Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Molecular Beam Epitaxy

From Research to Mass Production

1st Edition - November 20, 2012

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  • Editor: Mohamed Henini
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123918598
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123878397

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Description

This multi-contributor handbook discusses Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), an epitaxial deposition technique which involves laying down layers of materials with atomic thicknesses on to substrates. It summarizes MBE research and application in epitaxial growth with close discussion and a ‘how to’ on processing molecular or atomic beams that occur on a surface of a heated crystalline substrate in a vacuum.MBE has expanded in importance over the past thirty years (in terms of unique authors, papers and conferences) from a pure research domain into commercial applications (prototype device structures and more at the advanced research stage). MBE is important because it enables new device phenomena and facilitates the production of multiple layered structures with extremely fine dimensional and compositional control. The techniques can be deployed wherever precise thin-film devices with enhanced and unique properties for computing, optics or photonics are required. This book covers the advances made by MBE both in research and mass production of electronic and optoelectronic devices. It includes new semiconductor materials, new device structures which are commercially available, and many more which are at the advanced research stage.

Key Features

  • Condenses fundamental science of MBE into a modern reference, speeding up literature review
  • Discusses new materials, novel applications and new device structures, grounding current commercial applications with modern understanding in industry and research
  • Coverage of MBE as mass production epitaxial technology enhances processing efficiency and throughput for semiconductor industry and nanostructured semiconductor materials research community

Readership

Scientists and engineers working with semiconductor materials and devices or with MBE or related deposition techniques

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Contributors

    Chapter 1. Molecular beam epitaxy: fundamentals, historical background and future prospects

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Basics of MBE

    1.3 The technology of MBE

    1.4 Diagnostic techniques available in MBE systems

    1.5 The physics of MBE

    1.6 Historical background

    1.7 Future prospects

    1.8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 2. Molecular beam epitaxy in the ultra-vacuum of space: present and near future

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Wake shield facility

    2.3 SHIELD

    2.4 Current status

    2.5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Growth of semiconductor nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy: an overview

    3.3 Growth dynamics: models and experimental studies

    3.4 Characterisation and structural complexity

    3.5 Optical properties

    3.6 MBE-grown nanowire devices: from fundamentals to applications

    3.7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Droplet epitaxy of nanostructures

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Droplet epitaxy

    4.3 Droplet deposition

    4.4 Nanostructure formation

    4.5 Capping and post-growth annealing procedures

    4.6 Pulsed droplet epitaxy

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 5. Migration-enhanced epitaxy for low-dimensional structures

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Area selective epitaxy by MEE

    5.3 Polar diagram of the growth rate of III–V compound semiconductors

    5.4 Formation of crystal facets at the boundaries of microstructures

    5.5 Area selective growth on (001) GAAS substrate by MEE using AS4 and AS2

    5.6 Area selective growth on (111)B GAAS substrate by MEE

    5.7 Summary

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 6. MBE growth of high-mobility 2DEG

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 High-mobility MBE system

    6.3 Scattering mechanisms in 2D electron system

    6.4 Design of high-mobility 2DEG structures

    6.5 MBE process for high-mobility 2DEG

    6.6 Mobility and disorder in 2D electron systems

    6.7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 7. Bismuth-containing III–V semiconductors: Epitaxial growth and physical properties

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Growth of GAASBI

    7.3 Surface studies of BI-terminated GAAS

    7.4 Photoluminescence characterisation

    7.5 Clustering effects and luminescence dynamics

    7.6 Carrier trapping in GAAS1−xBIx/GAAS light-emitting diodes

    7.7 Influence of band structure on device performance

    7.8 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 8. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaAsBi and related quaternary alloys

    8.1 Early days of crystal growth of Bi-containing III–V semiconductors

    8.2 MBE growth of GAAS1−xBIx

    8.3 MBE growth of GANyAS1−x−yBIx

    8.4 MBE growth of InyGA1−yAS1−xBIx

    8.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 9. MBE of dilute-nitride optoelectronic devices

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Epitaxy of dilute-nitride alloys by RF-plasma-assisted MBE

    9.3 Dilute-nitride heterostructures for device applications

    9.4 Conclusions and future outlook

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 10. Effect of antimony coverage on InAs/GaAs (001) heteroepitaxy

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 InAs growth on In-rich (4 × 2)

    10.3 Surfactant effects of Sb

    10.4 Analytic model for QD growth

    10.5 Sb effect on InAs QD growth under reducing As pressure

    10.6 Summary and outlook

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 11. Nonpolar cubic III-nitrides: from the basics of growth to device applications

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Molecular beam epitaxy of cubic III-nitrides

    11.3 Device applications of cubic III-nitrides

    11.4 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 12. Molecular beam epitaxy of low-bandgap InGaN

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Basics of wurtzite group III-nitrides by MBE

    12.3 Specific challenges of high-indium-content InGaN

    12.4 MBE structure and device results

    12.5 Looking forward

    References

    Chapter 13. Molecular beam epitaxy of IV–VI semiconductors: multilayers, quantum dots and device applications

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Basic properties of IV-VI compounds

    13.3 IV–VI molecular beam epitaxy

    13.4 Basic growth properties

    13.5 Superlattices and quantum wells

    13.6 Optoelectronic device applications

    13.7 Lead salt Stranski–Krastanow quantum dots

    13.8 Quantum dots by phase separation and nanoprecipitation

    13.9 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 14. Epitaxial growth of thin films and quantum structures of II–VI visible-bandgap semiconductors

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Epitaxial growth methods

    14.3 MBE growth of thin films of II–VI visible bandgap semiconductors

    14.4 Summary

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 15. MBE of transparent semiconducting oxides

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 TSO/TCO materials

    15.3 An oxide MBE system and technicalities

    15.4 SnO2

    15.5 In2O3

    15.6 Transport properties and doping in the In2O3–SnO2 system

    15.7 GA2O3

    References

    Chapter 16. Zinc oxide materials and devices grown by MBE

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 General properties of ZNO

    16.3 MBE growth of ZNO

    16.4 ZnO-based devices

    16.5 Concluding remarks

    References

    Chapter 17. Molecular beam epitaxy of complex oxides

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Growth of perovskite oxides and related structures by MBE

    17.3 Challenges in the growth of complex oxides

    17.4 Hybrid Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    17.5 Electrical transport properties of n-doped SrTiO3

    17.6 Summary and Outlook

    17.7 Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 18. Epitaxial systems combining oxides and semiconductors

    18.1 Motivations

    18.2 Epitaxy and crystallochemical heterogeneity

    18.3 State of the art and perspectives

    18.4 Applications

    18.5 More than Moore

    References

    Chapter 19. Molecular beam epitaxy of III–V ferromagnetic semiconductors

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Molecular beam epitaxy of III–V magnetic semiconductors

    19.3 Lattice properties of (Ga,Mn)As

    19.4 Annealing effects on (Ga,Mn)As

    19.5 Prospects

    References

    Chapter 20. Epitaxial magnetic layers grown by MBE: model systems to study the physics in nanomagnetism and spintronic

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 About the growth of metallic layers by MBE

    20.3 Magnetic properties of epitaxial films

    20.4 MGO-based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    20.5 Topics in progress

    References

    Chapter 21. Atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy of complex oxide films and heterostructures

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy

    21.3 Examples of atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy of complex oxides

    21.4 Conclusions and outlook

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 22. Molecular beam epitaxy of semi-magnetic quantum dots

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Growth of semi-magnetic quantum dots

    22.3 Physics of quantum dots doped with a single Mn ion

    22.4 Physics of multi-Mn quantum dots

    References

    Chapter 23. Graphene growth by molecular beam epitaxy

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Graphene on SIC

    23.3 Graphene on other insulating substrates

    23.4 MBE of graphene on a metallic buffer layer

    23.5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 24. Growth and characterisation of fullerene/GaAs interfaces and C60-doped GaAs and AlGaAs layers

    24.1 Epitaxial growth of C60 crystals on GaAs substrates

    24.2 Crystalline and electrical properties of C60-doped GaAs and AlGaAs layers

    24.3 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 25. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and exotic electronic structure of topological insulators

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 MBE growth and electronic structure of Bi2Te3

    25.3 MBE growth and electronic structure of Bi2Se3 (Sb2Te3)

    25.4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 26. Thin films of organic molecules: interfaces and epitaxial growth

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Substrates, molecular materials and preparation techniques

    26.3 Experimental methods used in this chapter

    26.4 Bonding at organic–inorganic interfaces

    26.5 Molecular orientation at the organic–inorganic interface

    26.6 Lateral ordering at interfaces

    26.7 Growth of thin organic films

    26.8 Concluding remarks

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 27. Molecular beam epitaxy of wide-gap II–VI laser heterostructures

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Thermodynamic phenomenological description of MBE growth of wide-gap II–VIS and miscibility phenomena

    27.3 II–VI laser diode degradation problem and ways to surmount

    27.4 Alternative II–VI laser heterostructures for optical and electron beam pumping

    27.5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 28. MBE growth of THz quantum cascade lasers

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Quantum cascade lasers – from mid-infrared to THZ

    28.3 MBE as a unique device optimisation tool

    28.4 THZ quantum cascade lasers – MBE growth challenges

    28.5 Future prospects

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 29. Systems and technology for production-scale molecular beam epitaxy

    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 Applications for production MBE

    29.3 MBE as a production process for materials and epiwafers

    29.4 Scaling of MBE for production

    29.5 Overview of current production MBE systems

    29.6 Future trends for production MBE

    29.7 Summary

    Acknowledgements

    Reference

    Chapter 30. Mass production of optoelectronic devices

    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 VCSEL structure

    30.3 Reactor calibration

    30.4 Epitaxial wafer

    30.5 Wafer processing

    30.6 Characterisation

    30.7 Lifetime, ageing and early failure tests

    30.8 Outlook

    References

    Chapter 31. Mass production of sensors grown by MBE

    31.1 Introduction

    31.2 Mass production of InSb thin films by vacuum deposition and their application to Hall elements

    31.3 Production MBE system for InAs Hall elements

    31.4 Large-area InAs thin-film growth by MBE

    31.5 Transport properties of InAs single-crystal thin films and InAs deep quantum wells grown by MBE

    31.6 Fabrication of InAs single-crystal thin-film Hall elements and InAs DQW Hall elements

    31.7 Growth of InSb single-crystal thin films by MBE and magnetic sensor application

    31.8 Magnetoresistance effect of InSb thin films grown on GaAs substrates by MBE

    31.9 Uncooled InSb photovoltaic infrared sensors

    31.10 Summary

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 744
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2012
  • Published: November 20, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123918598
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123878397

About the Editor

Mohamed Henini

Dr M. Henini has over 20 years’ experience of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and has published >700 papers. He has particular interests in the MBE growth and physics of self-assembled quantum dots using electronic, optical and structural techniques. Leaders in the field of self-organisation of nanostructures will give an account on the formation, properties, and self-organization of semiconductor nanostructures.

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, UK

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