I. Introduction

    II. Octopine and Tumor Formation

    III. Permease and Oxidase

    IV. Octopine, Lysopine, and Octopinic Acid Share a Common Bacterial Degradation System

    V. Extrachromosomal Location of Octopine Degradation Genes

    VI. Position of the uad Genes on the Ti Plasmid

    VII. Regulatory Ti Plasmid Mutants

    VIII. Coordinated Control of Octopine Degradation and Ti Transfer

    IX. A Complementation System for Ti Genes

    X. Negative Control of uad and tra Genes

    XI. Additional Regulatory Elements?

    XII. Other Octopine Plasmids Have a Related Repressor

    XIII. Transfer Negative Ti Plasmids and Tumor Induction


    19 Structure and Function of Tumor Cell Chromatin

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of Chromatin

    III. Function of Chromatin


    20 Ti Plasmid-Coded Proteins in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in Crown Gall Tumor Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Search for Bacterial Specific Proteins in Crown Gall Cells

    III. Crown Gall Tumor Proteins

    IV. Ti Plasmid-Coded Proteins

    V. Further Analysis of Strain C-58 Membrane


    21 Ti Plasmids and Directed Genetic Engineering

    I. Introduction

    II. The Development of the Ti Plasmid as an Experimental Gene Vector

    III. General Conclusions


    III Potential Vectors for Genetic Engineering in Agriculture

    22 Cauliflower Mosaic Virus: A Potential Vector for Plant Genetic Engineering

    I. Introduction

    II. Biological Properties of the Virus

    III. The Structure of the Virus

    IV. The DNA

    V. The Genetic Information of the DNA

    VI. Cloning of CaMV DNA

    VII. Infectivity of the DNA

    VIII. Prospects


    23 The Plasmids of Rhizobium and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

    I. Introduction

    II. The Plasmids of Rhizobia

    III. DNA Homology Studies

    IV. Plasmids and Nodule Formation

    V. Plasmids and Dinitrogen Fixation

    VI. Ti Plasmids in Rhizobia

    VII. Perspectives


    24 Transfer of Symbiotic Genes in Rhizobium

    I. Chromosome Involvement

    II. Plasmid Involvement

    III. Where Are the Nif Genes?

    IV. Concluding Remarks



Product details

  • No. of pages: 642
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483281957

About the Editors

Günter Kahl

Josef S. Schell

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