Molecular Beam Epitaxy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123878397, 9780123918598

Molecular Beam Epitaxy

1st Edition

From Research to Mass Production

Authors: Mohamed Henini
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123878397
eBook ISBN: 9780123918598
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 20th November 2012
Page Count: 744
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This multi-contributor handbook discusses Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), an epitaxial deposition technique which involves laying down layers of materials with atomic thicknesses on to substrates. It summarizes MBE research and application in epitaxial growth with close discussion and a ‘how to’ on processing molecular or atomic beams that occur on a surface of a heated crystalline substrate in a vacuum.

MBE has expanded in importance over the past thirty years (in terms of unique authors, papers and conferences) from a pure research domain into commercial applications (prototype device structures and more at the advanced research stage). MBE is important because it enables new device phenomena and facilitates the production of multiple layered structures with extremely fine dimensional and compositional control. The techniques can be deployed wherever precise thin-film devices with enhanced and unique properties for computing, optics or photonics are required. This book covers the advances made by MBE both in research and mass production of electronic and optoelectronic devices. It includes new semiconductor materials, new device structures which are commercially available, and many more which are at the advanced research stage.

Key Features

  • Condenses fundamental science of MBE into a modern reference, speeding up literature review
  • Discusses new materials, novel applications and new device structures, grounding current commercial applications with modern understanding in industry and research
  • Coverage of MBE as mass production epitaxial technology enhances processing efficiency and throughput for semiconductor industry and nanostructured semiconductor materials research community


Scientists and engineers working with semiconductor materials and devices or with MBE or related deposition techniques

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Molecular beam epitaxy: fundamentals, historical background and future prospects

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Basics of MBE

1.3 The technology of MBE

1.4 Diagnostic techniques available in MBE systems

1.5 The physics of MBE

1.6 Historical background

1.7 Future prospects

1.8 Conclusions


Chapter 2. Molecular beam epitaxy in the ultra-vacuum of space: present and near future

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Wake shield facility


2.4 Current status

2.5 Conclusions


Chapter 3. Growth of semiconductor nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy: an overview

3.3 Growth dynamics: models and experimental studies

3.4 Characterisation and structural complexity

3.5 Optical properties

3.6 MBE-grown nanowire devices: from fundamentals to applications

3.7 Conclusions


Chapter 4. Droplet epitaxy of nanostructures

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Droplet epitaxy

4.3 Droplet deposition

4.4 Nanostructure formation

4.5 Capping and post-growth annealing procedures

4.6 Pulsed droplet epitaxy



Chapter 5. Migration-enhanced epitaxy for low-dimensional structures

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Area selective epitaxy by MEE

5.3 Polar diagram of the growth rate of III–V compound semiconductors

5.4 Formation of crystal facets at the boundaries of microstructures

5.5 Area selective growth on (001) GAAS substrate by MEE using AS4 and AS2

5.6 Area selective growth on (111)B GAAS substrate by MEE

5.7 Summary



Chapter 6. MBE growth of high-mobility 2DEG

6.1 Introduction

6.2 High-mobility MBE system

6.3 Scattering mechanisms in 2D electron system

6.4 Design of high-mobility 2DEG structures

6.5 MBE process for high-mobility 2DEG

6.6 Mobility and disorder in 2D electron systems

6.7 Conclusions


Chapter 7. Bismuth-containing III–V semiconductors: Epitaxial growth and physical properties

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Growth of GAASBI

7.3 Surface studies of BI-terminated GAAS

7.4 Photoluminescence characterisation

7.5 Clustering effects and luminescence dynamics

7.6 Carrier trapping in GAAS1−xBIx/GAAS light-emitting diodes

7.7 Influence of band structure on device performance

7.8 Conclusions



Chapter 8. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaAsBi and related quaternary alloys

8.1 Early days of crystal growth of Bi-containing III–V semiconductors

8.2 MBE growth of GAAS1−xBIx

8.3 MBE growth of GANyAS1−x−yBIx

8.4 MBE growth of InyGA1−yAS1−xBIx

8.5 Summary


Chapter 9. MBE of dilute-nitride optoelectronic devices

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Epitaxy of dilute-nitride alloys by RF-plasma-assisted MBE

9.3 Dilute-nitride heterostructures for device applications

9.4 Conclusions and future outlook



Chapter 10. Effect of antimony coverage on InAs/GaAs (001) heteroepitaxy

10.1 Introduction

10.2 InAs growth on In-rich (4 × 2)

10.3 Surfactant effects of Sb

10.4 Analytic model for QD growth

10.5 Sb effect on InAs QD growth under reducing As pressure

10.6 Summary and outlook



Chapter 11. Nonpolar cubic III-nitrides: from the basics of growth to device applications

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Molecular beam epitaxy of cubic III-nitrides

11.3 Device applications of cubic III-nitrides

11.4 Conclusions



Chapter 12. Molecular beam epitaxy of low-bandgap InGaN

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Basics of wurtzite group III-nitrides by MBE

12.3 Specific challenges of high-indium-content InGaN

12.4 MBE structure and device results

12.5 Looking forward


Chapter 13. Molecular beam epitaxy of IV–VI semiconductors: multilayers, quantum dots and device applications

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Basic properties of IV-VI compounds

13.3 IV–VI molecular beam epitaxy

13.4 Basic growth properties

13.5 Superlattices and quantum wells

13.6 Optoelectronic device applications

13.7 Lead salt Stranski–Krastanow quantum dots

13.8 Quantum dots by phase separation and nanoprecipitation

13.9 Conclusions



Chapter 14. Epitaxial growth of thin films and quantum structures of II–VI visible-bandgap semiconductors

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Epitaxial growth methods

14.3 MBE growth of thin films of II–VI visible bandgap semiconductors

14.4 Summary



Chapter 15. MBE of transparent semiconducting oxides

15.1 Introduction

15.2 TSO/TCO materials

15.3 An oxide MBE system and technicalities

15.4 SnO2

15.5 In2O3

15.6 Transport properties and doping in the In2O3–SnO2 system

15.7 GA2O3


Chapter 16. Zinc oxide materials and devices grown by MBE

16.1 Introduction

16.2 General properties of ZNO

16.3 MBE growth of ZNO

16.4 ZnO-based devices

16.5 Concluding remarks


Chapter 17. Molecular beam epitaxy of complex oxides

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Growth of perovskite oxides and related structures by MBE

17.3 Challenges in the growth of complex oxides

17.4 Hybrid Molecular Beam Epitaxy

17.5 Electrical transport properties of n-doped SrTiO3

17.6 Summary and Outlook

17.7 Acknowledgements


Chapter 18. Epitaxial systems combining oxides and semiconductors

18.1 Motivations

18.2 Epitaxy and crystallochemical heterogeneity

18.3 State of the art and perspectives

18.4 Applications

18.5 More than Moore


Chapter 19. Molecular beam epitaxy of III–V ferromagnetic semiconductors

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Molecular beam epitaxy of III–V magnetic semiconductors

19.3 Lattice properties of (Ga,Mn)As

19.4 Annealing effects on (Ga,Mn)As

19.5 Prospects


Chapter 20. Epitaxial magnetic layers grown by MBE: model systems to study the physics in nanomagnetism and spintronic

20.1 Introduction

20.2 About the growth of metallic layers by MBE

20.3 Magnetic properties of epitaxial films

20.4 MGO-based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

20.5 Topics in progress


Chapter 21. Atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy of complex oxide films and heterostructures

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy

21.3 Examples of atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy of complex oxides

21.4 Conclusions and outlook



Chapter 22. Molecular beam epitaxy of semi-magnetic quantum dots

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Growth of semi-magnetic quantum dots

22.3 Physics of quantum dots doped with a single Mn ion

22.4 Physics of multi-Mn quantum dots


Chapter 23. Graphene growth by molecular beam epitaxy

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Graphene on SIC

23.3 Graphene on other insulating substrates

23.4 MBE of graphene on a metallic buffer layer

23.5 Conclusion



Chapter 24. Growth and characterisation of fullerene/GaAs interfaces and C60-doped GaAs and AlGaAs layers

24.1 Epitaxial growth of C60 crystals on GaAs substrates

24.2 Crystalline and electrical properties of C60-doped GaAs and AlGaAs layers

24.3 Conclusions



Chapter 25. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and exotic electronic structure of topological insulators

25.1 Introduction

25.2 MBE growth and electronic structure of Bi2Te3

25.3 MBE growth and electronic structure of Bi2Se3 (Sb2Te3)

25.4 Summary


Chapter 26. Thin films of organic molecules: interfaces and epitaxial growth

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Substrates, molecular materials and preparation techniques

26.3 Experimental methods used in this chapter

26.4 Bonding at organic–inorganic interfaces

26.5 Molecular orientation at the organic–inorganic interface

26.6 Lateral ordering at interfaces

26.7 Growth of thin organic films

26.8 Concluding remarks



Chapter 27. Molecular beam epitaxy of wide-gap II–VI laser heterostructures

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Thermodynamic phenomenological description of MBE growth of wide-gap II–VIS and miscibility phenomena

27.3 II–VI laser diode degradation problem and ways to surmount

27.4 Alternative II–VI laser heterostructures for optical and electron beam pumping

27.5 Conclusions



Chapter 28. MBE growth of THz quantum cascade lasers

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Quantum cascade lasers – from mid-infrared to THZ

28.3 MBE as a unique device optimisation tool

28.4 THZ quantum cascade lasers – MBE growth challenges

28.5 Future prospects



Chapter 29. Systems and technology for production-scale molecular beam epitaxy

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Applications for production MBE

29.3 MBE as a production process for materials and epiwafers

29.4 Scaling of MBE for production

29.5 Overview of current production MBE systems

29.6 Future trends for production MBE

29.7 Summary



Chapter 30. Mass production of optoelectronic devices

30.1 Introduction

30.2 VCSEL structure

30.3 Reactor calibration

30.4 Epitaxial wafer

30.5 Wafer processing

30.6 Characterisation

30.7 Lifetime, ageing and early failure tests

30.8 Outlook


Chapter 31. Mass production of sensors grown by MBE

31.1 Introduction

31.2 Mass production of InSb thin films by vacuum deposition and their application to Hall elements

31.3 Production MBE system for InAs Hall elements

31.4 Large-area InAs thin-film growth by MBE

31.5 Transport properties of InAs single-crystal thin films and InAs deep quantum wells grown by MBE

31.6 Fabrication of InAs single-crystal thin-film Hall elements and InAs DQW Hall elements

31.7 Growth of InSb single-crystal thin films by MBE and magnetic sensor application

31.8 Magnetoresistance effect of InSb thin films grown on GaAs substrates by MBE

31.9 Uncooled InSb photovoltaic infrared sensors

31.10 Summary




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About the Author

Mohamed Henini

Dr M. Henini has over 20 years’ experience of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and has published >700 papers. He has particular interests in the MBE growth and physics of self-assembled quantum dots using electronic, optical and structural techniques. Leaders in the field of self-organisation of nanostructures will give an account on the formation, properties, and self-organization of semiconductor nanostructures.

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, UK


"Molecular beam epitaxy is the process of depositing atoms or molecules onto a crystalline substrate under conditions of high or ultra-high vacuum. The substrate's crystal structure provides a template for the particles in the beam to organize themselves as they deposit onto the substrate. The technique can be put to a remarkably broad set of uses. In this 31 chapter volume, editor Henini…brings together a diverse set of physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and nanotechnologists to cover many of today's applications."--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013