Molecular Basis of Thyroid Hormone Action

Molecular Basis of Thyroid Hormone Action

1st Edition - January 28, 1983

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  • Editor: Jack Oppenheimer
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147453

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Molecular Basis of Thyroid Hormone Action focuses on the actions of thyroid hormones in eukaryotic cells. This book discusses the profound effects of thyroid hormones on the growth, development, and metabolism of practically all tissues of higher organisms. Organized into 15 chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the kinetic interrelationships of hormone bound to specific receptors and hormone associated with other tissue and plasma pools in living animals. This book then discusses the thyroid hormone receptor, a chromatin-associated protein that appears to mediate the actions of the thyroid hormones in mammalian cells. Other chapters consider the localization of the receptors in chromatin. This book further discusses how thyroid hormones stimulate the accumulation of specific mRNA molecules in cell culture as well as in tissues in vivo. This book is intended for readers who are interested in cell and molecular biology. Endocrinologists will also find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1 The Nuclear Receptor-Triiodothyronine Complex: Relationship to Thyroid Hormone Distribution, Metabolism, and Biological Action

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution and Metabolism of the Thyroid Hormones

    III. Kinetic Relationship of Nuclear T3 to Other T3 Pools

    IV. The Initiating Role of the Nuclear Binding Site

    V. Quantitative Relationship between Nuclear Occupancy and Response

    VI. Lag Time of Thyroid Hormone Effects

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    2 Identification and Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Action Using Cell Culture Techniques

    I. Introduction

    II. Biological Effects of Thyroid Hormone in Cell Culture

    III. Identification and Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Cultured Cells

    IV. Modulation of Thyroid Hormone Nuclear Receptor Levels

    V. Summary and Conclusions


    3 Physicochemical Characterization of the Intranuclear Thyroid Hormone Receptor

    I. Introduction

    II. Intranuclear Localization of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor

    III. DNA Binding Properties of the Receptor

    IV. Physical Characteristics of the Solubilized Nuclear Receptors

    V. Interaction of the Solubilized Nuclear Receptor with Thyroid Hormone

    VI. Purification of the Nuclear Thyroid Hormone Receptor

    VII. Summary


    4 Thyroid Hormone Receptor Synthesis and Degradation and Interaction with Chromatin Components

    I. Introduction

    II. Quantitation of Receptor Half-Life and Estimation of Synthetic Rates Using Dense Amino Acid Labeling in GH1 Cells

    III. Organization of the Receptor in Chromatin

    IV. Summary and Conclusions


    5 Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Interrelationships

    I. Coordination of Thyroid Hormone-Induced Changes in Nuclear RNA Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Protein Synthesis

    II. Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Thyroid Hormone Binding Proteins

    III. Summary and Speculation


    6 Effects of Thyroid Hormones on Cellular RNA Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. General RNA Effects

    III. Specific Model Systems for Studying Thyroid Hormone Action

    IV. Conclusions


    7 Role of Thyroid Hormone in the Expression of αa2u-Globulin and Other Multihormonally Regulated Genes

    I. Introduction

    II. α2u-Globulin and Its Hepatic Synthesis

    III. Purification of the Messenger RNA for α2u-Globulin and Cloning of the Double-Stranded cDNA

    IV. Role of Androgenic and Estrogenic Steroids in the Hepatic Synthesis of α2u-Globulin

    V. Multihormonal Regulation of α2u-Globulin

    VI. Involvement of Thyroid Hormone in the Regulation of Several Other Multihormonally Regulated Genes

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    8 Regulation of Malic Enzyme in Hepatocytes in Culture: A Model System for Analyzing the Mechanism of Action of Thyroid Hormone

    I. Introduction

    II. Regulation of Malic Enzyme Activity in Culture

    III. Turnover of Malic Enzyme in Hepatocytes in Culture

    IV. Inhibitor and Kinetic Experiments

    V. A Long-Lived Intermediate in Thyroid Hormone Action

    VI. Effect of Thyroid Hormone on Other Lipogenic Enzymes

    VII. Relationship between Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis and Regulation of Malic Enzyme Synthesis

    VIII. Physiological and Teleological Significance


    9 Thyroid Hormone-Carbohydrate Interaction

    I. General Review

    II. Regulation of Hepatic Lipogenic Enzymes Responsive to Both T3 and Carbohydrate

    III. Concluding Remarks


    10 Regulation of Thermogenesis by Thyroid Hormones

    I. Cellular Metabolic Heat Production

    II. Thyroid Thermogenesis and the Na+ Pump

    III. Thyroid Involvement in Cold Acclimation

    IV. The Genetically Obese (ob/ob) Mouse

    V. Possible Role of Na+ Transport and Thyroid Hormone in the Evolutionary Transition from Poikilothermy to Homeothermy


    11 The Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Adrenergic Receptors

    I. Introduction

    II. Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Adrenergic Receptors in the Heart

    III. Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Adrenergic Receptors in Adipose Tissue

    IV. Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Adrenergic Receptors in Other Tissues

    V. Conclusions


    12 Intrapituitary Mechanisms in the Control of TSH Secretion

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiological Studies on the Relationships among Serum Thyroid Hormone Concentrations, Thyroid Metabolic Status, and TSH Secretion

    III. Studies of T3 and T4 in Pituitary Tissue

    IV. Studies of Pituitary T4 to T3 Conversion in Vitro

    V. Physiological and Clinical Implications of Pituitary T4 to T3 Conversion


    13 Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Thyrotropin Production and Interaction with Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone in Thyrotropic Cells in Culture

    I. Introduction

    II. Thyrotropic Tumor (TtT) Cell Culture System

    III. Characterization of Putative Nuclear Receptors for Thyroid Hormones in TtT Cells

    IV. Effects of Thyroid Hormones on TRH Action in TtT Cells

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    14 Effect of Thyroid Hormone on Growth and Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Growth

    III. Skeletal Growth and Maturation

    IV. Central Nervous System

    V. Lung

    VI. Conclusion


    15 Thyroid Hormone Action in Amphibian Metamorphosis

    I. Introduction

    II. General Pattern of Development of Anuran Amphibia

    III. Thyroid Function and Circulating Hormone Levels in Anuran Amphibia

    IV. Effects of Thyroid Hormone in Anuran Amphibia

    V. Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Amphibian Tissues

    VI. Relative Importance of T4 and T3 in Amphibia

    VII. Concluding Comments



Product details

  • No. of pages: 514
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147453

About the Editor

Jack Oppenheimer

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